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1.
Cell Chem Biol ; 28(12): 1795-1806.e5, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599513

ABSTRACT

Designing covalent inhibitors is increasingly important, although it remains challenging. Here, we present covalentizer, a computational pipeline for identifying irreversible inhibitors based on structures of targets with non-covalent binders. Through covalent docking of tailored focused libraries, we identify candidates that can bind covalently to a nearby cysteine while preserving the interactions of the original molecule. We found âˆ¼11,000 cysteines proximal to a ligand across 8,386 complexes in the PDB. Of these, the protocol identified 1,553 structures with covalent predictions. In a prospective evaluation, five out of nine predicted covalent kinase inhibitors showed half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values between 155 nM and 4.5 µM. Application against an existing SARS-CoV Mpro reversible inhibitor led to an acrylamide inhibitor series with low micromolar IC50 values against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The docking was validated by 12 co-crystal structures. Together these examples hint at the vast number of covalent inhibitors accessible through our protocol.


Subject(s)
Drug Design , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Acrylamide/chemistry , Acrylamide/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Computational Biology/methods , Databases, Protein , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
2.
ACS Chem Biol ; 15(9): 2331-2337, 2020 09 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387140

ABSTRACT

We report on using the synthetic aminoadamantane-CH2-aryl derivatives 1-6 as sensitive probes for blocking M2 S31N and influenza A virus (IAV) M2 wild-type (WT) channels as well as virus replication in cell culture. The binding kinetics measured using electrophysiology (EP) for M2 S31N channel are very dependent on the length between the adamantane moiety and the first ring of the aryl headgroup realized in 2 and 3 and the girth and length of the adamantane adduct realized in 4 and 5. Study of 1-6 shows that, according to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) calculations, all bind in the M2 S31N channel with the adamantyl group positioned between V27 and G34 and the aryl group projecting out of the channel with the phenyl (or isoxazole in 6) embedded in the V27 cluster. In this outward binding configuration, an elongation of the ligand by only one methylene in rimantadine 2 or using diamantane or triamantane instead of adamantane in 4 and 5, respectively, causes incomplete entry and facilitates exit, abolishing effective block compared to the amantadine derivatives 1 and 6. In the active M2 S31N blockers 1 and 6, the phenyl and isoxazolyl head groups achieve a deeper binding position and high kon/low koff and high kon/high koff rate constants, compared to inactive 2-5, which have much lower kon and higher koff. Compounds 1-5 block the M2 WT channel by binding in the longer area from V27-H37, in the inward orientation, with high kon and low koff rate constants. Infection of cell cultures by influenza virus containing M2 WT or M2 S31N is inhibited by 1-5 or 1-4 and 6, respectively. While 1 and 6 block infection through the M2 block mechanism in the S31N variant, 2-4 may block M2 S31N virus replication in cell culture through the lysosomotropic effect, just as chloroquine is thought to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Adamantane/pharmacology , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Ion Channels/antagonists & inhibitors , Molecular Probes/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Adamantane/analogs & derivatives , Adamantane/chemistry , Adamantane/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Genetic Variation , Humans , Influenza A virus/chemistry , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Kinetics , Molecular Probes/metabolism , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Structure-Activity Relationship , Virus Replication/drug effects
3.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(17): 4195-4202, 2021 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387119

ABSTRACT

The catalytic reaction in SARS-CoV-2 main protease is activated by a proton transfer (PT) from Cys145 to His41. The same PT is likely also required for the covalent binding of some inhibitors. Here we use a multiscale computational approach to investigate the PT thermodynamics in the apo enzyme and in complex with two potent inhibitors, N3 and the α-ketoamide 13b. We show that with the inhibitors the free energy cost to reach the charge-separated state of the active-site dyad is lower, with N3 inducing the most significant reduction. We also show that a few key sites (including specific water molecules) significantly enhance or reduce the thermodynamic feasibility of the PT reaction, with selective desolvation of the active site playing a crucial role. The approach presented is a cost-effective procedure to identify the enzyme regions that control the activation of the catalytic reaction and is thus also useful to guide the design of inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Drug Design , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Biocatalysis , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protons , Quantum Theory , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thermodynamics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
4.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 4407-4419, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373615

