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1.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 3385, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237826

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, generates multiple protein-coding, subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs) from a longer genomic RNA, all bearing identical termini with poorly understood roles in regulating viral gene expression. Insulin and interferon-gamma, two host-derived, stress-related agents, and virus spike protein, induce binding of glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase (EPRS1), within an unconventional, tetra-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex, to the sgRNA 3'-end thereby enhancing sgRNA expression. We identify an EPRS1-binding sarbecoviral pan-end activating RNA (SPEAR) element in the 3'-end of viral RNAs driving agonist-induction. Translation of another co-terminal 3'-end feature, ORF10, is necessary for SPEAR-mediated induction, independent of Orf10 protein expression. The SPEAR element enhances viral programmed ribosomal frameshifting, thereby expanding its functionality. By co-opting noncanonical activities of a family of essential host proteins, the virus establishes a post-transcriptional regulon stimulating global viral RNA translation. A SPEAR-targeting strategy markedly reduces SARS-CoV-2 titer, suggesting a pan-sarbecoviral therapeutic modality.


Subject(s)
RNA, Viral , Regulon , SARS-CoV-2 , Subgenomic RNA , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Regulon/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Subgenomic RNA/genetics
2.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(3): e0099423, 2023 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316423

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2, produce double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that activates antiviral pathways such as PKR and OAS/RNase L. To successfully replicate in hosts, viruses must evade such antiviral pathways. Currently, the mechanism of how SARS-CoV-2 antagonizes dsRNA-activated antiviral pathways is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein, the most abundant viral structural protein, is capable of binding to dsRNA and phosphorylated PKR, inhibiting both the PKR and OAS/RNase L pathways. The N protein of the bat coronavirus (bat-CoV) RaTG13, the closest relative of SARS-CoV-2, has a similar ability to inhibit the human PKR and RNase L antiviral pathways. Via mutagenic analysis, we found that the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the N protein is sufficient for binding dsRNA and inhibiting RNase L activity. Interestingly, while the CTD is also sufficient for binding phosphorylated PKR, the inhibition of PKR antiviral activity requires not only the CTD but also the central linker region (LKR). Thus, our findings demonstrate that the SARS-CoV-2 N protein is capable of antagonizing the two critical antiviral pathways activated by viral dsRNA and that its inhibition of PKR activities requires more than dsRNA binding mediated by the CTD. IMPORTANCE The high transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 is an important viral factor defining the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To transmit efficiently, SARS-CoV-2 must be capable of disarming the innate immune response of its host efficiently. Here, we describe that the nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 is capable of inhibiting two critical innate antiviral pathways, PKR and OAS/RNase L. Moreover, the counterpart of the closest animal coronavirus relative of SARS-CoV-2, bat-CoV RaTG13, can also inhibit human PKR and OAS/RNase L antiviral activities. Thus, the importance of our discovery for understanding the COVID-19 pandemic is 2-fold. First, the ability of SARS-CoV-2 N to inhibit innate antiviral activity is likely a factor contributing to the transmissibility and pathogenicity of the virus. Second, the bat relative of SARS-CoV-2 has the capacity to inhibit human innate immunity, which thus likely contributed to the establishment of infection in humans. The findings described in this study are valuable for developing novel antivirals and vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Animals , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Pandemics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Double-Stranded
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2668: 301-311, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316082

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) enable cell-to-cell communication and, by delivering antigens, can stimulate the immune response strongly. Approved in use SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, candidates immunize with the viral spike protein delivered via viral vectors, translated by injected mRNAs, or as a pure protein. Here, we outline a novel methodological approach for generating SARS-CoV-2 vaccine using exosome that delivers antigens from the SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins. Engineered EVs can be loaded with viral antigens, thus acting as antigens presenting EVs, eliciting strong and targeted CD8(+) T cell and B cell, offering a unique approach to vaccine development. Engineered EVs thus portray a safe, adaptable, and effective approach for a virus-free vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exosomes , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Antigens/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism
4.
Molecules ; 28(7)2023 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306412

