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1.
Protein J ; 39(3): 198-216, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718840

ABSTRACT

The devastating effects of the recent global pandemic (termed COVID-19 for "coronavirus disease 2019") caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) are paramount with new cases and deaths growing at an exponential rate. In order to provide a better understanding of SARS CoV-2, this article will review the proteins found in the SARS CoV-2 that caused this global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Drug Discovery/methods , Genome, Viral , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Polyproteins , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/chemistry , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/genetics , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24234, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585791

ABSTRACT

The main strategy for response and control of COVID-19 demands the use of rapid, accurate diagnostic tests aimed at the first point of health care. During the emergency, an increase in asymptomatic and symptomatic cases results in a great demand for molecular tests, which is promoting the development and application of rapid diagnostic technologies. In this study, we describe the development and evaluation of RT-LAMP to detect SARS-CoV-2 based on three genes (ORF1ab, M and N genes) in monoplex and triplex format. RT-LAMP assays were compared with the gold standard method RT-qPCR. The triplex format (RdRp, M and N genes) allowed obtaining comparable results with de RT-qPCR (RdRp and E genes), presented a sensitivity of 98.9% and a specificity of 97.9%, opening the opportunity to apply this method to detect SARS-CoV-2 at primary health-care centers.


Subject(s)
Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Humans , Limit of Detection , Nasopharynx/virology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Point-of-Care Systems , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics
3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(48): e328, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic era, the simultaneous detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), influenza virus (Flu), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is important in the rapid differential diagnosis in patients with respiratory symptoms. Three multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays have been recently developed commercially in Korea: PowerChek™ SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A&B Multiplex Real-time PCR Kit (PowerChek; KogeneBiotech); STANDARD™ M Flu/SARS-CoV-2 Real-time Detection Kit (STANDARD M; SD BioSensor); and Allplex™ SARS-CoV-2/FluA/FluB/RSV Assay (Allplex; Seegene). We evaluated the analytical and clinical performances of these kits. METHODS: A limit of detection tests were performed and cross-reactivity analysis was executed using clinical respiratory samples. Ninety-seven SARS-CoV-2-positive, 201 SARS-CoV-2-negative, 71 influenza A-positive, 50 influenza B-positive, 78 RSV-positive, and 207 other respiratory virus-positive nasopharyngeal swabs were tested using the three assays. The AdvanSure™ respiratory viruses rRT-PCR assay (AdvanSure; LG Life Sciences) was used as a comparator assay for RSV. RESULTS: Except in influenza B, in SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A, there were no significant differences in detecting specific genes of the viruses among the three assays. All three kits did not cross-react with common respiratory viruses. All three kits had greater than 92% positive percent agreement and negative percent agreement and ≥ 0.95 kappa value in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 and flu A/B. Allplex detected RSV more sensitively than AdvanSure. CONCLUSION: The overall performance of three multiplex rRT-PCR assays for the concurrent detection of SARS-CoV-2, influenza A/B, and RSV was comparable. These kits will promote prompt differential diagnosis of COVID-19, influenza, and RSV infection in the COVID-19 pandemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Cross Reactions , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza B virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/virology , Limit of Detection , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Polyproteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Republic of Korea , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
4.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524173

ABSTRACT

With the exception of inactivated vaccines, all SARS-CoV-2 vaccines currently used for clinical application focus on the spike envelope glycoprotein as a virus-specific antigen. Compared to other SARS-CoV-2 genes, mutations in the spike protein gene are more rapidly selected and spread within the population, which carries the risk of impairing the efficacy of spike-based vaccines. It is unclear to what extent the loss of neutralizing antibody epitopes can be compensated by cellular immune responses, and whether the use of other SARS-CoV-2 antigens might cause a more diverse immune response and better long-term protection, particularly in light of the continued evolution towards new SARS-CoV-2 variants. To address this question, we explored immunogenicity and protective effects of adenoviral vectors encoding either the full-length spike protein (S), the nucleocapsid protein (N), the receptor binding domain (RBD) or a hybrid construct of RBD and the membrane protein (M) in a highly susceptible COVID-19 hamster model. All adenoviral vaccines provided life-saving protection against SARS-CoV-2-infection. The most efficient protection was achieved after exposure to full-length spike. However, the nucleocapsid protein, which triggered a robust T-cell response but did not facilitate the formation of neutralizing antibodies, controlled early virus replication efficiently and prevented severe pneumonia. Although the full-length spike protein is an excellent target for vaccines, it does not appear to be the only option for future vaccine design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Cricetinae , Female , Inflammation , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology
5.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 396, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517609