ABSTRACT

Widespread infection due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has led to a global pandemic. Currently, various approaches are being taken up to develop vaccines and therapeutics to treat SARS-CoV2 infection. Consequently, the S protein has become an important target protein for developing vaccines and therapeutics against SARS-CoV2. However, the highly infective nature of SARS-CoV2 restricts experimentation with the virus to highly secure BSL3 facilities. The availability of fusion-enabled, nonreplicating, and nonbiohazardous mimics of SARS-CoV2 virus fusion, containing the viral S or S and M protein in their native conformation on mammalian cells, can serve as a useful substitute for studying viral fusion for testing various inhibitors of viral fusion. This would avoid the use of the BSL3 facility for fusion studies required to develop therapeutics. In the present study, we have developed SARS-CoV2 virus fusion mimics (SCFMs) using mammalian cells transfected with constructs coding for S or S and M protein. The fusogenic property of the mimic(s) and their interaction with the functional human ACE2 receptors was confirmed experimentally. We have also shown that such mimics can easily be used in an inhibition assay. These mimic(s) can be easily prepared on a large scale, and such SCFMs can serve as an invaluable resource for viral fusion inhibition assays and in vitro screening of antiviral agents, which can be shared/handled between labs/facilities without worrying about any biohazard while working under routine laboratory conditions, avoiding the use of BSL3 laboratory.Abbreviations :SCFM: SARS-CoV2 Virus Fusion Mimic; ACE2: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2; hACE2: Human Angiotensin-Converting enzyme 2; MEF: Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts; HBSS: Hanks Balanced Salt Solution; FBS: Fetal Bovine Serum.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Containment of Biohazards/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Embryo, Mammalian , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Fibroblasts/virology , Gene Expression , Genes, Reporter , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Luminescent Proteins/genetics , Luminescent Proteins/metabolism , MCF-7 Cells , Mice , Molecular Mimicry , Plasmids/chemistry , Plasmids/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Transfection , Vero Cells , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
5.
Eur J Med Chem ; 225: 113789, 2021 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364001

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 as a positive-sense single-stranded RNA coronavirus caused the global outbreak of COVID-19. The main protease (Mpro) of the virus as the major enzyme processing viral polyproteins contributed to the replication and transcription of SARS-CoV-2 in host cells, and has been characterized as an attractive target in drug discovery. Herein, a set of 1,4-naphthoquinones with juglone skeleton were prepared and evaluated for the inhibitory efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. More than half of the tested naphthoquinones could effectively inhibit the target enzyme with an inhibition rate of more than 90% at the concentration of 10 µM. In the structure-activity relationships (SARs) analysis, the characteristics of substituents and their position on juglone core scaffold were recognized as key ingredients for enzyme inhibitory activity. The most active compound, 2-acetyl-8-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (15), which exhibited much higher potency in enzyme inhibitions than shikonin as the positive control, displayed an IC50 value of 72.07 ± 4.84 nM towards Mpro-mediated hydrolysis of the fluorescently labeled peptide. It fit well into the active site cavity of the enzyme by forming hydrogen bonds with adjacent amino acid residues in molecular docking studies. The results from in vitro antiviral activity evaluation demonstrated that the most potent Mpro inhibitor could significantly suppress the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero E6 cells within the low micromolar concentrations, with its EC50 value of about 4.55 µM. It was non-toxic towards the host Vero E6 cells under tested concentrations. The present research work implied that juglone skeleton could be a primary template for the development of potent Mpro inhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Naphthoquinones/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Design , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Molecular Docking Simulation , Naphthoquinones/metabolism , Naphthoquinones/pharmacology , Naphthoquinones/therapeutic use , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Structure-Activity Relationship , Vero Cells , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
6.
Mol Inform ; 40(8): e2100028, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345038

