Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 890
Filter
1.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 3385, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237826

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, generates multiple protein-coding, subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs) from a longer genomic RNA, all bearing identical termini with poorly understood roles in regulating viral gene expression. Insulin and interferon-gamma, two host-derived, stress-related agents, and virus spike protein, induce binding of glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase (EPRS1), within an unconventional, tetra-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex, to the sgRNA 3'-end thereby enhancing sgRNA expression. We identify an EPRS1-binding sarbecoviral pan-end activating RNA (SPEAR) element in the 3'-end of viral RNAs driving agonist-induction. Translation of another co-terminal 3'-end feature, ORF10, is necessary for SPEAR-mediated induction, independent of Orf10 protein expression. The SPEAR element enhances viral programmed ribosomal frameshifting, thereby expanding its functionality. By co-opting noncanonical activities of a family of essential host proteins, the virus establishes a post-transcriptional regulon stimulating global viral RNA translation. A SPEAR-targeting strategy markedly reduces SARS-CoV-2 titer, suggesting a pan-sarbecoviral therapeutic modality.


Subject(s)
RNA, Viral , Regulon , SARS-CoV-2 , Subgenomic RNA , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Regulon/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Subgenomic RNA/genetics
2.
J Med Virol ; 95(5): e28763, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234552

ABSTRACT

People are expected to have been previously vaccinated with a Vaccinia-based vaccine, as until 1980 smallpox vaccination was a standard protocol in China. It is unclear whether people with smallpox vaccine still have antibody against vaccinia virus (VACV) and cross-antibody against monkeypox virus (MPXV). Herein, we assessed the binding antibodies with antigen of VACV-A33 and MPXV-A35 in the general population and HIV-1 infected patients. Firstly, we detected VACV antibody with A33 protein to evaluate the efficiency of smallpox vaccination. The result show that 29% (23 of 79) of hospital staff (age ≥ 42 years) and 63% (60 of 95) of HIV-positive patients (age ≥ 42 years) from Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital were able to bind A33. However, among the subjects below 42 years of age, 1.5% (3/198) of the hospital volunteer samples and 1% (1/104) of the samples from HIV patients were positive for antibodies against A33 antigen. Then, we assessed the specific cross-reactive antibodies against MPXV A35 protein. 24% (19 of 79) hospital staff (age〉 = 42 years) and 44% (42 of 95) of HIV-positive patients (age〉 = 42 years) were positive. 98% (194/198) of the hospital staff and 99% (103/104) of the HIV patients had no A35-binding antibodies. Further, we found significant sex differences for the reactivity to A35 antigen were observed in HIV population, but no significant sex differences in hospital staff. Further, we analyzed the positivity rate of anti-A35 antibody of men who have sex with men (MSM) and non-MSM in HIV patients (age〉 = 42years). We found that 47% of no-MSM population and 40% of MSM population were positive for A35 antigen, with no significant difference. Lastly, we found only 59 samples were positive for anti-A33 IgG and anti-A35 IgG in all participants. Together, we demonstrated A33 and A35 antigens binding antibodies were detected in HIV patients and general population who were older than 42 years, and cohort studies only provided data of serological detection to support early response to monkeypox outbreak.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Monkeypox , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Smallpox Vaccine , Smallpox , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Antigens, Viral , Homosexuality, Male , Immunoglobulin G , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus , Vaccinia virus , Viral Proteins
3.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 80(6): 153, 2023 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328394

