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1.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251780, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229050

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pandemic outbreaks necessitate effective responses to rapidly mitigate and control the spread of disease and eliminate the causative organism(s). While conventional chemical and biological solutions to these challenges are characteristically slow to develop and reach public availability; recent advances in device components operating at Super High Frequency (SHF) bands (3-30 GHz) of the electromagnetic spectrum enable novel approaches to such problems. METHODS: Based on experimentally documented evidence, a clinically relevant in situ radiation procedure to reduce viral loads in patients is devised and presented. Adapted to the currently available medical device technology to cause viral membrane fracture, this procedure selectively inactivates virus particles by forced oscillations arising from Structure Resonant Energy Transfer (SRET) thereby reducing infectivity and disease progression. RESULTS: Effective resonant frequencies for pleiomorphic Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is calculated to be in the 10-17 GHz range. Using the relation y = -3.308x + 42.9 with x and y representing log10 number of virus particles and the clinical throat swab Ct value respectively; in situ patient-specific exposure duration of ~15x minutes can be utilized to inactivate up to 100% of virus particles in the throat-lung lining, using an irradiation dose of 14.5 ± 1 W/m2; which is within the 200 W/m2 safety standard stipulated by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). CONCLUSIONS: The treatment is designed to make patients less contagious enhancing faster recoveries and enabling timely control of a spreading pandemic. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The article provides practically applicable parameters for effective clinical adaptation of this technique to the current pandemic at different levels of healthcare infrastructure and disease prevention besides enabling rapid future viral pandemics response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/radiotherapy , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Radiation, Nonionizing , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Lung/radiation effects , Lung/virology , Pharynx/radiation effects , Pharynx/virology , Viral Load/radiation effects
2.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129784

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to establish the persistence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on inanimate surfaces such as plastic, stainless steel, and glass during UV-C irradiation which is a physical means commonly utilized in sanitization procedures. The viral inactivation rate, virus half-life, and percentage of titer reduction after UV-C irradiation were assessed. Infectivity was maintained on plastic and glass until 120 h and on stainless steel until 72 h. The virus half-life was 5.3, 4.4, and 4.2 h on plastic, stainless steel, and glass, respectively. In all cases, titer decay was >99% after drop drying. UV-C irradiation efficiently reduced virus titer (99.99%), with doses ranging from 10.25 to 23.71 mJ/cm2. Plastic and stainless steel needed higher doses to achieve target reduction. The total inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 on glass was obtained with the lower dose applied. SARS-CoV-2 survival can be long lasting on inanimate surfaces. It is worth recommending efficient disinfection protocols as a measure of prevention of viral spread. UV-C can provide rapid, efficient and sustainable sanitization procedures of different materials and surfaces. The dosages and mode of irradiation are important parameters to consider in their implementation as an important means to fight the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Disinfection/methods , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection/instrumentation , Glass/analysis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stainless Steel/analysis , Ultraviolet Rays , Viral Load/radiation effects
3.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 110(5): 1283-1294, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129036

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been described in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Recently, early clinical data reported the feasibility of low doses of radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of ARDS in patients with severe COVID-19. However, the involved mechanisms remained unknown. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Here, we used airways-instilled lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and influenza virus (H1N1) as murine models of pneumonia, and toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 stimulation in human lung macrophages. RESULTS: Low doses of RT (0.5-1 Gray) decreased LPS-induced pneumonia, and increased the percentage of nerve- and airway-associated macrophages producing interleukin (IL) 10. During H1N1 viral infection, we observed decreased lung tissue damage and immune cell infiltration in irradiated animals. Low doses of RT increased IL-10 production by infiltrating immune cells into the lung. Irradiation of TLR-3 ligand-stimulated human lung macrophages ex vivo increased IL-10 secretion and decreased interferon γ production in the culture supernatant. The percentage of human lung macrophages producing IL-6 was also decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlight a mechanism by which low doses of RT regulate lung inflammation and skew lung macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory profile. These data provide a preclinical mechanistic support to clinical trials evaluating low doses of RT, such as COVID-19-induced ARDS.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/radiation effects , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Interleukin-10/biosynthesis , Macrophages/radiation effects , Pneumonia, Viral/radiotherapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/radiotherapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/radiation effects , Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Lipopolysaccharides , Lung/cytology , Lung/pathology , Lung/radiation effects , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Poly I-C , Radiotherapy Dosage , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Toll-Like Receptor 3 , Viral Load/radiation effects
4.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948865

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV), a major causative pathogen of bovine enteric and respiratory diseases and a zoonotic pathogen transmissible between animals and humans, has led to severe economic losses in numerous countries. BCoV belongs to the genus Betacoronavirus, which is a model of a pathogen that is threatening human health and includes severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), SARS-CoV-2, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. This study aimed to determine whether photocatalytic material effectively reduces CoVs in the environment. Using the film adhesion method of photocatalytic materials, we assessed its antiviral activity and the effect of visible light irradiation according to methods defined by the International Organization for Standardization. Consequently, photocatalytic material was found to have antiviral activity, reducing the viral loads by 2.7 log TCID50 (tissue culture infective dose 50)/0.1 mL (500 lux), 2.8 log TCID50/0.1 mL (1000 lux), and 2.4 log TCID50/0.1 mL (3000 lux). Hence, this photocatalytic material might be applicable not only to reducing CoVs in the cattle breeding environment but also perhaps in other indoor spaces, such as offices and hospital rooms. To our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate the antiviral activity of a photocatalytic material against CoV.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/radiation effects , Coronavirus, Bovine/radiation effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , Animals , Cattle , Cell Line, Tumor , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Light , Photochemical Processes , Titanium/chemistry , Titanium/radiation effects , Viral Load/radiation effects
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