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 has mobilized scientific attention in search of a treatment. The cysteine-proteases, main protease (Mpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro) are important targets for antiviral drugs. In this work, we simulate the interactions between the Mpro and PLpro with Ebselen, its metabolites and derivatives with the aim of finding molecules that can potentially inhibit these enzymes. The docking data demonstrate that there are two main interactions between the thiol (-SH) group of Cys (from the protease active sites) and the electrophilic centers of the organoselenium molecules, i. e. the interaction with the carbonyl group (O=C… SH) and the interaction with the Se moiety (Se… SH). Both interactions may lead to an adduct formation and enzyme inhibition. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations with Ebselen indicate that the energetics of the thiol nucleophilic attack is more favorable on Se than on the carbonyl group, which is in accordance with experimental data (Jin et al. Nature, 2020, 582, 289-293). Therefore, organoselenium molecules should be further explored as inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 proteases. Furthermore, we suggest that some metabolites of Ebselen (e. g. Ebselen diselenide and methylebselenoxide) and derivatives ethaselen and ebsulfur should be tested in vitro as inhibitors of virus replication and its proteases.


Subject(s)
Azoles/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Organoselenium Compounds/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Azoles/chemistry , Azoles/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Catalytic Domain/drug effects , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Discovery , Humans , Isoindoles , Molecular Docking Simulation , Organoselenium Compounds/chemistry , Organoselenium Compounds/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288904

ABSTRACT

The development of new antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 is a valuable long-term strategy to protect the global population from the COVID-19 pandemic complementary to the vaccination. Considering this, the viral main protease (Mpro) is among the most promising molecular targets in light of its importance during the viral replication cycle. The natural flavonoid quercetin 1 has been recently reported to be a potent Mpro inhibitor in vitro, and we explored the effect produced by the introduction of organoselenium functionalities in this scaffold. In particular, we report here a new synthetic method to prepare previously inaccessible C-8 seleno-quercetin derivatives. By screening a small library of flavonols and flavone derivatives, we observed that some compounds inhibit the protease activity in vitro. For the first time, we demonstrate that quercetin (1) and 8-(p-tolylselenyl)quercetin (2d) block SARS-CoV-2 replication in infected cells at non-toxic concentrations, with an IC50 of 192 µM and 8 µM, respectively. Based on docking experiments driven by experimental evidence, we propose a non-covalent mechanism for Mpro inhibition in which a hydrogen bond between the selenium atom and Gln189 residue in the catalytic pocket could explain the higher Mpro activity of 2d and, as a result, its better antiviral profile.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Quercetin/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Selenium/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Quercetin/metabolism , Quercetin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Selenium/metabolism , Vero Cells , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273461

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic respiratory disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. The worldwide epidemiologic data showed higher mortality in males compared to females, suggesting a hypothesis about the protective effect of estrogens against severe disease progression with the ultimate end being patient's death. This article summarizes the current knowledge regarding the potential effect of estrogens and other modulators of estrogen receptors on COVID-19. While estrogen receptor activation shows complex effects on the patient's organism, such as an influence on the cardiovascular/pulmonary/immune system which includes lower production of cytokines responsible for the cytokine storm, the receptor-independent effects directly inhibits viral replication. Furthermore, it inhibits the interaction of IL-6 with its receptor complex. Interestingly, in addition to natural hormones, phytestrogens and even synthetic molecules are able to interact with the estrogen receptor and exhibit some anti-COVID-19 activity. From this point of view, estrogen receptor modulators have the potential to be included in the anti-COVID-19 therapeutic arsenal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Estrogen Receptor Modulators/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Estrogen Receptor Modulators/metabolism , Estrogen Receptor Modulators/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Receptors, Estrogen/chemistry , Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
9.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259548