ABSTRACT

Accumulating evidence has consolidated the interaction between viral infection and host alternative splicing. Serine-arginine (SR) proteins are a class of highly conserved splicing factors critical for the spliceosome maturation, alternative splicing and RNA metabolism. Serine-arginine protein kinases (SRPKs) are important kinases that specifically phosphorylate SR proteins to regulate their distribution and activities in the central pre-mRNA splicing and other cellular processes. In addition to the predominant SR proteins, other cytoplasmic proteins containing a serine-arginine repeat domain, including viral proteins, have been identified as substrates of SRPKs. Viral infection triggers a myriad of cellular events in the host and it is therefore not surprising that viruses explore SRPKs-mediated phosphorylation as an important regulatory node in virus-host interactions. In this review, we briefly summarize the regulation and biological function of SRPKs, highlighting their involvement in the infection process of several viruses, such as viral replication, transcription and capsid assembly. In addition, we review the structure-function relationships of currently available inhibitors of SRPKs and discuss their putative use as antivirals against well-characterized viruses or newly emerging viruses. We also highlight the viral proteins and cellular substrates targeted by SRPKs as potential antiviral therapeutic candidates.


Subject(s)
Protein Kinases , Virus Diseases , Humans , Protein Kinases/metabolism , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Arginine/metabolism , Serine/metabolism , Phosphorylation , RNA Splicing , Alternative Splicing , Viral Proteins/genetics , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Serine-Arginine Splicing Factors/metabolism
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1166839, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323707

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped and positive-stranded RNA viruses with a large genome (∼ 30kb). CoVs include essential genes, such as the replicase and four genes coding for structural proteins (S, M, N and E), and genes encoding accessory proteins, which are variable in number, sequence and function among different CoVs. Accessory proteins are non-essential for virus replication, but are frequently involved in virus-host interactions associated with virulence. The scientific literature on CoV accessory proteins includes information analyzing the effect of deleting or mutating accessory genes in the context of viral infection, which requires the engineering of CoV genomes using reverse genetics systems. However, a considerable number of publications analyze gene function by overexpressing the protein in the absence of other viral proteins. This ectopic expression provides relevant information, although does not acknowledge the complex interplay of proteins during virus infection. A critical review of the literature may be helpful to interpret apparent discrepancies in the conclusions obtained by different experimental approaches. This review summarizes the current knowledge on human CoV accessory proteins, with an emphasis on their contribution to virus-host interactions and pathogenesis. This knowledge may help the search for antiviral drugs and vaccine development, still needed for some highly pathogenic human CoVs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Humans , Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Antiviral Agents , Virulence
5.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 51(3): 1047-1056, 2023 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323612

ABSTRACT

Interferons (IFNs) are crucial components of the cellular innate immune response to viral infections. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has shown a remarkable capacity to suppress the host IFN production to benefit viral replication and spread. Thus far, of the 28 known virus-encoded proteins, 16 have been found to impair the host's innate immune system at various levels ranging from detection and signaling to transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of expression of the components of the cellular antiviral response. Additionally, there is evidence that the viral genome encodes non-protein-coding microRNA-like elements that could also target IFN-stimulated genes. In this brief review, we summarise the current state of knowledge regarding the factors and mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 impairs the production of IFNs and thereby dampens the host's innate antiviral immune response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Cell Line , Interferons , Antiviral Agents , Immunity, Innate , Viral Proteins
6.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(3): e0099423, 2023 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316423