ABSTRACT

3C proteases (3Cpros) of picornaviruses and 3C-like proteases (3CLpros) of coronaviruses and caliciviruses represent a group of structurally and functionally related viral proteases that play pleiotropic roles in supporting the viral life cycle and subverting host antiviral responses. The design and screening for 3C/3CLpro inhibitors may contribute to the development broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics against viral diseases related to these three families. However, current screening strategies cannot simultaneously assess a compound's cytotoxicity and its impact on enzymatic activity and protease-mediated physiological processes. The viral induction of stress granules (SGs) in host cells acts as an important antiviral stress response by blocking viral translation and stimulating the host immune response. Most of these viruses have evolved 3C/3CLpro-mediated cleavage of SG core protein G3BP1 to counteract SG formation and disrupt the host defense. Yet, there are no SG-based strategies screening for 3C/3CLpro inhibitors. Here, we developed a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and SG dual-based system to screen for 3C/3CLpro inhibitors in living cells. We took advantage of FRET to evaluate the protease activity of poliovirus (PV) 3Cpro and live-monitor cellular SG dynamics to cross-verify its effect on the host antiviral response. Our drug screen uncovered a novel role of Telaprevir and Trifluridine as inhibitors of PV 3Cpro. Moreover, Telaprevir and Trifluridine also modulated 3Cpro-mediated physiological processes, including the cleavage of host proteins, inhibition of the innate immune response, and consequent facilitation of viral replication. Taken together, the FRET and SG dual-based system exhibits a promising potential in the screening for inhibitors of viral proteases that cleave G3BP1.


Subject(s)
Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer , Viral Protease Inhibitors , Humans , DNA Helicases/metabolism , Trifluridine , Stress Granules , Viral Proteins/metabolism , RNA Helicases/metabolism , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/metabolism , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology
5.
J Biol Chem ; 299(5): 104668, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288832

ABSTRACT

Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a prominent molecular chaperone, effectively limits severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection but little is known about any interaction between Hsp90 and SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Here, we systematically analyzed the effects of the chaperone isoforms Hsp90α and Hsp90ß on individual SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. Five SARS-CoV-2 proteins, namely nucleocapsid (N), membrane (M), and accessory proteins Orf3, Orf7a, and Orf7b were found to be novel clients of Hsp90ß in particular. Pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 with 17-DMAG results in N protein proteasome-dependent degradation. Hsp90 depletion-induced N protein degradation is independent of CHIP, a ubiquitin E3 ligase previously identified for Hsp90 client proteins, but alleviated by FBXO10, an E3 ligase identified by subsequent siRNA screening. We also provide evidence that Hsp90 depletion may suppress SARS-CoV-2 assembly partially through induced M or N degradation. Additionally, we found that GSDMD-mediated pyroptotic cell death triggered by SARS-CoV-2 was mitigated by inhibition of Hsp90. These findings collectively highlight a beneficial role for targeting of Hsp90 during SARS-CoV-2 infection, directly inhibiting virion production and reducing inflammatory injury by preventing the pyroptosis that contributes to severe SARS-CoV-2 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins , Pyroptosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Virion , Humans , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Virion/chemistry , Virion/growth & development , Virion/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism
6.
Mol Ther ; 31(3): 774-787, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253487

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury occurs frequently in COVID-19 patients infected by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, and infection of kidney cells by this virus has been reported. However, little is known about the direct impact of the SARS-CoV-2 infection upon the renal tubular cells. We report that SARS-CoV-2 activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling and caused cellular injury in the human renal tubular cell line. Mechanistically, the viral protein ORF3A of SARS-CoV-2 augmented both NF-κB and STAT3 signaling and increased the expression of kidney injury molecule 1. SARS-CoV-2 infection or expression of ORF3A alone elevated the protein level of tripartite motif-containing protein 59 (TRIM59), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, which interacts with both ORF3A and STAT3. The excessive TRIM59 in turn dissociated the phosphatase TCPTP from binding to STAT3 and hence inhibited the dephosphorylation of STAT3, leading to persistent STAT3 activation. Consistently, ORF3A induced renal injury in zebrafish and mice. In addition, expression of TRIM59 was elevated in the kidney autopsies of COVID-19 patients with acute kidney injury. Thus, the aberrant activation of STAT3 signaling by TRIM59 plays a significant role in the renal tubular cell injury caused by SARS-CoV-2, which suggests a potential targeted therapy for the renal complications of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , Animals , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/metabolism , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Zebrafish , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Tripartite Motif Proteins/genetics , Tripartite Motif Proteins/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(3)2023 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252177