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a highly infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has infected more than 235 million individuals and led to more than 4.8 million deaths worldwide as of October 5 2021. Cryo-electron microscopy and topology show that the SARS-CoV-2 genome encodes lots of highly glycosylated proteins, such as spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and ORF3a proteins, which are responsible for host recognition, penetration, binding, recycling and pathogenesis. Here we reviewed the detections, substrates, biological functions of the glycosylation in SARS-CoV-2 proteins as well as the human receptor ACE2, and also summarized the approved and undergoing SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics associated with glycosylation. This review may not only broad the understanding of viral glycobiology, but also provide key clues for the development of new preventive and therapeutic methodologies against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Glycosylation , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Protein Binding/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics
6.
Science ; 374(6575): 1626-1632, 2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501519

ABSTRACT

Efforts to determine why new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants demonstrate improved fitness have been limited to analyzing mutations in the spike (S) protein with the use of S-pseudotyped particles. In this study, we show that SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles (SC2-VLPs) can package and deliver exogenous transcripts, enabling analysis of mutations within all structural proteins and at multiple steps in the viral life cycle. In SC2-VLPs, four nucleocapsid (N) mutations found universally in more-transmissible variants independently increased messenger RNA delivery and expression ~10-fold, and in a reverse genetics model, the serine-202→arginine (S202R) and arginine-203→methionine (R203M) mutations each produced >50 times as much virus. SC2-VLPs provide a platform for rapid testing of viral variants outside of a biosafety level 3 setting and demonstrate N mutations and particle assembly to be mechanisms that could explain the increased spread of variants, including B.1.617.2 (Delta, which contains the R203M mutation).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Cell Line , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Humans , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Plasmids , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Genome Packaging , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Virus Internalization
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13464, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500743

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that emerged in human populations recently. Severely ill COVID-19 patients exhibit the elevation of proinflammatory cytokines, and such an unbalanced production of proinflammatory cytokines is linked to acute respiratory distress syndrome with high mortality in COVID-19 patients. Our study provides evidence that the ORF3a, M, ORF7a, and N proteins of SARS-CoV-2 were NF-κB activators. The viral sequence from infected zoo lions belonged to clade V, and a single mutation of G251V is found for ORF3a gene compared to all other clades. No significant functional difference was found for clade V ORF3a, indicating the NF-κB activation is conserved among COVID-19 variants. Of the four viral proteins, the ORF7a protein induced the NF-κB dictated proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFNß. The ORF7a protein also induced IL-3, IL-4, IL-7, IL-23. Of 15 different chemokines examined in the study, CCL11, CCL17, CCL19, CCL20, CCL21, CCL22, CCL25, CCL26, CCL27, and CXCL9 were significantly upregulated by ORF7. These cytokines and chemokines were frequently elevated in severely ill COVID-19 patients. Our data provide an insight into how SARS-CoV-2 modulates NF-κB signaling and inflammatory cytokine expressions. The ORF7a protein may be a desirable target for strategic developments to minimize uncontrolled inflammation in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Cytokines/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/genetics , HeLa Cells , Humans , Point Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Alignment , Severity of Illness Index , Up-Regulation , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/chemistry , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism
8.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 195: 113672, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439904