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2, produce double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that activates antiviral pathways such as PKR and OAS/RNase L. To successfully replicate in hosts, viruses must evade such antiviral pathways. Currently, the mechanism of how SARS-CoV-2 antagonizes dsRNA-activated antiviral pathways is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein, the most abundant viral structural protein, is capable of binding to dsRNA and phosphorylated PKR, inhibiting both the PKR and OAS/RNase L pathways. The N protein of the bat coronavirus (bat-CoV) RaTG13, the closest relative of SARS-CoV-2, has a similar ability to inhibit the human PKR and RNase L antiviral pathways. Via mutagenic analysis, we found that the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the N protein is sufficient for binding dsRNA and inhibiting RNase L activity. Interestingly, while the CTD is also sufficient for binding phosphorylated PKR, the inhibition of PKR antiviral activity requires not only the CTD but also the central linker region (LKR). Thus, our findings demonstrate that the SARS-CoV-2 N protein is capable of antagonizing the two critical antiviral pathways activated by viral dsRNA and that its inhibition of PKR activities requires more than dsRNA binding mediated by the CTD. IMPORTANCE The high transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 is an important viral factor defining the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To transmit efficiently, SARS-CoV-2 must be capable of disarming the innate immune response of its host efficiently. Here, we describe that the nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 is capable of inhibiting two critical innate antiviral pathways, PKR and OAS/RNase L. Moreover, the counterpart of the closest animal coronavirus relative of SARS-CoV-2, bat-CoV RaTG13, can also inhibit human PKR and OAS/RNase L antiviral activities. Thus, the importance of our discovery for understanding the COVID-19 pandemic is 2-fold. First, the ability of SARS-CoV-2 N to inhibit innate antiviral activity is likely a factor contributing to the transmissibility and pathogenicity of the virus. Second, the bat relative of SARS-CoV-2 has the capacity to inhibit human innate immunity, which thus likely contributed to the establishment of infection in humans. The findings described in this study are valuable for developing novel antivirals and vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Animals , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Pandemics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Double-Stranded
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2668: 301-311, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316082

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) enable cell-to-cell communication and, by delivering antigens, can stimulate the immune response strongly. Approved in use SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, candidates immunize with the viral spike protein delivered via viral vectors, translated by injected mRNAs, or as a pure protein. Here, we outline a novel methodological approach for generating SARS-CoV-2 vaccine using exosome that delivers antigens from the SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins. Engineered EVs can be loaded with viral antigens, thus acting as antigens presenting EVs, eliciting strong and targeted CD8(+) T cell and B cell, offering a unique approach to vaccine development. Engineered EVs thus portray a safe, adaptable, and effective approach for a virus-free vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exosomes , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Antigens/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism
8.
Biol Chem ; 404(6): 569-584, 2023 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312394

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has quickly spread all over the world. In this respect, traditional medicinal chemistry, repurposing, and computational approaches have been exploited to develop novel medicines for treating this condition. The effectiveness of chemicals and testing methods in the identification of new promising therapies, and the extent of preparedness for future pandemics, have been further highly advantaged by recent breakthroughs in introducing noble small compounds for clinical testing purposes. Currently, numerous studies are developing small-molecule (SM) therapeutic products for inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication, as well as managing the disease-related outcomes. Transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2)-inhibiting medicinal products can thus prevent the entry of the SARS-CoV-2 into the cells, and constrain its spreading along with the morbidity and mortality due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), particularly when co-administered with inhibitors such as chloroquine (CQ) and dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH). The present review demonstrates that the clinical-stage therapeutic agents, targeting additional viral proteins, might improve the effectiveness of COVID-19 treatment if applied as an adjuvant therapy side-by-side with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Viral Proteins
9.
Molecules ; 28(7)2023 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306412

ABSTRACT

3C proteases (3Cpros) of picornaviruses and 3C-like proteases (3CLpros) of coronaviruses and caliciviruses represent a group of structurally and functionally related viral proteases that play pleiotropic roles in supporting the viral life cycle and subverting host antiviral responses. The design and screening for 3C/3CLpro inhibitors may contribute to the development broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics against viral diseases related to these three families. However, current screening strategies cannot simultaneously assess a compound's cytotoxicity and its impact on enzymatic activity and protease-mediated physiological processes. The viral induction of stress granules (SGs) in host cells acts as an important antiviral stress response by blocking viral translation and stimulating the host immune response. Most of these viruses have evolved 3C/3CLpro-mediated cleavage of SG core protein G3BP1 to counteract SG formation and disrupt the host defense. Yet, there are no SG-based strategies screening for 3C/3CLpro inhibitors. Here, we developed a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and SG dual-based system to screen for 3C/3CLpro inhibitors in living cells. We took advantage of FRET to evaluate the protease activity of poliovirus (PV) 3Cpro and live-monitor cellular SG dynamics to cross-verify its effect on the host antiviral response. Our drug screen uncovered a novel role of Telaprevir and Trifluridine as inhibitors of PV 3Cpro. Moreover, Telaprevir and Trifluridine also modulated 3Cpro-mediated physiological processes, including the cleavage of host proteins, inhibition of the innate immune response, and consequent facilitation of viral replication. Taken together, the FRET and SG dual-based system exhibits a promising potential in the screening for inhibitors of viral proteases that cleave G3BP1.