ABSTRACT

Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) is responsible for the formation of so-called membrane-less organelles (MLOs) that are essential for the spatio-temporal organization of the cell. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) or regions (IDRs), either alone or in conjunction with nucleic acids, are involved in the formation of these intracellular condensates. Notably, viruses exploit LLPS at their own benefit to form viral replication compartments. Beyond giving rise to biomolecular condensates, viral proteins are also known to partition into cellular MLOs, thus raising the question as to whether these cellular phase-separating proteins are drivers of LLPS or behave as clients/regulators. Here, we focus on a set of eukaryotic proteins that are either sequestered in viral factories or colocalize with viral proteins within cellular MLOs, with the primary goal of gathering organized, predicted, and experimental information on these proteins, which constitute promising targets for innovative antiviral strategies. Using various computational approaches, we thoroughly investigated their disorder content and inherent propensity to undergo LLPS, along with their biological functions and interactivity networks. Results show that these proteins are on average, though to varying degrees, enriched in disorder, with their propensity for phase separation being correlated, as expected, with their disorder content. A trend, which awaits further validation, tends to emerge whereby the most disordered proteins serve as drivers, while more ordered cellular proteins tend instead to be clients of viral factories. In light of their high disorder content and their annotated LLPS behavior, most proteins in our data set are drivers or co-drivers of molecular condensation, foreshadowing a key role of these cellular proteins in the scaffolding of viral infection-related MLOs.


Subject(s)
Intrinsically Disordered Proteins , Virus Diseases , Humans , Organelles/metabolism , Intrinsically Disordered Proteins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Eukaryota/metabolism
8.
mBio ; 14(2): e0012723, 2023 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274752

ABSTRACT

Viruses are known to co-opt host machinery for translation initiation, but less is known about which host factors are required for the formation of ribosomes used to synthesize viral proteins. Using a loss-of-function CRISPR screen, we show that synthesis of a flavivirus-encoded fluorescent reporter depends on multiple host factors, including several 60S ribosome biogenesis proteins. Viral phenotyping revealed that two of these factors, SBDS, a known ribosome biogenesis factor, and the relatively uncharacterized protein SPATA5, were broadly required for replication of flaviviruses, coronaviruses, alphaviruses, paramyxoviruses, an enterovirus, and a poxvirus. Mechanistic studies revealed that loss of SPATA5 caused defects in rRNA processing and ribosome assembly, suggesting that this human protein may be a functional ortholog of yeast Drg1. These studies implicate specific ribosome biogenesis proteins as viral host dependency factors that are required for synthesis of virally encoded protein and accordingly, optimal viral replication. IMPORTANCE Viruses are well known for their ability to co-opt host ribosomes to synthesize viral proteins. The specific factors involved in translation of viral RNAs are not fully described. In this study, we implemented a unique genome-scale CRISPR screen to identify previously uncharacterized host factors that are important for the synthesis of virally encoded protein. We found that multiple genes involved in 60S ribosome biogenesis were required for viral RNA translation. Loss of these factors severely impaired viral replication. Mechanistic studies on the AAA ATPase SPATA5 indicate that this host factor is required for a late step in ribosome formation. These findings reveal insight into the identity and function of specific ribosome biogenesis proteins that are critical for viral infections.