ABSTRACT

We present the first combination of a microfluidic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a gold nanoslit-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor for detecting the DNA sequence of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). The PCR microchannel was produced through a laser scribing technique, and the SPR nanoslit chip was manufactured via hot-embossing nanoimprinting lithography. Afterward, the LMP1 DNA probe was adsorbed onto the SPR chip of the integrated device through electrostatic interactions for further detection. The device can complete the analytical procedure in around 36 min, while the traditional machine requires 105 min to achieve similar signals under the same PCR thermal cycles. The calibration curve with serially diluted LMP1 DNA exhibited the accuracy (R2 > 0.99) and sensitivity (limit of detection: ∼10-11 g/mL) of the device. Moreover, extracted DNA from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive cells were directly detected through the integrated chip. In brief, this all-in-one chip can amplify gene fragments at the front-end and detect them at the back-end, decreasing the time required for the analysis without compromising accuracy or sensitivity. We believe this label-free, real-time, low-cost device has enormous potential for rapid detection of various viruses, such as EBV and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Gold , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Humans , Microfluidics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics
9.
Mol Syst Biol ; 17(9): e10079, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406892

ABSTRACT

We modeled 3D structures of all SARS-CoV-2 proteins, generating 2,060 models that span 69% of the viral proteome and provide details not available elsewhere. We found that ˜6% of the proteome mimicked human proteins, while ˜7% was implicated in hijacking mechanisms that reverse post-translational modifications, block host translation, and disable host defenses; a further ˜29% self-assembled into heteromeric states that provided insight into how the viral replication and translation complex forms. To make these 3D models more accessible, we devised a structural coverage map, a novel visualization method to show what is-and is not-known about the 3D structure of the viral proteome. We integrated the coverage map into an accompanying online resource (https://aquaria.ws/covid) that can be used to find and explore models corresponding to the 79 structural states identified in this work. The resulting Aquaria-COVID resource helps scientists use emerging structural data to understand the mechanisms underlying coronavirus infection and draws attention to the 31% of the viral proteome that remains structurally unknown or dark.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral/chemistry , Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral/genetics , Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology/methods , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins/chemistry , Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Molecular Mimicry , Neuropilin-1/chemistry , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Interaction Mapping/methods , Protein Multimerization , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/chemistry , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 502, 2021 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387327

ABSTRACT

The multifunctional nucleocapsid (N) protein in SARS-CoV-2 binds the ~30 kb viral RNA genome to aid its packaging into the 80-90 nm membrane-enveloped virion. The N protein is composed of N-terminal RNA-binding and C-terminal dimerization domains that are flanked by three intrinsically disordered regions. Here we demonstrate that the N protein's central disordered domain drives phase separation with RNA, and that phosphorylation of an adjacent serine/arginine rich region modulates the physical properties of the resulting condensates. In cells, N forms condensates that recruit the stress granule protein G3BP1, highlighting a potential role for N in G3BP1 sequestration and stress granule inhibition. The SARS-CoV-2 membrane (M) protein independently induces N protein phase separation, and three-component mixtures of N + M + RNA form condensates with mutually exclusive compartments containing N + M or N + RNA, including annular structures in which the M protein coats the outside of an N + RNA condensate. These findings support a model in which phase separation of the SARS-CoV-2 N protein contributes both to suppression of the G3BP1-dependent host immune response and to packaging genomic RNA during virion assembly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Membrane/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , DNA Helicases/genetics , DNA Helicases/metabolism , Humans , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/genetics , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , RNA Helicases/genetics , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/genetics , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics
11.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 4407-4419, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373615

ABSTRACT

Widespread infection due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has led to a global pandemic. Currently, various approaches are being taken up to develop vaccines and therapeutics to treat SARS-CoV2 infection. Consequently, the S protein has become an important target protein for developing vaccines and therapeutics against SARS-CoV2. However, the highly infective nature of SARS-CoV2 restricts experimentation with the virus to highly secure BSL3 facilities. The availability of fusion-enabled, nonreplicating, and nonbiohazardous mimics of SARS-CoV2 virus fusion, containing the viral S or S and M protein in their native conformation on mammalian cells, can serve as a useful substitute for studying viral fusion for testing various inhibitors of viral fusion. This would avoid the use of the BSL3 facility for fusion studies required to develop therapeutics. In the present study, we have developed SARS-CoV2 virus fusion mimics (SCFMs) using mammalian cells transfected with constructs coding for S or S and M protein. The fusogenic property of the mimic(s) and their interaction with the functional human ACE2 receptors was confirmed experimentally. We have also shown that such mimics can easily be used in an inhibition assay. These mimic(s) can be easily prepared on a large scale, and such SCFMs can serve as an invaluable resource for viral fusion inhibition assays and in vitro screening of antiviral agents, which can be shared/handled between labs/facilities without worrying about any biohazard while working under routine laboratory conditions, avoiding the use of BSL3 laboratory.Abbreviations :SCFM: SARS-CoV2 Virus Fusion Mimic; ACE2: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2; hACE2: Human Angiotensin-Converting enzyme 2; MEF: Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts; HBSS: Hanks Balanced Salt Solution; FBS: Fetal Bovine Serum.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Containment of Biohazards/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Embryo, Mammalian , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Fibroblasts/virology , Gene Expression , Genes, Reporter , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Luminescent Proteins/genetics , Luminescent Proteins/metabolism , MCF-7 Cells , Mice , Molecular Mimicry , Plasmids/chemistry , Plasmids/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Transfection , Vero Cells , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 679841, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369665

