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1.
Eur J Med Chem ; 257: 115491, 2023 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325420

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide. The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 plays a central role in viral replication and transcription and represents an attractive drug target for fighting COVID-19. Many SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors have been reported, including covalent and noncovalent inhibitors. The SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitor PF-07321332 (Nirmatrelvir) designed by Pfizer has been put on the market. This paper briefly introduces the structural characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and summarizes the research progress of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors from the aspects of drug repurposing and drug design. These information will provide a basis for the drug development of treating the infection of SARS-CoV-2 and even other coronaviruses in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation
2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2023: 5469258, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315143

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, a deadly coronavirus sparked COVID-19 pandemic around the globe. With an increased mutation rate, this infectious agent is highly transmissible inducing an escalated rate of infections and death everywhere. Hence, the discovery of a viable antiviral therapy option is urgent. Computational approaches have offered a revolutionary framework to identify novel antimicrobial treatment regimens and allow a quicker, cost-effective, and productive conversion into the health center by evaluating preliminary and safety investigations. The primary purpose of this research was to find plausible plant-derived antiviral small molecules to halt the viral entrance into individuals by clogging the adherence of Spike protein with human ACE2 receptor and to suppress their genome replication by obstructing the activity of Nsp3 (Nonstructural protein 3) and 3CLpro (main protease). An in-house library of 1163 phytochemicals were selected from the NPASS and PubChem databases for downstream analysis. Preliminary analysis with SwissADME and pkCSM revealed 149 finest small molecules from the large dataset. Virtual screening using the molecular docking scoring and the MM-GBSA data analysis revealed that three candidate ligands CHEMBL503 (Lovastatin), CHEMBL490355 (Sulfuretin), and CHEMBL4216332 (Grayanoside A) successfully formed docked complex within the active site of human ACE2 receptor, Nsp3, and 3CLpro, respectively. Dual method molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and post-MD MM-GBSA further confirmed efficient binding and stable interaction between the ligands and target proteins. Furthermore, biological activity spectra and molecular target analysis revealed that all three preselected phytochemicals were biologically active and safe for human use. Throughout the adopted methodology, all three therapeutic candidates significantly outperformed the control drugs (Molnupiravir and Paxlovid). Finally, our research implies that these SARS-CoV-2 protein antagonists might be viable therapeutic options. At the same time, enough wet lab evaluations would be needed to ensure the therapeutic potency of the recommended drug candidates for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Ligands , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use
3.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 2259, 2023 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303778

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox is a disease with pandemic potential. It is caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV), a double-stranded DNA virus from the Poxviridae family, that replicates in the cytoplasm and must encode for its own RNA processing machinery including the capping machinery. Here, we present crystal structures of its 2'-O-RNA methyltransferase (MTase) VP39 in complex with the pan-MTase inhibitor sinefungin and a series of inhibitors that were discovered based on it. A comparison of this 2'-O-RNA MTase with enzymes from unrelated single-stranded RNA viruses (SARS-CoV-2 and Zika) reveals a conserved sinefungin binding mode, implicating that a single inhibitor could be used against unrelated viral families. Indeed, several of our inhibitors such as TO507 also inhibit the coronaviral nsp14 MTase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Humans , Methyltransferases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Monkeypox virus/genetics , Monkeypox virus/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , RNA , Zika Virus/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics
4.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 51(10): 5255-5270, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295624

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The NSP15 endoribonuclease enzyme, known as NendoU, is highly conserved and plays a critical role in the ability of the virus to evade the immune system. NendoU is a promising target for the development of new antiviral drugs. However, the complexity of the enzyme's structure and kinetics, along with the broad range of recognition sequences and lack of structural complexes, hampers the development of inhibitors. Here, we performed enzymatic characterization of NendoU in its monomeric and hexameric form, showing that hexamers are allosteric enzymes with a positive cooperative index, and with no influence of manganese on enzymatic activity. Through combining cryo-electron microscopy at different pHs, X-ray crystallography and biochemical and structural analysis, we showed that NendoU can shift between open and closed forms, which probably correspond to active and inactive states, respectively. We also explored the possibility of NendoU assembling into larger supramolecular structures and proposed a mechanism for allosteric regulation. In addition, we conducted a large fragment screening campaign against NendoU and identified several new allosteric sites that could be targeted for the development of new inhibitors. Overall, our findings provide insights into the complex structure and function of NendoU and offer new opportunities for the development of inhibitors.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Allosteric Regulation , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19 , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry
5.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 1076, 2023 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262859