Subject(s)
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Flavivirus , Humans , Ribosomes/metabolism , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , ATPases Associated with Diverse Cellular Activities/metabolism
9.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(1): e0194322, 2023 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242938

ABSTRACT

We utilized a high-throughput cell-based assay to screen several chemical libraries for inhibitors of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) gene expression. From this screen, four aurora kinase inhibitors were identified that potently reduced gene expression during HSV-1 lytic infection. HSV-1 is known to interact with cellular kinases to regulate gene expression by modulating the phosphorylation and/or activities of viral and cellular proteins. To date, the role of aurora kinases in HSV-1 lytic infection has not been reported. We demonstrated that three aurora kinase inhibitors strongly reduced the transcript levels of immediate-early (IE) genes ICP0, ICP4, and ICP27 and impaired HSV-1 protein expression from all classes of HSV-1, including ICP0, ICP4, ICP8, and gC. These restrictions caused by the aurora kinase inhibitors led to potent reductions in HSV-1 viral replication. The compounds TAK 901, JNJ 7706621, and PF 03814735 decreased HSV-1 titers by 4,500-, 13,200-, and 8,400-fold, respectively, when present in a low micromolar range. The antiviral activity of these compounds correlated with an apparent decrease in histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10 (H3S10ph) during viral infection, suggesting that the phosphorylation status of H3 influences HSV-1 gene expression. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the aurora kinase inhibitors also impaired the replication of other RNA and DNA viruses. These inhibitors significantly reduced yields of vaccinia virus (a poxvirus, double-stranded DNA, cytoplasmic replication) and mouse hepatitis virus (a coronavirus, positive-sense single-strand RNA [ssRNA]), whereas vesicular stomatitis virus (rhabdovirus, negative-sense ssRNA) yields were unaffected. These results indicated that the activities of aurora kinases play pivotal roles in the life cycles of diverse viruses. IMPORTANCE We have demonstrated that aurora kinases play a role during HSV-1 lytic infection. Three aurora kinase inhibitors significantly impaired HSV-1 immediate-early gene expression. This led to a potent reduction in HSV-1 protein expression and viral replication. Together, our results illustrate a novel role for aurora kinases in the HSV-1 lytic cycle and demonstrate that aurora kinase inhibitors can restrict HSV-1 replication. Furthermore, these aurora kinase inhibitors also reduced the replication of murine coronavirus and vaccinia virus, suggesting that multiple viral families utilize the aurora kinases for their own replication.


Subject(s)
Herpes Simplex , Herpesvirus 1, Human , Immediate-Early Proteins , RNA Viruses , Animals , Mice , Herpesvirus 1, Human/genetics , Immediate-Early Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Cell Line , Herpes Simplex/genetics , DNA/metabolism , RNA/metabolism , Life Cycle Stages
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(3)2023 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240608

ABSTRACT

Although very different, in terms of their genomic organization, their enzymatic proteins, and their structural proteins, HIV and SARS-CoV-2 have an extraordinary evolutionary potential in common. Faced with various selection pressures that may be generated by treatments or immune responses, these RNA viruses demonstrate very high adaptive capacities, which result in the continuous emergence of variants and quasi-species. In this retrospective analysis of viral proteins, ensuring the adhesion of these viruses to the plasma membrane of host cells, we highlight many common points that suggest the convergent mechanisms of evolution. HIV and SARS-CoV-2 first recognize a lipid raft microdomain that acts as a landing strip for viral particles on the host cell surface. In the case of mucosal cells, which are the primary targets of both viruses, these microdomains are enriched in anionic glycolipids (gangliosides) forming a global electronegative field. Both viruses use lipid rafts to surf on the cell surface in search of a protein receptor able to trigger the fusion process. This implies that viral envelope proteins are both geometrically and electrically compatible to the biomolecules they select to invade host cells. In the present study, we identify the surface electrostatic potential as a critical parameter controlling the convergent evolution dynamics of HIV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 surface envelope proteins, and we discuss the impact of this parameter on the phenotypic properties of both viruses. The virological data accumulated since the emergence of HIV in the early 1980s should help us to face present and future virus pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , HIV Infections/metabolism , Membrane Microdomains/metabolism , Glycoproteins/metabolism
11.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e250667, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231828