Subject(s)
Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer , Viral Protease Inhibitors , Humans , DNA Helicases/metabolism , Trifluridine , Stress Granules , Viral Proteins/metabolism , RNA Helicases/metabolism , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/metabolism , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology
10.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 8(1): 172, 2023 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303068

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox has been declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization. There is an urgent need for efficient and safe vaccines against the monkeypox virus (MPXV) in response to the rapidly spreading monkeypox epidemic. In the age of COVID-19, mRNA vaccines have been highly successful and emerged as platforms enabling rapid development and large-scale preparation. Here, we develop two MPXV quadrivalent mRNA vaccines, named mRNA-A-LNP and mRNA-B-LNP, based on two intracellular mature virus specific proteins (A29L and M1R) and two extracellular enveloped virus specific proteins (A35R and B6R). By administering mRNA-A-LNP and mRNA-B-LNP intramuscularly twice, mice induce MPXV specific IgG antibodies and potent vaccinia virus (VACV) specific neutralizing antibodies. Further, it elicits efficient MPXV specific Th-1 biased cellular immunity, as well as durable effector memory T and germinal center B cell responses in mice. In addition, two doses of mRNA-A-LNP and mRNA-B-LNP are protective against the VACV challenge in mice. And, the passive transfer of sera from mRNA-A-LNP and mRNA-B-LNP-immunized mice protects nude mice against the VACV challenge. Overall, our results demonstrate that mRNA-A-LNP and mRNA-B-LNP appear to be safe and effective vaccine candidates against monkeypox epidemics, as well as against outbreaks caused by other orthopoxviruses, including the smallpox virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Animals , Mice , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Monkeypox virus , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Vaccines, Combined , Mice, Nude , Viral Proteins/genetics , Immunity
11.
J Mol Biol ; 435(13): 168091, 2023 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305888

ABSTRACT

Identifying the interactions between proteins and ligands is significant for drug discovery and design. Considering the diverse binding patterns of ligands, the ligand-specific methods are trained per ligand to predict binding residues. However, most of the existing ligand-specific methods ignore shared binding preferences among various ligands and generally only cover a limited number of ligands with a sufficient number of known binding proteins. In this study, we propose a relation-aware framework LigBind with graph-level pre-training to enhance the ligand-specific binding residue predictions for 1159 ligands, which can effectively cover the ligands with a few known binding proteins. LigBind first pre-trains a graph neural network-based feature extractor for ligand-residue pairs and relation-aware classifiers for similar ligands. Then, LigBind is fine-tuned with ligand-specific binding data, where a domain adaptive neural network is designed to automatically leverage the diversity and similarity of various ligand-binding patterns for accurate binding residue prediction. We construct ligand-specific benchmark datasets of 1159 ligands and 16 unseen ligands, which are used to evaluate the effectiveness of LigBind. The results demonstrate the LigBind's efficacy on large-scale ligand-specific benchmark datasets, and it generalizes well to unseen ligands. LigBind also enables accurate identification of the ligand-binding residues in the main protease, papain-like protease and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of SARS-CoV-2. The web server and source codes of LigBind are available at http://www.csbio.sjtu.edu.cn/bioinf/LigBind/ and https://github.com/YYingXia/LigBind/ for academic use.