ABSTRACT

In December 2020, the U.K. authorities reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) that a new COVID-19 variant, considered to be a variant under investigation from December 2020 (VUI-202012/01), was identified through viral genomic sequencing. Although several other mutants were previously reported, VUI-202012/01 proved to be about 70% more transmissible. Hence, the usefulness and effectiveness of the newly U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved COVID-19 vaccines against these new variants are doubtfully questioned. As a result of these unexpected mutants from COVID-19 and due to lack of time, much research interest is directed toward assessing secondary metabolites as potential candidates for developing lead pharmaceuticals. In this study, a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus was investigated, affording two butenolide derivatives, butyrolactones I (1) and III (2), a meroterpenoid, terretonin (3), and 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)benzaldehyde (4). Chemical structures were unambiguously determined based on mass spectrometry and extensive 1D/2D NMR analyses experiments. Compounds (1-4) were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, and in silico COVID-19 main protease (Mpro) and elastase inhibitory activities. Among the tested compounds, only 1 revealed significant activities comparable to or even more potent than respective standard drugs, which makes butyrolactone I (1) a potential lead entity for developing a new remedy to treat and/or control the currently devastating and deadly effects of COVID-19 pandemic and elastase-related inflammatory complications.


Subject(s)
4-Butyrolactone/analogs & derivatives , Anti-Allergic Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Aspergillus/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , 4-Butyrolactone/chemistry , 4-Butyrolactone/isolation & purification , 4-Butyrolactone/metabolism , Anti-Allergic Agents/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/metabolism , Aspergillus/growth & development , Aspergillus/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Humans , Leukocyte Elastase/antagonists & inhibitors , Leukocyte Elastase/metabolism , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Docking Simulation , Neutrophils/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seawater/microbiology , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
10.
Bioorg Chem ; 112: 104967, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213051

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, over 200 countries face a wellbeing emergency because of epidemiological disease COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. It will cause a very high effect on the world's economy and the worldwide health sector. The present work is an investigation of the newly synthesized 4-benzyl-1-(2,4,6-trimethyl-benzyl)-piperidine (M1BZP) molecule's inhibitory potential against important protein targets of SARS-CoV-2 using computational approaches. M1BZP crystallizes in monoclinic type with P1211 space group. For the title compound M1BZP, spectroscopic characterization like 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FTIR, were carried out. The geometry of the compound had been optimized by the DFT method and its results were compared with the X-ray diffraction data. The calculated energies for the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and the Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO) showed the stability and reactivity of the title compound. Intermolecular interactions in the crystal network were determined using Hirshfeld surface analyses. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) picture was drawn using the same level of theory to visualize the chemical reactivity and charge distribution on the molecule. Molecular docking study performed for the synthesized compound revealed an efficient interaction with the COVID-19 protease and resulted in good activities. We hope the present study would help workers in the field to develop potential vaccines and therapeutics against the novel coronavirus. Virtual ADME studies were carried out as well and a relationship between biological, electronic, and physicochemical qualifications of the target compound was determined. Toxicity prediction by computational technique for the title compound was also carried out.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Piperidines/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Crystallography, X-Ray , Density Functional Theory , Half-Life , Humans , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Docking Simulation , Piperidines/chemical synthesis , Piperidines/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
11.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167672

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent for the COVID-19 pandemic, which generated more than 1.82 million deaths in 2020 alone, in addition to 83.8 million infections. Currently, there is no antiviral medication to treat COVID-19. In the search for drug leads, marine-derived metabolites are reported here as prospective SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors. Two hundred and twenty-seven terpene natural products isolated from the biodiverse Red-Sea ecosystem were screened for inhibitor activity against the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) using molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with molecular mechanics/generalized Born surface area binding energy calculations. On the basis of in silico analyses, six terpenes demonstrated high potency as Mpro inhibitors with ΔGbinding ≤ -40.0 kcal/mol. The stability and binding affinity of the most potent metabolite, erylosides B, were compared to the human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor, lopinavir. Erylosides B showed greater binding affinity towards SARS-CoV-2 Mpro than lopinavir over 100 ns with ΔGbinding values of -51.9 vs. -33.6 kcal/mol, respectively. Protein-protein interactions indicate that erylosides B biochemical signaling shares gene components that mediate severe acute respiratory syndrome diseases, including the cytokine- and immune-signaling components BCL2L1, IL2, and PRKC. Pathway enrichment analysis and Boolean network modeling were performed towards a deep dissection and mining of the erylosides B target-function interactions. The current study identifies erylosides B as a promising anti-COVID-19 drug lead that warrants further in vitro and in vivo testing.