ABSTRACT

Nigella sativa is known for the safety profile, containing a wealth of useful antiviral compounds. The main protease (Mpro, 3CLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is being considered as one of the most attractive viral target, processing the polyproteins during viral pathogenesis and replication. In the current investigation we analyzed the potency of active component, thymoquinone (TQ) of Nigella sativa against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The structures of TQ and Mpro was retrieved from PubChem (CID10281) and Protein Data Bank (PDB ID 6MO3) respectively. The Mpro and TQ were docked and the complex was subjected to molecular dynamic (MD) simulations for a period 50ns. Protein folding effect was analyzed using radius of gyration (Rg) while stability and flexibility was measured, using root means square deviations (RMSD) and root means square fluctuation (RMSF) respectively. The simulation results shows that TQ is exhibiting good binding activity against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, interacting many residues, present in the active site (His41, Cys145) and also the Glu166, facilitating the pocket shape. Further, experimental approaches are needed to validate the role of TQ against virus infection. The TQ is interfering with pocket maintaining residues as well as active site of virus Mpro which may be used as a potential inhibitor against SARS-CoV-2 for better management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Nigella sativa , Benzoquinones , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Nigella sativa/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism
12.
Expert Opin Drug Discov ; 18(3): 247-268, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222435

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Emergence of highly infectious SARS-CoV-2 variants are reducing protection provided by current vaccines, requiring constant updates in antiviral approaches. The virus encodes four structural and sixteen nonstructural proteins which play important roles in viral genome replication and transcription, virion assembly, release , entry into cells, and compromising host cellular defenses. As alien proteins to host cells, many viral proteins represent potential targets for combating the SARS-CoV-2. AREAS COVERED: Based on literature from PubMed and Web of Science databases, the authors summarize the typical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 from the whole viral particle to the individual viral proteins and their corresponding functions in virus life cycle. The authors also discuss the potential and emerging targeted interventions to curb virus replication and spread in detail to provide unique insights into SARS-CoV-2 infection and countermeasures against it. EXPERT OPINION: Our comprehensive analysis highlights the rationale to focus on non-spike viral proteins that are less mutated but have important functions. Examples of this include: structural proteins (e.g. nucleocapsid protein, envelope protein) and extensively-concerned nonstructural proteins (e.g. NSP3, NSP5, NSP12) along with the ones with relatively less attention (e.g. NSP1, NSP10, NSP14 and NSP16), for developing novel drugs to overcome resistance of SARS-CoV-2 variants to preexisting vaccines and antibody-based treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism
13.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(1): e1011128, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214826

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 is a respiratory infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Evidence on the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 is accumulating rapidly. In addition to structural proteins such as Spike and Envelope, the functional roles of non-structural and accessory proteins in regulating viral life cycle and host immune responses remain to be understood. Here, we show that open reading frame 8 (ORF8) acts as messenger for inter-cellular communication between alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mechanistically, ORF8 is a secretory protein that can be secreted by infected epithelial cells via both conventional and unconventional secretory pathways. Conventionally secreted ORF8 is glycosylated and loses the ability to recognize interleukin 17 receptor A of macrophages, possibly due to the steric hindrance imposed by N-glycosylation at Asn78. However, unconventionally secreted ORF8 does not undergo glycosylation without experiencing the ER-Golgi trafficking, thereby activating the downstream NF-κB signaling pathway and facilitating a burst of cytokine release. Furthermore, we show that ORF8 deletion in SARS-CoV-2 attenuates inflammation and yields less lung lesions in hamsters. Our data collectively highlights a role of ORF8 protein in the development of cytokine storms during SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins , Humans , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Inflammation , Open Reading Frames , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Proteins/metabolism
14.
Viruses ; 14(12)2022 12 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200869