ABSTRACT

Understanding the course of the antibody response directed to individual epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 proteins is crucial for serological assays and establishment of vaccines. Twenty-one synthetic peptides were synthesized that have ten amino acids overlap and cover the complete membrane (M) protein. Plasma samples from 32 patients having acute disease and 30 patients from the convalescent phase were studied. Only peptide M01 (aa 1-20) and to a lesser extent peptide M21 (aa 201-222) showed specific reactivity as compared to historical control plasma samples. Peptide M01 was recognized by IgM- (71.9%) and IgG-specific antibodies (43.8%) during the acute phase as early as day 8 PIO. In a longitudinal analysis, a higher reactivity was observed for the IgM response directed to peptide M01 following day 20 PIO as compared to earlier time points of the acute phase. In the convalescent phase, antibody reactivity to the two M-specific peptides was significantly lower (<30% seropositivity). A fusion protein encoding major parts of RBD also showed higher rates of recognition during acute (50.0%) and lower rates in the convalescent phase (23.3%). Taken together, our results suggest that during the acute phase of COVID-19 antibodies are raised to two linear epitopes of the SARS-CoV-2 M protein, located at the very N- and C-termini, showing almost similar levels of reactivity as immunodominant linear epitopes derived from the spike and nucleocapsid protein. Anti-M is also present in the convalescent phase of COVID-19 patients, however at lower levels, with the N-terminus of the M protein as a preferred target.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Convalescence , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Peptide Fragments/immunology , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367852

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus is a commonly used strategy that mimics certain biological functions of the authentic virus by relying on biological legitimacy at the molecular level. Despite the fact that spike (S), envelope (E), and membrane (M) proteins together wrap up the SARS-CoV-2 virion, most of the reported pseudotype viruses consist of only the S protein. Here, we report that the presence of E and M increased the virion infectivity by promoting the S protein priming. The S, E, and M (SEM)-coated pseudovirion is spherical, containing crown-like spikes on the surface. Both S and SEM pseudoviruses packaged the same amounts of viral RNA, but the SEM virus bound more efficiently to cells stably expressing the viral receptor human angiotensin-converting enzyme II (hACE2) and became more infectious. Using this SEM pseudovirus, we examined the infectivity and antigenic properties of the natural SARS-CoV-2 variants. We showed that some variants have higher infectivity than the original virus and that some render the neutralizing plasma with lower potency. These studies thus revealed possible mechanisms of the dissemination advantage of these variants. Hence, the SEM pseudovirion provides a useful tool to evaluate the viral infectivity and capability of convalescent sera in neutralizing specific SARS-CoV-2 S dominant variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/ultrastructure , Cricetinae , Humans , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology , Viral Matrix Proteins/ultrastructure , Virion/genetics , Virion/immunology , Virion/metabolism , Virion/ultrastructure
15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1293-1299, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268057