Subject(s)
Protein Binding , Humans , Binding Sites , Ligands , Neural Networks, Computer , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(41): e2209042119, 2022 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288486

ABSTRACT

Viruses employ a variety of strategies to escape or counteract immune responses, including depletion of cell surface major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), that would ordinarily present viral peptides to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. As part of a screen to elucidate biological activities associated with individual severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral proteins, we found that ORF7a reduced cell surface MHC-I levels by approximately fivefold. Nevertheless, in cells infected with SARS-CoV-2, surface MHC-I levels were reduced even in the absence of ORF7a, suggesting additional mechanisms of MHC-I down-regulation. ORF7a proteins from a sample of sarbecoviruses varied in their ability to induce MHC-I down-regulation and, unlike SARS-CoV-2, the ORF7a protein from SARS-CoV lacked MHC-I downregulating activity. A single amino acid at position 59 (T/F) that is variable among sarbecovirus ORF7a proteins governed the difference in MHC-I downregulating activity. SARS-CoV-2 ORF7a physically associated with the MHC-I heavy chain and inhibited the presentation of expressed antigen to CD8+ T cells. Specifically, ORF7a prevented the assembly of the MHC-I peptide loading complex and caused retention of MHC-I in the endoplasmic reticulum. The differential ability of ORF7a proteins to function in this way might affect sarbecovirus dissemination and persistence in human populations, particularly those with infection- or vaccine-elicited immunity.


Subject(s)
Antigen Presentation , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I , Viral Proteins , Amino Acids , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Humans , Major Histocompatibility Complex , Peptides , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/immunology
13.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 40(17): 8056-8072, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267474

ABSTRACT

The identification of new viral drugs has become a task of paramount significance due to the frequent occurrence of viral infections and especially during the current pandemic. Despite the recent advancements, the development of antiviral drugs has not made parallel progress. Reduction of time frame and cost of the drug development process is the major advantage of drug repurposing. Therefore, in this study, a drug repurposing strategy using molecular modelling techniques, i.e. biological activity prediction, virtual screening, and molecular dynamics simulation was employed to find promising repurposing candidates for viral infectious diseases. The biological activities of non-redundant (4171) drug molecules were predicted using PASS analysis, and 1401 drug molecules were selected which showed antiviral activities in the analysis. These drug molecules were subjected to virtual screening against the selected non-structural viral proteins. A series of filters, i.e. top 10 drug molecules based on binding affinity, mean value of binding affinity, visual inspection of protein-drug complexes, and number of H-bond between protein and drug molecules were used to narrow down the drug molecules. Molecular dynamics simulation analysis was carried out to validate the intrinsic atomic interactions and binding conformations of protein-drug complexes. The binding free energies of drug molecules were assessed by employing MMPBSA analysis. Finally, nine drug molecules were prioritized, as promising repurposing candidates with the potential to inhibit the selected non-structural viral proteins.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Drug Repositioning , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Viral Proteins
14.
Metallomics ; 14(7)2022 07 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249594

ABSTRACT

Zinc is an essential element for human health. Among its many functions, zinc(II) modulates the immune response to infections and, at high concentrations or in the presence of ionophores, inhibits the replication of various RNA viruses. Structural biology studies on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) revealed that zinc(II) is the most common metal ion that binds to viral proteins. However, the number of zinc(II)-binding sites identified by experimental methods is far from exhaustive, as metal ions may be lost during protein purification protocols. To better define the zinc(II)-binding proteome of coronavirus, we leveraged the wealth of deposited structural data and state-of-the-art bioinformatics methods. Through this in silico approach, 15 experimental zinc(II) sites were identified and a further 22 were predicted in Spike, open reading frame (ORF)3a/d, ORF8, and several nonstructural proteins, highlighting an essential role of zinc(II) in viral replication. Furthermore, the structural relationships between viral and eukaryotic sites (typically zinc fingers) indicate that SARS-CoV-2 can compete with human proteins for zinc(II) binding. Given the double-edged effect of zinc(II) ions, both essential and toxic to coronavirus, only the complete elucidation of the structural and regulatory zinc(II)-binding sites can guide selective antiviral strategies based on zinc supplementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Proteome , Viral Proteins , Zinc
15.
Viruses ; 15(3)2023 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272449