Subject(s)
Invertebrates/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Terpenes/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Invertebrates/metabolism , Lopinavir/chemistry , Lopinavir/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Terpenes/isolation & purification , Terpenes/metabolism , Terpenes/therapeutic use , Thermodynamics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7429, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164909

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 remains a serious health threat to humans and there is an urgent need to develop therapeutics against this deadly virus. Recent scientific evidences have suggested that the main protease (Mpro) enzyme in SARS-CoV-2 can be an ideal drug target due to its crucial role in the viral replication and transcription processes. Therefore, there are ongoing research efforts to identify drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro that resulted in hundreds of X-ray crystal structures of ligand-bound Mpro complexes in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) describing the interactions of different fragment chemotypes within different sites of the Mpro. In this work, we performed rigorous molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of 62 reversible ligand-Mpro complexes in the PDB to gain mechanistic insights about their interactions at the atomic level. Using a total of over 3 µs long MD trajectories, we characterized different pockets in the apo Mpro structure, and analyzed the dynamic interactions and binding affinity of ligands within those pockets. Our results identified the key residues that stabilize the ligands in the catalytic sites and other pockets of Mpro. Our analyses unraveled the role of a lateral pocket in the catalytic site in Mpro that is critical for enhancing the ligand binding to the enzyme. We also highlighted the important contribution from HIS163 in the lateral pocket towards ligand binding and affinity against Mpro through computational mutation analyses. Further, we revealed the effects of explicit water molecules and Mpro dimerization in the ligand association with the target. Thus, comprehensive molecular-level insights gained from this work can be useful to identify or design potent small molecule inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro.


Subject(s)
Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Databases, Protein , Humans , Ligands , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Principal Component Analysis , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thermodynamics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
13.
Mol Inform ; 40(5): e2000187, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159390

ABSTRACT

Considering the urgent need for novel therapeutics in ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, drug repurposing approach might offer rapid solutions comparing to de novo drug design. In this study, we designed an integrative in silico drug repurposing approach for rapid selection of potential candidates against SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease (Mpro ). To screen FDA-approved drugs, we implemented structure-based molecular modelling techniques, physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling of drugs disposition and data mining analysis of drug-gene-COVID-19 association. Through presented approach, we selected the most promising FDA approved drugs for further COVID-19 drug development campaigns and analysed them in context of available experimental data. To the best of our knowledge, this is unique in silico study which integrates structure-based molecular modeling of Mpro inhibitors with predictions of their tissue disposition, drug-gene-COVID-19 associations and prediction of pleiotropic effects of selected candidates.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Computer Simulation , Drug Design , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(11): 6746-6757, 2021 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132112

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the disease caused by the newly discovered coronavirus-SARS-CoV-2, has created a global health, social, and economic crisis. As of mid-January 2021, there are over 90 million confirmed cases and more than 2 million reported deaths due to COVID-19. Currently, there are very limited therapeutics for the treatment or prevention of COVID-19. For this reason, it is important to find drug targets that will lead to the development of safe and effective therapeutics against the disease. The main protease (Mpro) of the virus is an attractive target for the development of effective antiviral therapeutics because it is required for proteolytic cleavage of viral polyproteins. Furthermore, the Mpro has no human homologues, so drugs designed to bind to this target directly have less risk for off-target effects. Recently, several high-resolution crystallographic structures of the Mpro in complex with inhibitors have been determined-to guide drug development and to spur efforts in structure-based drug design. One of the primary objectives of modern structure-based drug design is the accurate prediction of receptor-ligand binding affinities for rational drug design and discovery. Here, we perform rigorous alchemical absolute binding free energy calculations and QM/MM calculations to give insight into the total binding energy of two recently crystallized inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, namely, N3 and α-ketoamide 13b. The total binding energy consists of both covalent and non-covalent binding components since both compounds are covalent inhibitors of the Mpro. Our results indicate that the covalent and non-covalent binding free energy contributions of both inhibitors to the Mpro target differ significantly. The N3 inhibitor has more favourable non-covalent interactions, particularly hydrogen bonding, in the binding site of the Mpro than the α-ketoamide inhibitor. Also, the Gibbs energy of reaction for the Mpro-N3 covalent adduct is greater than the Gibbs reaction energy for the Mpro-α-ketoamide covalent adduct. These differences in the covalent and non-covalent binding free energy contributions for both inhibitors could be a plausible explanation for their in vitro differences in antiviral activity. Our findings are consistent with the reversible and irreversible character of both inhibitors as reported by experiment and highlight the importance of both covalent and non-covalent binding free energy contributions to the absolute binding affinity of a covalent inhibitor towards its target. This information could prove useful in the rational design, discovery, and evaluation of potent SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors for targeted antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Peptidomimetics/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Amides/chemistry , Amides/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Drug Design , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Kinetics , Ligands , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptidomimetics/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Quantum Theory , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thermodynamics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
15.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 97(4): 836-853, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962881