ABSTRACT

Fundamental key processes in viral infection cycles generally occur in distinct cellular sites where both viral and host factors accumulate and interact. These sites are usually termed viral replication organelles, or viral factories (VF). The generation of VF is accompanied by the synthesis of viral proteins and genomes and involves the reorganization of cellular structure. Recently, rVSV-ΔG-spike (VSV-S), a recombinant VSV expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, was developed as a vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2. By combining transmission electron microscopy (TEM) tomography studies and immuno-labeling techniques, we investigated the infection cycle of VSV-S in Vero E6 cells. RT-real-time-PCR results show that viral RNA synthesis occurs 3-4 h post infection (PI), and accumulates as the infection proceeds. By 10-24 h PI, TEM electron tomography results show that VSV-S generates VF in multi-lamellar bodies located in the cytoplasm. The VF consists of virus particles with various morphologies. We demonstrate that VSV-S infection is associated with accumulation of cytoplasmatic viral proteins co-localized with dsRNA (marker for RNA replication) but not with ER membranes. Newly formed virus particles released from the multi-lamellar bodies containing VF, concentrate in a vacuole membrane, and the infection ends with the budding of particles after the fusion of the vacuole membrane with the plasma membrane. In summary, the current study describes detailed 3D imaging of key processes during the VSV-S infection cycle.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus , Humans , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/metabolism
15.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280592, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197162

ABSTRACT

The large-scale dissemination of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and its serious complications have pledged the scientific research communities to uncover the pathogenesis mechanisms of its etiologic agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods of unveiling such mechanisms are rooted in understanding the viral agent's interactions with the immune system, including its ability to activate macrophages, due to their suggested role in prolonged inflammatory phases and adverse immune responses. The objective of this study is to test the effect of SARS-CoV-2-free proteins on the metabolic and immune responses of macrophages. We hypothesized that SARS-CoV-2 proteins shed during the infection cycle may dynamically induce metabolic and immunologic alterations with an inflammatory impact on the infected host cells. It is imperative to delineate such alterations in the context of macrophages to gain insight into the pathogenesis of these highly infectious viruses and their associated complications and thus, expedite the vaccine and drug therapy advent in combat of viral infections. Human monocyte-derived macrophages were treated with SARS-CoV-2-free proteins at different concentrations. The phenotypic and metabolic alterations in macrophages were investigated and the subsequent metabolic pathways were analyzed. The obtained results indicated that SARS-CoV-2-free proteins induced concentration-dependent alterations in the metabolic and phenotypic profiles of macrophages. Several metabolic pathways were enriched following treatment, including vitamin K, propanoate, and the Warburg effect. These results indicate significant adverse effects driven by residual viral proteins that may hence be considered determinants of viral pathogenesis. These findings provide important insight as to the impact of SARS-CoV-2-free residual proteins on the host cells and suggest a potential new method of management during the infection and prior to vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macrophages , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/virology , Viral Proteins/metabolism
16.
Curr Opin Virol ; 58: 101303, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2177907

ABSTRACT

While receptor binding is well recognized as a factor in influenza-A virus (IAV) and coronavirus (CoV) host adaptation, the role of viral glycoprotein cleavage has not been studied in detail so far. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that host species may differ in their protease repertoire available for cleavage. Furthermore, it was shown for certain bat-derived CoVs that proteolytic activation provides a critical barrier to infect human cells. Understanding the role of glycoprotein cleavage in different species and how IAV and CoVs adapt to a new protease repertoire may allow evaluating the zoonotic potential and risk posed by these viruses. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the emergence of a multibasic cleavage site (CS) in the glycoproteins of IAVs and CoVs in different host species. Additionally, we discuss the role of transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) in virus activation and entry and a role of neuropilin-1 in acquisition of a multibasic CS in different hosts.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Humans , Host Adaptation , Influenza A virus/physiology , Peptide Hydrolases , Virus Internalization , Glycoproteins , Viral Proteins/metabolism
17.
FASEB J ; 37(2): e22741, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190452

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 life cycle is strictly dependent on the environmental redox state that influences both virus entry and replication. A reducing environment impairs the binding of the spike protein (S) to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor (ACE2), while a highly oxidizing environment is thought to favor S interaction with ACE2. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 interferes with redox homeostasis in infected cells to promote the oxidative folding of its own proteins. Here we demonstrate that synthetic low molecular weight (LMW) monothiol and dithiol compounds induce a redox switch in the S protein receptor binding domain (RBD) toward a more reduced state. Reactive cysteine residue profiling revealed that all the disulfides present in RBD are targets of the thiol compounds. The reduction of disulfides in RBD decreases the binding to ACE2 in a cell-free system as demonstrated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assays. Moreover, LMW thiols interfere with protein oxidative folding and the production of newly synthesized polypeptides in HEK293 cells expressing the S1 and RBD domain, respectively. Based on these results, we hypothesize that these thiol compounds impair both the binding of S protein to its cellular receptor during the early stage of viral infection, as well as viral protein folding/maturation and thus the formation of new viral mature particles. Indeed, all the tested molecules, although at different concentrations, efficiently inhibit both SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication in Vero E6 cells. LMW thiols may represent innovative anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics acting directly on viral targets and indirectly by inhibiting cellular functions mandatory for viral replication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Protein Binding , Sulfhydryl Compounds/pharmacology
18.
Life Sci ; 313: 121271, 2023 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2159516