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has continually been serious threat to public health worldwide. While a few anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics are currently available, their antiviral potency is not sufficient. Here, we identify two orally available 4-fluoro-benzothiazole-containing small molecules, TKB245 and TKB248, which specifically inhibit the enzymatic activity of main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 and significantly more potently block the infectivity and replication of various SARS-CoV-2 strains than nirmatrelvir, molnupiravir, and ensitrelvir in cell-based assays employing various target cells. Both compounds also block the replication of Delta and Omicron variants in human-ACE2-knocked-in mice. Native mass spectrometric analysis reveals that both compounds bind to dimer Mpro, apparently promoting Mpro dimerization. X-ray crystallographic analysis shows that both compounds bind to Mpro's active-site cavity, forming a covalent bond with the catalytic amino acid Cys-145 with the 4-fluorine of the benzothiazole moiety pointed to solvent. The data suggest that TKB245 and TKB248 might serve as potential therapeutics for COVID-19 and shed light upon further optimization to develop more potent and safer anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Protease Inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , Mice , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzothiazoles , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors
6.
J Chem Inf Model ; 63(7): 2226-2239, 2023 04 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274915

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has prompted global efforts to develop therapeutics. The main protease of SARS-CoV-2 (Mpro) and the papain-like protease (PLpro) are essential for viral replication and are key targets for therapeutic development. In this work, we investigate the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 inhibition by diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 which is an archetypal model of diselenides and a renowned potential therapeutic agent. The in vitro inhibitory concentration of (PhSe)2 against SARS-CoV-2 in Vero E6 cells falls in the low micromolar range. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations [level of theory: SMD-B3LYP-D3(BJ)/6-311G(d,p), cc-pVTZ] are used to inspect non-covalent inhibition modes of both proteases via π-stacking and the mechanism of covalent (PhSe)2 + Mpro product formation involving the catalytic residue C145, respectively. The in vitro CC50 (24.61 µM) and EC50 (2.39 µM) data indicate that (PhSe)2 is a good inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2 virus replication in a cell culture model. The in silico findings indicate potential mechanisms of proteases' inhibition by (PhSe)2; in particular, the results of the covalent inhibition here discussed for Mpro, whose thermodynamics is approximatively isoergonic, prompt further investigation in the design of antiviral organodiselenides.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Papain , Peptide Hydrolases , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation
7.
Life Sci ; 255: 117831, 2020 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267781

ABSTRACT

A new SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) belonging to the genus Betacoronavirus has caused a pandemic known as COVID-19. Among coronaviruses, the main protease (Mpro) is an essential drug target which, along with papain-like proteases catalyzes the processing of polyproteins translated from viral RNA and recognizes specific cleavage sites. There are no human proteases with similar cleavage specificity and therefore, inhibitors are highly likely to be nontoxic. Therefore, targeting the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro enzyme with small molecules can block viral replication. The present study is aimed at the identification of promising lead molecules for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro enzyme through virtual screening of antiviral compounds from plants. The binding affinity of selected small drug-like molecules to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, SARS-CoV Mpro and MERS-CoV Mpro were studied using molecular docking. Bonducellpin D was identified as the best lead molecule which shows higher binding affinity (-9.28 kcal/mol) as compared to the control (-8.24 kcal/mol). The molecular binding was stabilized through four hydrogen bonds with Glu166 and Thr190 as well as hydrophobic interactions via eight residues. The SARS-CoV-2 Mpro shows identities of 96.08% and 50.65% to that of SARS-CoV Mpro and MERS-CoV Mpro respectively at the sequence level. At the structural level, the root mean square deviation (RMSD) between SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and SARS-CoV Mpro was found to be 0.517 Å and 0.817 Å between SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and MERS-CoV Mpro. Bonducellpin D exhibited broad-spectrum inhibition potential against SARS-CoV Mpro and MERS-CoV Mpro and therefore is a promising drug candidate, which needs further validations through in vitro and in vivo studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Amino Acid Sequence , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
8.
Structure ; 31(2): 121-122, 2023 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2221386

ABSTRACT

In this issue of Structure, Wang et al. investigate the interplay between folded and disordered regions of the SARS-CoV-2 non-structural protein 1 (Nsp1) that promotes the suppression of host protein translation. Their investigation will lead to novel avenues to therapeutically target critical viral functions necessary for host immune-response suppression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry
9.
Molecules ; 28(3)2023 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200548