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to assess the repurposing potential of existing antiviral drug candidates (FDA-approved and investigational) against SARS-CoV-2 target proteins that facilitates viral entry and replication into the host body. To evaluate molecular affinities between antiviral drug candidates and SARS-CoV-2 associated target proteins such as spike protein (S) and main protease (Mpro ), a molecular interaction simulation was performed by docking software (MVD) and subsequently the applicability score was calculated by machine learning algorithm. Furthermore, the STITCH algorithm was used to predict the pharmacology network involving multiple pathways of active drug candidate(s). Pharmacophore features of active drug(s) molecule was also determined to predict structure-activity relationship (SAR). The molecular interaction analysis showed that cordycepin has strong binding affinities with S protein (-180) and Mpro proteins (-205) which were relatively highest among other drug candidates used. Interestingly, compounds with low IC50 showed high binding energy. Furthermore, machine learning algorithm also revealed high applicability scores (0.42-0.47) of cordycepin. It is worth mentioning that the pharmacology network depicted the involvement of cordycepin in different pathways associated with bacterial and viral diseases including tuberculosis, hepatitis B, influenza A, viral myocarditis, and herpes simplex infection. The embedded pharmacophore features with cordycepin also suggested strong SAR. Cordycepin's anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity indicated 65% (E-gene) and 42% (N-gene) viral replication inhibition after 48h of treatment. Since, cordycepin has both preclinical and clinical evidences on antiviral activity, in addition the present findings further validate and suggest repurposing potential of cordycepin against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Machine Learning , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Deoxyadenosines/chemistry , Deoxyadenosines/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
16.
J Diabetes ; 13(3): 243-252, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is currently posing significant threats to public health worldwide. It is notable that a substantial proportion of patients with sever COVID-19 have coexisting diabetic conditions, indicating the progression and outcome of COVID-19 may relate to diabetes. However, it is still unclear whether diabetic treatment principles can be used for the treatment of COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a computational approach to screen all commonly used clinical oral hypoglycemic drugs to identify the potential inhibitors for the main protease (Mpro ) of SARS-CoV-2, which is one of the key drug targets for anti-COVID-19 drug discovery. RESULTS: Six antidiabetic drugs with docking scores higher than 8.0 (cutoff value), including repaglinide, canagliflozin, glipizide, gliquidone, glimepiride, and linagliptin, were predicted as the promising inhibitors of Mpro . Interestingly, repaglinide, one of the six antidiabetic drugs with the highest docking score for Mpro , was similar to a previously predicted active molecule nelfinavir, which is a potential anti-HIV and anti-COVID-19 drug. Moreover, we found repaglinide shared similar docking pose and pharmacophores with a reported ligand (N3 inhibitor) and nelfinavir, demonstrating that repaglinide would interact with Mpro in a similar way. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that these six antidiabetic drugs may have an extra effect on the treatment of COVID-19, although further studies are necessary to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , A549 Cells , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites , Drug Discovery , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nelfinavir/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology
17.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240653, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874198