ABSTRACT

Mitochondria are dynamic cellular organelles with diverse functions including energy production, calcium homeostasis, apoptosis, host innate immune signaling, and disease progression. Several viral proteins specifically target mitochondria to subvert host defense as mitochondria stand out as the most suitable target for the invading viruses. They have acquired the capability to control apoptosis, metabolic state, and evade immune responses in host cells, by targeting mitochondria. In this way, the viruses successfully allow the spread of viral progeny and thus the infection. Viruses employ their proteins to alter mitochondrial dynamics and their specific functions by a modulation of membrane potential, reactive oxygen species, calcium homeostasis, and mitochondrial bioenergetics to help them achieve a state of persistent infection. A better understanding of such viral proteins and their impact on mitochondrial forms and functions is the main focus of this review. We also attempt to emphasize the importance of exploring the role of mitochondria in the context of SARS-CoV2 pathogenesis and identify host-virus protein interactions.


Subject(s)
Mitochondria , Viral Proteins , Humans , Calcium/metabolism , Mitochondria/metabolism , Mitochondria/virology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Viruses/pathogenicity
19.
Biomolecules ; 12(11)2022 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109925

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is currently widespread throughout the world, accompanied by a rising number of people infected and breakthrough infection of variants, which make the virus highly transmissible and replicable. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular virological events and induced immunological features during SARS-CoV-2 replication can provide reliable targets for vaccine and drug development. Among the potential targets, subgenomic RNAs and their encoded proteins involved in the life cycle of SARS-CoV-2 are extremely important in viral duplication and pathogenesis. Subgenomic RNAs employ a range of coping strategies to evade immune surveillance from replication to translation, which allows RNAs to synthesize quickly, encode structural proteins efficiently and complete the entire process of virus replication and assembly successfully. This review focuses on the characteristics and functions of SARS-CoV-2 subgenomic RNAs and their encoded proteins and explores in depth the role of subgenomic RNAs in the replication and infection of host cells to provide important clues to the mechanism of COVID-19 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , RNA , Virus Replication/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism
20.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071840

ABSTRACT

Host-virus protein interactions are critical for intracellular viral propagation. Understanding the interactions between cellular and viral proteins may help us develop new antiviral strategies. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious coronavirus that causes severe damage to the global swine industry. Here, we employed co-immunoprecipitation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to characterize 426 unique PEDV nucleocapsid (N) protein-binding proteins in infected Vero cells. A protein-protein interaction network (PPI) was created, and gene ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database analyses revealed that the PEDV N-bound proteins belong to different cellular pathways, such as nucleic acid binding, ribonucleoprotein complex binding, RNA methyltransferase, and polymerase activities. Interactions of the PEDV N protein with 11 putative proteins: tripartite motif containing 21, DEAD-box RNA helicase 24, G3BP stress granule assembly factor 1, heat shock protein family A member 8, heat shock protein 90 alpha family class B member 1, YTH domain containing 1, nucleolin, Y-box binding protein 1, vimentin, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1, and karyopherin subunit alpha 1, were further confirmed by in vitro co-immunoprecipitation assay. In summary, studying an interaction network can facilitate the identification of antiviral therapeutic strategies and novel targets for PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Nucleic Acids , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Chlorocebus aethiops , Swine , Animals , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Vimentin/metabolism , Vero Cells , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , RNA/metabolism , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , DEAD-box RNA Helicases/metabolism , Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , Karyopherins/metabolism , Nucleic Acids/metabolism
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