ABSTRACT

The transmission and infectivity of COVID-19 have caused a pandemic that has lasted for several years. This is due to the constantly changing variants and subvariants that have evolved rapidly from SARS-CoV-2. To discover drugs with therapeutic potential for COVID-19, we focused on the 3CL protease (3CLpro) of SARS-CoV-2, which has been proven to be an important target for COVID-19 infection. Computational prediction techniques are quick and accurate enough to facilitate the discovery of drugs against the 3CLpro of SARS-CoV-2. In this paper, we used both ligand-based virtual screening and structure-based virtual screening to screen the traditional Chinese medicine small molecules that have the potential to target the 3CLpro of SARS-CoV-2. MD simulations were used to confirm these results for future in vitro testing. MCCS was then used to calculate the normalized free energy of each ligand and the residue energy contribution. As a result, we found ZINC15676170, ZINC09033700, and ZINC12530139 to be the most promising antiviral therapies against the 3CLpro of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , Ligands , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Endopeptidases , Molecular Docking Simulation , Antiviral Agents/chemistry
10.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 350, 2023 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186047

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), as the cause of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) global pandemic, and its variants, especially those with higher transmissibility and substantial immune evasion, have highlighted the imperative for developing novel therapeutics as sustainable solutions other than vaccination to combat coronaviruses (CoVs). Beside receptor recognition and virus entry, members of the SARS-CoV-2 replication/transcription complex are promising targets for designing antivirals. Here, the interacting residues that mediate protein-protein interactions (PPIs) of nsp10 with nsp16 and nsp14 were comprehensively analyzed, and the key residues' interaction maps, interaction energies, structural networks, and dynamics were investigated. Nsp10 stimulates both nsp14's exoribonuclease (ExoN) and nsp16's 2'O-methyltransferase (2'O-MTase). Nsp14 ExoN is an RNA proofreading enzyme that supports replication fidelity. Nsp16 2'O-MTase is responsible for the completion of RNA capping to ensure efficient replication and translation and escape from the host cell's innate immune system. The results of the PPIs analysis proposed crucial information with implications for designing SARS-CoV-2 antiviral drugs. Based on the predicted shared protein-protein interfaces of the nsp16-nsp10 and nsp14-nsp10 interactions, a set of dual-target peptide inhibitors was designed. The designed peptides were evaluated by molecular docking, peptide-protein interaction analysis, and free energy calculations, and then further optimized by in silico saturation mutagenesis. Based on the predicted evolutionary conservation of the interacted target residues among CoVs, the designed peptides have the potential to be developed as dual target pan-coronavirus inhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Virus Replication/genetics , Methyltransferases/genetics , Peptides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , RNA/pharmacology , Exoribonucleases/genetics , Exoribonucleases/chemistry
11.
ACS Chem Biol ; 18(3): 449-455, 2023 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185505

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pathogen, SARS-CoV-2 relies on its main protease (MPro) for pathogenesis and replication. During crystallographic analyses of MPro crystals that were exposed to the air, a uniquely Y-shaped, S-O-N-O-S-bridged post-translational cross-link that connects three residues C22, C44, and K61 at their side chains was frequently observed. As a novel covalent modification, this cross-link serves potentially as a redox switch to regulate the catalytic activity of MPro, a demonstrated drug target of COVID-19. The formation of this linkage leads to a much more open active site that can potentially be targeted for the development of novel SARS-CoV-2 antivirals. The structural rearrangement of MPro by this cross-link indicates that small molecules that lock MPro in the cross-linked form can potentially be used with other active-site-targeting molecules such as paxlovid for synergistic effects in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 viral replication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation
12.
Structure ; 31(2): 128-137.e5, 2023 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165877

ABSTRACT

Non-structural protein 1 (Nsp1) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a major virulence factor and thus an attractive drug target. The last 33 amino acids of Nsp1 have been shown to bind within the mRNA entry tunnel of the 40S ribosomal subunit, shutting off host gene expression. Here, we report the solution-state structure of full-length Nsp1, which features an α/ß fold formed by a six-stranded, capped ß-barrel-like globular domain (N-terminal domain [NTD]), flanked by short N-terminal and long C-terminal flexible tails. The NTD has been found to be critical for 40S-mediated viral mRNA recognition and promotion of viral gene expression. We find that in free Nsp1, the NTD mRNA-binding surface is occluded by interactions with the acidic C-terminal tail, suggesting a mechanism of activity regulation based on the interplay between the folded NTD and the disordered C-terminal region. These results are relevant for drug-design efforts targeting Nsp1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Protein Binding , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry
13.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 41(1): 98-111, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2148282

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has continued evolving for survival and adaptation by mutating itself into different variants of concern, including omicron. Several studies and clinical trials found fluvoxamine, an Food and Drug Administration-approved antidepressant drug, to be effective at preventing mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from progressing to severe diseases. However, the mechanism of fluvoxamine's direct antiviral action against COVID-19 is still unknown. Fluvoxamine was docked with 11 SARS-CoV-2 targets and subjected to stability, conformational changes, and binding free energy analyses to explore its mode of action. Of the targets, nonstructural protein 14 (NSP14), main protease (Mpro), and papain-like protease (PLpro) had the best docking scores with fluvoxamine. Consistent with the docking results, it was confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations that the NSP14 N7-MTase ((N7-guanine)-methyltransferase)-fluvoxamine, Mpro-fluvoxamine, and PLpro-fluvoxamine complexes are stable, with the lowest binding free energies of -105.1, -82.7, and - 38.5 kJ/mol, respectively. A number of hotspot residues involved in the interaction were also identified. These include Glu166, Asp187, His41, and Cys145 in Mpro, Gly163 and Arg166 in PLpro, and Glu302, Gly333, and Phe426 in NSP14, which could aid in the development of better antivirals against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Fluvoxamine , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Fluvoxamine/chemistry , Fluvoxamine/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases
14.
Molecules ; 27(23)2022 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163527

ABSTRACT

A global pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus that started in 2020 and has wreaked havoc on humanity still ravages up until now. As a result, the negative impact of travel restrictions and lockdowns has underscored the importance of our preparedness for future pandemics. The main thrust of this work was based on addressing this need by traversing chemical space to design inhibitors that target the SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro). Pathfinder-based retrosynthesis analysis was used to generate analogs of GRL-0617 using commercially available building blocks by replacing the naphthalene moiety. A total of 10 models were built using active learning QSAR, which achieved good statistical results such as an R2 > 0.70, Q2 > 0.64, STD Dev < 0.30, and RMSE < 0.31, on average for all models. A total of 35 ideas were further prioritized for FEP+ calculations. The FEP+ results revealed that compound 45 was the most active compound in this series with a ΔG of −7.28 ± 0.96 kcal/mol. Compound 5 exhibited a ΔG of −6.78 ± 1.30 kcal/mol. The inactive compounds in this series were compound 91 and compound 23 with a ΔG of −5.74 ± 1.06 and −3.11 ± 1.45 kcal/mol. The combined strategy employed here is envisaged to be of great utility in multiparameter lead optimization efforts, to traverse chemical space, maintaining and/or improving the potency as well as the property space of synthetically aware design ideas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Space Flight , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Problem-Based Learning , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Communicable Disease Control , Molecular Docking Simulation
15.
Structure ; 28(8): 874-878, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132441

ABSTRACT

During global pandemics, the spread of information needs to be faster than the spread of the virus in order to ensure the health and safety of human populations worldwide. In our current crisis, the demand for SARS-CoV-2 drugs and vaccines highlights the importance of biological targets and their three-dimensional shape. In particular, structural biology as a field was poised to quickly respond to crises due to previous experience and expertise and because of its early adoption of open access practices.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Viral Proteins/chemistry , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Databases, Protein , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Biology , Protein Conformation , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry
16.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(11): e202200266, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2127606

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented global pandemic of COVID-19 has created a daunting scenario urging an immediate generation of therapeutic strategy. Interventions to curb the spread of viral infection primarily include setting targets against the virus. Here in this study we target S protein to obstruct the viral attachment and entry and also the M pro to prevent the viral replication. For this purpose, the interaction of S protein and M pro with phytocompounds, sanguinarine and eugenol, and their derivatives were studied using computational tools. Docking studies gave evidence that 8-hydroxydihydrosanguinarine (8-HDS), a derivative of sanguinarine, showed maximum binding affinity with both the targets. The binding energies of the ligand with S protein and M pro scored to be ΔGb -9.4 Kcal/mol and ΔGb -10.3 Kcal/mol, respectively. MD simulation studies depict that the phytocompound could effectively cause structural perturbations in the targets which would affect their functions. 8-Hydroxydihydrosanguinarine distorts the α-helix in the secondary structure of M pro and RBD site of S protein. Protein-protein interaction study in presence of 8-hydroxydihydrosanguinarine also corroborate the above findings which indicate that this polyphenol interferes in the coupling of S protein and ACE2. The alterations in protonation of M pro suggest that the protein structure undergoes significant structural changes at neutral pH. ADME property of 8-hydroxydihydrosanguinarine indicates this could be a potential drug. This makes the phyto-alkaloid a possible therapeutic molecule for anti COVID-19 drug design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pyridones
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123704

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the pandemic that broke out in 2020 and continues to be the cause of massive global upheaval. Coronaviruses are positive-strand RNA viruses with a genome of ~30 kb. The genome is replicated and transcribed by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase together with accessory factors. One of the latter is the protein helicase (NSP13), which is essential for viral replication. The recently solved helicase structure revealed a tertiary structure composed of five domains. Here, we investigated NSP13 from a structural point of view, comparing its RNA-free form with the RNA-engaged form by using atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at the microsecond timescale. Structural analyses revealed conformational changes that provide insights into the contribution of the different domains, identifying the residues responsible for domain-domain interactions in both observed forms. The RNA-free system appears to be more flexible than the RNA-engaged form. This result underlies the stabilizing role of the nucleic acid and the functional core role of these domains.


Subject(s)
RNA Helicases , SARS-CoV-2 , RNA Helicases/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , RNA, Viral/chemistry
18.
J Chem Phys ; 157(18): 185101, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119368

ABSTRACT

The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is an essential enzyme for the replication of the virus causing the COVID-19 pandemic. Because there is no known homologue in humans, it has been proposed as a primary target for antiviral drug development. Here, we explore the potential of five acrylamide-based molecules as possible covalent inhibitors, leading to target MPro by docking, followed by polarizable molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations. All calculations involving a classical potential were calculated with the AMOEBABIO18 polarizable force field, while electronic structure calculations were performed within the framework of density functional theory. Selected docking poses for each of the five compounds were used for MD simulations, which suggest only one of the tested leads remains bound in a catalytically active orientation. The QM/MM results for the covalent attachment of the promising lead to the catalytic serine suggest that this process is thermodynamically feasible but kinetically unlikely. Overall, our results are consistent with the low labeling percentages determined experimentally and may be useful for further development of acrylamide-based leads.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pandemics , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Acrylamide , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation
19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(46): 21035-21045, 2022 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117370

ABSTRACT

Given the current impact of SARS-CoV2 and COVID-19 on human health and the global economy, the development of direct acting antivirals is of paramount importance. Main protease (MPro), a cysteine protease that cleaves the viral polyprotein, is essential for viral replication. Therefore, MPro is a novel therapeutic target. We identified two novel MPro inhibitors, D-FFRCMKyne and D-FFCitCMKyne, that covalently modify the active site cysteine (C145) and determined cocrystal structures. Medicinal chemistry efforts led to SM141 and SM142, which adopt a unique binding mode within the MPro active site. Notably, these inhibitors do not inhibit the other cysteine protease, papain-like protease (PLPro), involved in the life cycle of SARS-CoV2. SM141 and SM142 block SARS-CoV2 replication in hACE2 expressing A549 cells with IC50 values of 8.2 and 14.7 nM. Detailed studies indicate that these compounds also inhibit cathepsin L (CatL), which cleaves the viral S protein to promote viral entry into host cells. Detailed biochemical, proteomic, and knockdown studies indicate that the antiviral activity of SM141 and SM142 results from the dual inhibition of MPro and CatL. Notably, intranasal and intraperitoneal administration of SM141 and SM142 lead to reduced viral replication, viral loads in the lung, and enhanced survival in SARS-CoV2 infected K18-ACE2 transgenic mice. In total, these data indicate that SM141 and SM142 represent promising scaffolds on which to develop antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Animals , Mice , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cathepsin L/chemistry , Cathepsin L/metabolism , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Peptide Hydrolases , Proteomics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation
20.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 23(18): 1995-1998, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107059

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: First-generation therapeutics have improved clinical outcomes in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. However, viral evolution has produced variants and subvariants capable of resisting many of these drugs and novel treatment strategies are urgently needed. AREAS COVERED: A corporate compound library screen identified ensitrelvir (formerly S-217622), a non-covalent, non-peptidic, orally bioavailable small-molecule protease inhibitor as a potential treatment for SARS-CoV-2. Ensitrelvir cleaves the active site of the 3C-like protease (3CLpro), which is conserved across SARS-CoV-2 variants and subvariants, with no human cell protease with similar specificity. EXPERT OPINION: Ensitrelvir demonstrates strong in vitro antiviral activity against the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants BA.4 and BA.5, which have driven new waves of infection throughout 2022, suggesting a potential therapeutic option for patients with COVID-19. This manuscript reviews what is known about ensitrelvir and explores how this drug may be used in the future to address the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry
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