ABSTRACT

Single-stranded RNA viruses (ssRNAv) are characterized by their biological diversity and great adaptability to different hosts; traits which make them a major threat to human health due to their potential to cause zoonotic outbreaks. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in viral proliferation is essential to address the challenges posed by these pathogens. Key to these processes are ribonucleoproteins (RNPs), the genome-containing RNA-protein complexes whose function is to carry out viral transcription and replication. Structural determination of RNPs can provide crucial information on the molecular mechanisms of these processes, paving the way for the development of new, more effective strategies to control and prevent the spread of ssRNAv diseases. In this scenario, cryogenic electron microscopy (cryoEM), relying on the technical and methodological revolution it has undergone in recent years, can provide invaluable help in elucidating how these macromolecular complexes are organized, packaged within the virion, or the functional implications of these structures. In this review, we summarize some of the most prominent achievements by cryoEM in the study of RNP and nucleocapsid structures in lipid-enveloped ssRNAv.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus , RNA, Viral , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Ribonucleoproteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Influenza A virus/genetics
16.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 966870, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276215

ABSTRACT

The recent pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 has resulted in enormous deaths around the world. Clues from genomic sequences of parent and their mutants can be obtained to understand the evolving pathogenesis of this virus. Apart from the viral proteins, virus-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play a vital role in regulating viral pathogenesis. Thus we sought to investigate the miRNAs encoded by SARS-CoV-2, its mutants, and the host. Here, we present the results obtained using a dual approach i.e (i) identifying host-encoded miRNAs that might regulate viral pathogenesis and (ii) identifying viral-encoded miRNAs that might regulate host cell signaling pathways and aid in viral pathogenesis. Analysis utilizing the first approach resulted in the identification of ten host-encoded miRNAs that could target the SARS, SARS-CoV-2, and its mutants. Interestingly our analysis revealed that there is a significantly higher number of host miRNAs that could target the SARS-CoV-2 genome as compared to the SARS reference genome. Results from the second approach resulted in the identification of a set of virus-encoded miRNAs which might regulate host signaling pathways. Our analysis further identified a similar "GA" rich motif in the SARS-CoV-2 and its mutant genomes that was shown to play a vital role in lung pathogenesis during severe SARS infections. In summary, we have identified human and virus-encoded miRNAs that might regulate the pathogenesis of SARS coronaviruses and describe similar non-coding RNA sequences in SARS-CoV-2 that were shown to regulate SARS-induced lung pathology in mice.


Subject(s)
Genome, Viral , MicroRNAs , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , Mice , COVID-19 , MicroRNAs/genetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
17.
Viruses ; 15(3)2023 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281503

ABSTRACT

The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing the COVID-19 outbreak, posed a primary concern of public health worldwide. The most common changes in SARS-CoV-2 are single nucleotide substitutions, also reported insertions and deletions. This work investigates the presence of SARS-CoV-2 ORF7a deletions identified in COVID-19-positive individuals. Sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 complete genomes showed three different ORF7a size deletions (190-nt, 339-nt and 365-nt). Deletions were confirmed through Sanger sequencing. The ORF7a∆190 was detected in a group of five relatives with mild symptoms of COVID-19, and the ORF7a∆339 and ORF7a∆365 in a couple of co-workers. These deletions did not affect subgenomic RNAs (sgRNA) production downstream of ORF7a. Still, fragments associated with sgRNA of genes upstream of ORF7a showed a decrease in size when corresponding to samples with deletions. In silico analysis suggests that the deletions impair protein proper function; however, isolated viruses with partial deletion of ORF7a can replicate in culture cells similarly to wild-type viruses at 24 hpi, but with less infectious particles after 48 hpi. These findings on deleted ORF7a accessory protein gene, contribute to understanding SARS-CoV-2 phenotypes such as replication, immune evasion and evolutionary fitness as well insights into the role of SARS-CoV-2_ORF7a in the mechanism of virus-host interactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins , Humans , Cell Culture Techniques , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis , Sequence Deletion , Viral Proteins/genetics , Subgenomic RNA/genetics
18.
J Biol Chem ; 299(5): 104668, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288832