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 lineage is highly infectious and as of April 2021 accounted for 92% of COVID-19 cases in Europe and 59% of COVID-19 cases in the U.S. It is defined by the N501Y mutation in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the Spike (S) protein, and a few other mutations. These include two mutations in the N terminal domain (NTD) of the S protein, HV69-70del and Y144del (also known as Y145del due to the presence of tyrosine at both positions). We recently identified several emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concerns, characterized by Membrane (M) protein mutations, including I82T and V70L. We now identify a sub-lineage of B.1.1.7 that emerged through sequential acquisitions of M:V70L in November 2020 followed by a novel S:D178H mutation first observed in early February 2021. The percentage of B.1.1.7 isolates in the US that belong to this sub-lineage increased from 0.15% in February 2021 to 1.8% in April 2021. To date, this sub-lineage appears to be U.S.-specific with reported cases in 31 states, including Hawaii. As of April 2021, it constituted 36.8% of all B.1.1.7 isolates in Washington. Phylogenetic analysis and transmission inference with Nextstrain suggest this sub-lineage likely originated in either California or Washington. Structural analysis revealed that the S:D178H mutation is in the NTD of the S protein and close to two other signature mutations of B.1.1.7, HV69-70del and Y144del. It is surface exposed and may alter NTD tertiary configuration or accessibility, and thus has the potential to affect neutralization by NTD directed antibodies.


Subject(s)
Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods , Binding Sites , Humans , Models, Molecular , Phylogeny , Protein Domains , Protein Structure, Tertiary , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , United States
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224027

ABSTRACT

Diagnostic evaluation of specific antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 virus is mainly based on spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins. Despite the critical functions in virus infection and contribution to the pattern of immunodominance in COVID-19, exploitation of the most abundant membrane (M) protein in the SARS-CoV-2 serology tests is minimal. This study investigated the recombinant M protein's immunoreactivity with the sera from COVID-19 convalescents. In silico designed protein was created from the outer N-terminal part (19 aa) and internal C-terminal tail (101-222 aa) of the M protein (YP_009724393.1) and was recombinantly produced and purified. The designed M protein (16,498.74 Da, pI 8.79) revealed both IgM and IgG reactivity with serum samples from COVID-19 convalescents in Western blot. In ELISA, more than 93% (28/30) of COVID-19 sera were positive for IgM detection, and more than 96% (29/30) were positive for specific IgG detection to M protein. Based on the capacity to provoke an immune response and its strong antigenic properties, as shown here, and the fact that it is also involved in the virion entry into host cells, the M protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus as a good antigen has the potential in diagnostic purposes and vaccine design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/isolation & purification
17.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 885-893, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201494

ABSTRACT

Mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 Membrane (M) gene are relatively uncommon. The M gene encodes the most abundant viral structural protein, and is implicated in multiple viral functions, including initial attachment to the host cell via heparin sulphate proteoglycan, viral protein assembly in conjunction with the N and E genes, and enhanced glucose transport. We have identified a recent spike in the frequency of reported SARS-CoV-2 genomes carrying M gene mutations. This is associated with emergence of a new sub-B.1 clade, B.1.I82T, defined by the previously unreported M:I82T mutation within TM3, the third of three membrane spanning helices implicated in glucose transport. The frequency of this mutation increased in the USA from 0.014% in October 2020 to 1.62% in February 2021, a 116-fold change. While constituting 0.7% of the isolates overall, M:I82T sub-B.1 lineage accounted for 14.4% of B.1 lineage isolates in February 2021, similar to the rapid initial increase previously seen with the B.1.1.7 and B.1.429 lineages, which quickly became the dominant lineages in Europe and California over a period of several months. A similar increase in incidence was also noted in another related mutation, V70L, also within the TM2 transmembrane helix. These M mutations are associated with younger patient age (4.6 to 6.3 years). The rapid emergence of this B.1.I82T clade, recently named Pangolin B.1.575 lineage, suggests that this M gene mutation is more biologically fit, perhaps related to glucose uptake during viral replication, and should be included in ongoing genomic surveillance efforts and warrants further evaluation for potentially increased pathogenic and therapeutic implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Adult , Cell Lineage , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Phylogeny
18.
Genome ; 64(7): 665-678, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166573