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus responsible of acute respiratory infection closely related to SARS-CoV has recently emerged. So far there is no consensus for drug treatment to stop the spread of the virus. Discovery of a drug that would limit the virus expansion is one of the biggest challenges faced by the humanity in the last decades. In this perspective, to test existing drugs as inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 main protease is a good approach. Among natural phenolic compounds found in plants, fruit, and vegetables; flavonoids are the most abundant. Flavonoids, especially in their glycosylated forms, display a number of physiological activities, which makes them interesting to investigate as antiviral molecules. The flavonoids chemical structures were downloaded from PubChem and protease structure 6LU7 was from the Protein Data Bank site. Molecular docking study was performed using AutoDock Vina. Among the tested molecules Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside showed the highest binding affinity (-9,7 kcal/mol). Docking studies showed that glycosylated flavonoids are good inhibitors for the SARS-CoV-2 protease and could be further investigated by in vitro and in vivo experiments for further validation. MD simulations were further performed to evaluate the dynamic behavior and stability of the protein in complex with the three best hits of docking experiments. Our results indicate that the rutin is a potential drug to inhibit the function of Chymotrypsin-like protease (3CL pro) of Coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Binding Sites , Flavonoids/chemistry , Glycosylation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Binding , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
18.
Molecules ; 25(16)2020 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717752

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2) has been the cause of a recent global pandemic. The highly contagious nature of this life-threatening virus makes it imperative to find therapies to counteract its diffusion. The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is a promising drug target due to its indispensable role in viral replication inside the host. Using a combined two-steps approach of virtual screening and molecular docking techniques, we have screened an in-house collection of small molecules, mainly composed of natural and nature-inspired compounds. The molecules were selected with high structural diversity to cover a wide range of chemical space into the enzyme pockets. Virtual screening experiments were performed using the blind docking mode of the AutoDock Vina software. Virtual screening allowed the selection of structurally heterogeneous compounds capable of interacting effectively with the enzymatic site of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The compounds showing the best interaction with the protein were re-scored by molecular docking as implemented in AutoDock, while the stability of the complexes was tested by molecular dynamics. The most promising candidates revealed a good ability to fit into the protein binding pocket and to reach the catalytic dyad. There is a high probability that at least one of the selected scaffolds could be promising for further research.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Biological Products/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus M Proteins , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pandemics , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors
19.
Infect Genet Evol ; 84: 104451, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-630854

ABSTRACT

WHO has declared the outbreak of COVID-19 as a public health emergency of international concern. The ever-growing new cases have called for an urgent emergency for specific anti-COVID-19 drugs. Three structural proteins (Membrane, Envelope and Nucleocapsid protein) play an essential role in the assembly and formation of the infectious virion particles. Thus, the present study was designed to identify potential drug candidates from the unique collection of 548 anti-viral compounds (natural and synthetic anti-viral), which target SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins. High-end molecular docking analysis was performed to characterize the binding affinity of the selected drugs-the ligand, with the SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins, while high-level Simulation studies analyzed the stability of drug-protein interactions. The present study identified rutin, a bioflavonoid and the antibiotic, doxycycline, as the most potent inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein. Caffeic acid and ferulic acid were found to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 membrane protein while the anti-viral agent's simeprevir and grazoprevir showed a high binding affinity for nucleocapsid protein. All these compounds not only showed excellent pharmacokinetic properties, absorption, metabolism, minimal toxicity and bioavailability but were also remain stabilized at the active site of proteins during the MD simulation. Thus, the identified lead compounds may act as potential molecules for the development of effective drugs against SARS-CoV-2 by inhibiting the envelope formation, virion assembly and viral pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Virion/drug effects , Amides , Amino Acid Sequence , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Caffeic Acids/chemistry , Caffeic Acids/pharmacology , Carbamates , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coumaric Acids/chemistry , Coumaric Acids/pharmacology , Cyclopropanes , Doxycycline/chemistry , Doxycycline/pharmacology , Gene Expression , Humans , Kinetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nucleocapsid Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Quinoxalines/chemistry , Quinoxalines/pharmacology , Rutin/chemistry , Rutin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Simeprevir/chemistry , Simeprevir/pharmacology , Sulfonamides , Thermodynamics , Viral Envelope Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Virion/genetics
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