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1.
Cell Rep ; 37(4): 109882, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525720

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV), a nucleotide analog with broad-spectrum features, has exhibited effectiveness in COVID-19 treatment. However, the precise working mechanism of RDV when targeting the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) has not been fully elucidated. Here, we solve a 3.0-Å structure of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RdRP elongation complex (EC) and assess RDV intervention in polymerase elongation phase. Although RDV could induce an "i+3" delayed termination in meta-stable complexes, only pausing and subsequent elongation are observed in the EC. A comparative investigation using an enterovirus RdRP further confirms similar delayed intervention and demonstrates that steric hindrance of the RDV-characteristic 1'-cyano at the -4 position is responsible for the "i+3" intervention, although two representative Flaviviridae RdRPs do not exhibit similar behavior. A comparison of representative viral RdRP catalytic complex structures indicates that the product RNA backbone encounters highly conserved structural elements, highlighting the broad-spectrum intervention potential of 1'-modified nucleotide analogs in anti-RNA virus drug development.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Proteins/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/drug effects , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Virus Replication/drug effects
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206368

ABSTRACT

Viral infections cause a host of fatal diseases and seriously affect every form of life from bacteria to humans. Although most viral infections can receive appropriate treatment thereby limiting damage to life and livelihood with modern medicine and early diagnosis, new types of viral infections are continuously emerging that need to be properly and timely treated. As time is the most important factor in the progress of many deadly viral diseases, early detection becomes of paramount importance for effective treatment. Aptamers are small oligonucleotide molecules made by the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Aptamers are characterized by being able to specifically bind to a target, much like antibodies. However, unlike antibodies, aptamers are easily synthesized, modified, and are able to target a wider range of substances, including proteins and carbohydrates. With these advantages in mind, many studies on aptamer-based viral diagnosis and treatments are currently in progress. The use of aptamers for viral diagnosis requires a system that recognizes the binding of viral molecules to aptamers in samples of blood, serum, plasma, or in virus-infected cells. From a therapeutic perspective, aptamers target viral particles or host cell receptors to prevent the interaction between the virus and host cells or target intracellular viral proteins to interrupt the life cycle of the virus within infected cells. In this paper, we review recent attempts to use aptamers for the diagnosis and treatment of various viral infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Aptamers, Nucleotide/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , DNA Viruses/drug effects , Humans , RNA Viruses/drug effects , Viral Proteins/drug effects , Virion/drug effects
3.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1792-1795, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic calls for effective and safe treatments. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing COVID-19 actively replicates in the throat, unlike SARS-CoV, and shows high pharyngeal viral shedding even in patients with mild symptoms of the disease. HCoV-229E is one of four coronaviruses causing the common cold. In this study, the efficacy of ColdZyme® (CZ-MD), a medical device mouth spray, was tested against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E in vitro. The CZ-MD provides a protective glycerol barrier containing cod trypsin as an ancillary component. Combined, these ingredients can inactivate common cold viruses in the throat and mouth. The CZ-MD is believed to act on the viral surface proteins that would perturb their entry pathway into cells. The efficacy and safety of the CZ-MD have been demonstrated in clinical trials on the common cold. METHOD OF STUDY: The ability of the CZ-MD to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E was tested using an in vitro virucidal suspension test (ASTM E1052). RESULTS: CZ-MD inactivated SARS-CoV-2 by 98.3% and HCoV-229E by 99.9%. CONCLUSION: CZ-MD mouth spray can inactivate the respiratory coronaviruses SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E in vitro. Although the in vitro results presented cannot be directly translated into clinical efficacy, the study indicates that CZ-MD might offer a protective barrier against SARS-CoV-2 and a decreased risk of COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Glycerol/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Trypsin/pharmacology , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Common Cold/drug therapy , Common Cold/prevention & control , Common Cold/transmission , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Viral Proteins/drug effects
4.
IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform ; 18(4): 1299-1304, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123494

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infections have adopted the shape of a global pandemic now, demanding an urgent vaccine design. The current work reports contriving an anti-coronavirus peptide scanner tool to discern anti-coronavirus targets in the embodiment of peptides. The proffered CoronaPep tool features the fast fingerprinting of the anti-coronavirus target serving supreme prominence in the current bioinformatics research. The anti-coronavirus target protein sequences reported from the current outbreak are scanned against the anti-coronavirus target data-sets via CORONAPEP which provides precision-based anti-coronavirus peptides. This tool is specifically for the coronavirus data, which can predict peptides from the whole genome, or a gene or protein's list. Besides it is relatively fast, accurate, userfriendly and can generate maximum output from the limited information. The availability of tools like CORONAPEP will immeasurably perquisite researchers in the discipline of oncology and structure-based drug design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Software , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Computational Biology , Databases, Protein/statistics & numerical data , Drug Design , Genome, Viral , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Pandemics , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/drug effects , Peptides/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
5.
Drug Dev Res ; 82(3): 374-392, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917089

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 has become a threat to global health and has led to a global economic crisis. Although the researchers worldwide are putting tremendous effort toward gaining more insights into this zoonotic virus and developing vaccines and therapeutic drugs, no vaccine or drug is yet available to combat COVID-19 effectively. Drug discovery is often a laborious, time-consuming, and expensive task. In this time of crisis, employing computational methods could provide a feasible alternative approach that can potentially be used for drug discovery. Therefore, a library of several antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory drugs was virtually screened against SARS-CoV-2 proteases to identify potential inhibitors. The identified inhibitory drugs were further analyzed to confirm their activities against SARS-CoV-2. Our results could prove to be helpful in repurposing the drug discovery approach, which could substantially reduce the expenses, time, and resources required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery/trends , Drug Repositioning/trends , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/drug effects , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Proteins/drug effects
6.
SAR QSAR Environ Res ; 31(11): 857-867, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889339

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus recently identified in Wuhan, China (2019-nCoV) has resulted in an increasing number of patients globally, and has become a highly lethal pathogenic member of the coronavirus family affecting humans. 2019-nCoV has established itself as one of the most threatening pandemics that human beings have faced, and therefore analysis and evaluation of all possible responses against infection is required. One such strategy includes utilizing the knowledge gained from the SARS and MERS outbreaks regarding existing antivirals. Indicating a potential for success, one of the drugs, remdesivir, under repurposing studies, has shown positive results in initial clinical studies. Therefore, in the current work, the authors have attempted to utilize the remdesivir-RdRp complex - RdRp (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) being the putative target for remdesivir - to screen a library of the already reported RdRp inhibitor database. Further clustering on the basis of structural features and scoring refinement was performed to filter out false positive hits. Finally, molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to validate the identification of hits as RdRp inhibitors against novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV. The results yielded two putative hits which can inhibit RdRp with better potency than remdesivir, subject to further biological evaluation.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/drug effects
7.
Comput Biol Med ; 124: 103936, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679767

ABSTRACT

Virtual screening of phytochemicals was performed through molecular docking, simulations, in silico ADMET and drug-likeness prediction to identify the potential hits that can inhibit the effects of SARS-CoV-2. Considering the published literature on medicinal importance, 154 phytochemicals with analogous structure from limonoids and triterpenoids were selected to search potential inhibitors for the five therapeutic protein targets of SARS-CoV-2, i.e., 3CLpro (main protease), PLpro (papain-like protease), SGp-RBD (spike glycoprotein-receptor binding domain), RdRp (RNA dependent RNA polymerase) and ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2). The in silico computational results revealed that the phytochemicals such as glycyrrhizic acid, limonin, 7-deacetyl-7-benzoylgedunin, maslinic acid, corosolic acid, obacunone and ursolic acid were found to be effective against the target proteins of SARS-CoV-2. The protein-ligand interaction study revealed that these phytochemicals bind with the amino acid residues at the active site of the target proteins. Therefore, the core structure of these potential hits can be used for further lead optimization to design drugs for SARS-CoV-2. Also, the medicinal plants containing these phytochemicals like licorice, neem, tulsi, citrus and olives can be used to formulate suitable therapeutic approaches in traditional medicines.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Limonins/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Limonins/chemistry , Limonins/pharmacokinetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/drug effects , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacokinetics , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/drug effects , Triterpenes/chemistry , Triterpenes/pharmacokinetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/drug effects , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/drug effects
9.
Future Med Chem ; 12(17): 1565-1578, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-637735

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has been widely spread around the world and COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic by the WHO. Limited clinically effective antiviral drugs are available now. The development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs has become an urgent work worldwide. At present, potential therapeutic targets and drugs for SARS-CoV-2 are continuously reported, and many repositioning drugs are undergoing extensive clinical research, including remdesivir and chloroquine. On the other hand, structures of many important viral target proteins and host target proteins, including that of RdRp and Mpro were constantly reported, which greatly promoted structure-based drug design. This paper summarizes the current research progress and challenges in the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs, and proposes novel short-term and long-term drug research strategies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/drug effects
10.
Viruses ; 12(7)2020 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-627994

ABSTRACT

Novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), influenza A virus (IAV), and norovirus (NV) are highly contagious pathogens that threaten human health. Here we focused on the antiviral potential of the medicinal herb, Saxifraga spinulosa (SS). Water-soluble extracts of SS were prepared, and their virus-inactivating activity was evaluated against the human virus pathogens SARS-CoV-2 and IAV; we also examined virucidal activity against feline calicivirus and murine norovirus, which are surrogates for human NV. Among our findings, we found that SS-derived gallocatechin gallate compounds were capable of inactivating all viruses tested. Interestingly, a pyrogallol-enriched fraction (Fr 1C) inactivated all viruses more rapidly and effectively than did any of the component compounds used alone. We found that 25 µg/mL of Fr 1C inactivated >99.6% of SARS-CoV-2 within 10 s (reduction of ≥2.33 log10 TCID50/mL). Fr 1C resulted in the disruption of viral genomes and proteins as determined by gel electrophoresis, electron microscopy, and reverse transcription-PCR. Taken together, our results reveal the potential of Fr 1C for development as a novel antiviral disinfectant.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Norovirus/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Saxifragaceae , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , Calicivirus, Feline/drug effects , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Genome, Viral/drug effects , Hemagglutination Tests , Humans , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/drug effects
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