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is mutating and creating divergent variants across the world. An in-depth investigation of the amino acid substitutions in the genomic signature of SARS-CoV-2 proteins is highly essential for understanding its host adaptation and infection biology. A total of 9587 SARS-CoV-2 structural protein sequences collected from 49 different countries are used to characterize protein-wise variants, substitution patterns (type and location), and major substitution changes. The majority of the substitutions are distinct, mostly in a particular location, and lead to a change in an amino acid's biochemical properties. In terms of mutational changes, envelope (E) and membrane (M) proteins are relatively more stable than nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S) proteins. Several co-occurrence substitutions are observed, particularly in S and N proteins. Substitution specific to active sub-domains reveals that heptapeptide repeat, fusion peptides, transmembrane in S protein, and N-terminal and C-terminal domains in the N protein are remarkably mutated. We also observe a few deleterious mutations in the above domains. The overall study on non-synonymous mutation in structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 at the start of the pandemic indicates a diversity amongst virus sequences.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Structural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Structural Proteins/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution , Amino Acids/chemistry , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Mutation Rate , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics
19.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100111, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066049

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a ß-coronavirus, is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Like for other coronaviruses, its particles are composed of four structural proteins: spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleoprotein (N) proteins. The involvement of each of these proteins and their interactions are critical for assembly and production of ß-coronavirus particles. Here, we sought to characterize the interplay of SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins during the viral assembly process. By combining biochemical and imaging assays in infected versus transfected cells, we show that E and M regulate intracellular trafficking of S as well as its intracellular processing. Indeed, the imaging data reveal that S is relocalized at endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) or Golgi compartments upon coexpression of E or M, as observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, which prevents syncytia formation. We show that a C-terminal retrieval motif in the cytoplasmic tail of S is required for its M-mediated retention in the ERGIC, whereas E induces S retention by modulating the cell secretory pathway. We also highlight that E and M induce a specific maturation of N-glycosylation of S, independently of the regulation of its localization, with a profile that is observed both in infected cells and in purified viral particles. Finally, we show that E, M, and N are required for optimal production of virus-like-particles. Altogether, these results highlight how E and M proteins may influence the properties of S proteins and promote the assembly of SARS-CoV-2 viral particles.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Virion/growth & development , Virus Assembly/physiology , Animals , Biomimetic Materials/chemistry , Biomimetic Materials/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/ultrastructure , Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , Gene Expression , Golgi Apparatus/metabolism , Golgi Apparatus/ultrastructure , Golgi Apparatus/virology , HEK293 Cells , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Hepatocytes/ultrastructure , Hepatocytes/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Virion/genetics , Virion/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Virus Release/physiology
20.
Arch Virol ; 166(1): 35-42, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064511

ABSTRACT

Canine coronavirus (CCoV) generally causes an infection with high morbidity and low mortality in dogs. In recent years, studies on coronaviruses have gained a momentum due to coronavirus outbreaks. Mutations in coronaviruses can result in deadly diseases in new hosts (such as SARS-CoV-2) or cause changes in organ-tissue affinity, as occurred with feline infectious peritonitis virus, exacerbating their pathogenesis. In recent studies on different types of CCoV, the pantropic strains characterized by hypervirulent and multi-systemic infections are believed to be emerging, in contrast to classical enteric coronavirus infections. In this study, we investigated emerging hypervirulent and multi-systemic CCoV strains using molecular and bioinformatic analysis, and examined differences between enteric and pantropic CCoV strains at the phylogenetic level. RT-PCR was performed with specific primers to identify the coronavirus M (membrane) and S (spike) genes, and samples were then subjected to DNA sequencing. In phylogenetic analysis, four out of 26 samples were classified as CCoV-1. The remaining 22 samples were all classified as CCoV-2a. In the CCoV-2a group, six samples were in branches close to enteric strains, and 16 samples were in the branches close to pantropic strains. Enteric and pantropic strains were compared by molecular genotyping of CCoV in dogs. Phylogenetic analysis of hypervirulent pantropic strains was carried out at the amino acid and nucleotide sequence levels. CCoV was found to be divergent from the original strain. This implies that some CCoV strains have become pantropic strains that cause multisystemic infections, and they should not be ruled out as the cause of severe diarrhea and multisystemic infections.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Canine/genetics , Dog Diseases/pathology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Base Sequence , Coronavirus, Canine/pathogenicity , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/virology , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Feces/virology , Intestine, Small/virology , Mutation/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Turkey
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