ABSTRACT

Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a prominent molecular chaperone, effectively limits severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection but little is known about any interaction between Hsp90 and SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Here, we systematically analyzed the effects of the chaperone isoforms Hsp90α and Hsp90ß on individual SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. Five SARS-CoV-2 proteins, namely nucleocapsid (N), membrane (M), and accessory proteins Orf3, Orf7a, and Orf7b were found to be novel clients of Hsp90ß in particular. Pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 with 17-DMAG results in N protein proteasome-dependent degradation. Hsp90 depletion-induced N protein degradation is independent of CHIP, a ubiquitin E3 ligase previously identified for Hsp90 client proteins, but alleviated by FBXO10, an E3 ligase identified by subsequent siRNA screening. We also provide evidence that Hsp90 depletion may suppress SARS-CoV-2 assembly partially through induced M or N degradation. Additionally, we found that GSDMD-mediated pyroptotic cell death triggered by SARS-CoV-2 was mitigated by inhibition of Hsp90. These findings collectively highlight a beneficial role for targeting of Hsp90 during SARS-CoV-2 infection, directly inhibiting virion production and reducing inflammatory injury by preventing the pyroptosis that contributes to severe SARS-CoV-2 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins , Pyroptosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Virion , Humans , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Virion/chemistry , Virion/growth & development , Virion/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism
19.
Mol Ther ; 31(3): 774-787, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253487

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury occurs frequently in COVID-19 patients infected by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, and infection of kidney cells by this virus has been reported. However, little is known about the direct impact of the SARS-CoV-2 infection upon the renal tubular cells. We report that SARS-CoV-2 activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling and caused cellular injury in the human renal tubular cell line. Mechanistically, the viral protein ORF3A of SARS-CoV-2 augmented both NF-κB and STAT3 signaling and increased the expression of kidney injury molecule 1. SARS-CoV-2 infection or expression of ORF3A alone elevated the protein level of tripartite motif-containing protein 59 (TRIM59), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, which interacts with both ORF3A and STAT3. The excessive TRIM59 in turn dissociated the phosphatase TCPTP from binding to STAT3 and hence inhibited the dephosphorylation of STAT3, leading to persistent STAT3 activation. Consistently, ORF3A induced renal injury in zebrafish and mice. In addition, expression of TRIM59 was elevated in the kidney autopsies of COVID-19 patients with acute kidney injury. Thus, the aberrant activation of STAT3 signaling by TRIM59 plays a significant role in the renal tubular cell injury caused by SARS-CoV-2, which suggests a potential targeted therapy for the renal complications of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , Animals , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/metabolism , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Zebrafish , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Tripartite Motif Proteins/genetics , Tripartite Motif Proteins/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism
20.
Antiviral Res ; 213: 105590, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252255

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to evolve and adapt after its emergence in late 2019. As the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the replication and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 have been extensively studied by the research community for vaccine and therapeutics development. Given the importance of viral spike protein in viral infection/transmission and vaccine development, the scientific community has thus far primarily focused on studying the structure, function, and evolution of the spike protein. Other viral proteins are understudied. To fill in this knowledge gap, a few recent studies have identified nonstructural protein 6 (nsp6) as a major contributor to SARS-CoV-2 replication through the formation of replication organelles, antagonism of interferon type I (IFN-I) responses, and NLRP3 inflammasome activation (a major factor of severe disease in COVID-19 patients). Here, we review the most recent progress on the multiple roles of nsp6 in modulating SARS-CoV-2 replication and pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Proteins
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL