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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4631, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747175

ABSTRACT

Using next generation sequencing technology, we identified a novel SARS-CoV-2 variant with a truncated ORF8 protein mutation near the end of the viral genome from nucleotides 27,878 to 27,958. This point mutation from C to T at nucleotide 27,956 changed the amino acid codon CAA (glutamine) to a stop codon, TAA, created a novel stop codon in ORF8 gene, resulting in a much smaller ORF8 protein (26 aa) than the wild type ORF8 protein (121 aa). This variant belongs to Pango lineage B.1.1291, which also contains the D614G mutation in the Spike (S) gene. The B.1.1291 lineage is predominantly circulated in the United States of America (97.18%), although it was also found in other counties (Russia, Canada, Latvia, Chile, India, Japan, Colombia, Germany, Greece, Mexico, and UK). A total of 340 closely related variants to this novel variant were identified in GISAID database with collection dates ranged from 3/6/2020 to 10/21/2020. In addition, a search within NCBI Genbank database found that 108,405 of 873,230 (12.4%) SAR-CoV-2 complete genomes contain this truncated ORF8 protein mutation, indicating this mutation may arise spontaneously in other lineages as well. The wide distribution of this mutation indicates that this truncated ORF8 protein mutation may provide the virus a growth advantage and adaptive evolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/ultrastructure
2.
Structure ; 30(1): 55-68.e2, 2022 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500270

ABSTRACT

Structural biologists provide direct insights into the molecular bases of human health and disease. The open-access Protein Data Bank (PDB) stores and delivers three-dimensional (3D) biostructure data that facilitate discovery and development of therapeutic agents and diagnostic tools. We are in the midst of a revolution in vaccinology. Non-infectious mRNA vaccines have been proven during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This new technology underpins nimble discovery and clinical development platforms that use knowledge of 3D viral protein structures for societal benefit. The RCSB PDB supports vaccine designers through expert biocuration and rigorous validation of 3D structures; open-access dissemination of structure information; and search, visualization, and analysis tools for structure-guided design efforts. This resource article examines the structural biology underpinning the success of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) mRNA vaccines and enumerates some of the many protein structures in the PDB archive that could guide design of new countermeasures against existing and emerging viral pathogens.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Computational Biology/methods , Databases, Protein , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Crystallography, X-Ray , Drug Design , Humans , Internet , Models, Molecular , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccination/methods , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/immunology , Viral Proteins/ultrastructure
3.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 874, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387496

ABSTRACT

Cryo-EM maps are valuable sources of information for protein structure modeling. However, due to the loss of contrast at high frequencies, they generally need to be post-processed to improve their interpretability. Most popular approaches, based on global B-factor correction, suffer from limitations. For instance, they ignore the heterogeneity in the map local quality that reconstructions tend to exhibit. Aiming to overcome these problems, we present DeepEMhancer, a deep learning approach designed to perform automatic post-processing of cryo-EM maps. Trained on a dataset of pairs of experimental maps and maps sharpened using their respective atomic models, DeepEMhancer has learned how to post-process experimental maps performing masking-like and sharpening-like operations in a single step. DeepEMhancer was evaluated on a testing set of 20 different experimental maps, showing its ability to reduce noise levels and obtain more detailed versions of the experimental maps. Additionally, we illustrated the benefits of DeepEMhancer on the structure of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA polymerase.


Subject(s)
Cryoelectron Microscopy/instrumentation , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/ultrastructure , Deep Learning , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Viral Proteins/ultrastructure
4.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 28(7): 573-582, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279891

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a is a putative viral ion channel implicated in autophagy inhibition, inflammasome activation and apoptosis. 3a protein and anti-3a antibodies are found in infected patient tissues and plasma. Deletion of 3a in SARS-CoV-1 reduces viral titer and morbidity in mice, suggesting it could be an effective target for vaccines or therapeutics. Here, we present structures of SARS-CoV-2 3a determined by cryo-EM to 2.1-Å resolution. 3a adopts a new fold with a polar cavity that opens to the cytosol and membrane through separate water- and lipid-filled openings. Hydrophilic grooves along outer helices could form ion-conduction paths. Using electrophysiology and fluorescent ion imaging of 3a-reconstituted liposomes, we observe Ca2+-permeable, nonselective cation channel activity, identify mutations that alter ion permeability and discover polycationic inhibitors of 3a activity. 3a-like proteins are found across coronavirus lineages that infect bats and humans, suggesting that 3a-targeted approaches could treat COVID-19 and other coronavirus diseases.


Subject(s)
Cryoelectron Microscopy , Nanostructures , SARS-CoV-2 , Viroporin Proteins/chemistry , Viroporin Proteins/ultrastructure , Animals , Calcium/metabolism , Chiroptera/virology , Coronaviridae , Electrophysiology , Fluorescence , Humans , Ion Transport , Liposomes , Models, Molecular , Nanostructures/chemistry , Nanostructures/ultrastructure , Open Reading Frames , Optical Imaging , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Sequence Homology , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/ultrastructure , Viroporin Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors
5.
Curr Opin Virol ; 49: 86-91, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245923

ABSTRACT

It is intriguing to think that over millions of years, groups of nucleic acids got the chance to hold together with groups of proteins to build up what today is called a virus. Their only goal is to guarantee a successful replication inside a host. If their genome information is preserved, the task is accomplished. Viruses have evolved to infect organisms and propagate with high degree of adaptation, as it is the case of the SARS-CoV-2, agent of the 2020 world pandemic. The technological progress observed in the field of structural biology, especially in cryo-EM, has offered scientists the possibility of a better understanding of virus origins, behavior, and structural organization. In this minireview we summarize few perspectives about the origins and organization of viruses and the advances of cryo-EM to aid structural virologists to sample the virosphere.


Subject(s)
Cryoelectron Microscopy , Viruses/ultrastructure , Biological Evolution , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/ultrastructure , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Viruses/chemistry , Viruses/classification
7.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 27(2): 722-732, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066570

ABSTRACT

We present a new technique for the rapid modeling and construction of scientifically accurate mesoscale biological models. The resulting 3D models are based on a few 2D microscopy scans and the latest knowledge available about the biological entity, represented as a set of geometric relationships. Our new visual-programming technique is based on statistical and rule-based modeling approaches that are rapid to author, fast to construct, and easy to revise. From a few 2D microscopy scans, we determine the statistical properties of various structural aspects, such as the outer membrane shape, the spatial properties, and the distribution characteristics of the macromolecular elements on the membrane. This information is utilized in the construction of the 3D model. Once all the imaging evidence is incorporated into the model, additional information can be incorporated by interactively defining the rules that spatially characterize the rest of the biological entity, such as mutual interactions among macromolecules, and their distances and orientations relative to other structures. These rules are defined through an intuitive 3D interactive visualization as a visual-programming feedback loop. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach on a use case of the modeling procedure of the SARS-CoV-2 virion ultrastructure. This atomistic model, which we present here, can steer biological research to new promising directions in our efforts to fight the spread of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Models, Molecular , Models, Statistical , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/ultrastructure , Virion/chemistry , Virion/ultrastructure
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(2)2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066041

ABSTRACT

Information about macromolecular structure of protein complexes and related cellular and molecular mechanisms can assist the search for vaccines and drug development processes. To obtain such structural information, we present DeepTracer, a fully automated deep learning-based method for fast de novo multichain protein complex structure determination from high-resolution cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) maps. We applied DeepTracer on a previously published set of 476 raw experimental cryo-EM maps and compared the results with a current state of the art method. The residue coverage increased by over 30% using DeepTracer, and the rmsd value improved from 1.29 Å to 1.18 Å. Additionally, we applied DeepTracer on a set of 62 coronavirus-related cryo-EM maps, among them 10 with no deposited structure available in EMDataResource. We observed an average residue match of 84% with the deposited structures and an average rmsd of 0.93 Å. Additional tests with related methods further exemplify DeepTracer's competitive accuracy and efficiency of structure modeling. DeepTracer allows for exceptionally fast computations, making it possible to trace around 60,000 residues in 350 chains within only 2 h. The web service is globally accessible at https://deeptracer.uw.edu.


Subject(s)
Deep Learning , Models, Structural , Molecular Structure , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Proteins/ultrastructure , Cryoelectron Microscopy
9.
Protein Sci ; 30(1): 115-124, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796087

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered numerous scientific activities aimed at understanding the SARS-CoV-2 virus and ultimately developing treatments. Structural biologists have already determined hundreds of experimental X-ray, cryo-EM, and NMR structures of proteins and nucleic acids related to this coronavirus, and this number is still growing. To help biomedical researchers, who may not necessarily be experts in structural biology, navigate through the flood of structural models, we have created an online resource, covid19.bioreproducibility.org, that aggregates expert-verified information about SARS-CoV-2-related macromolecular models. In this article, we describe this web resource along with the suite of tools and methodologies used for assessing the structures presented therein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Internet , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Viral Proteins/ultrastructure , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Chemical , Humans , Models, Structural , Pandemics , Research , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics
10.
Cell ; 183(3): 730-738.e13, 2020 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-746087

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite recent advances in the structural elucidation of SARS-CoV-2 proteins, the detailed architecture of the intact virus remains to be unveiled. Here we report the molecular assembly of the authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus using cryoelectron tomography (cryo-ET) and subtomogram averaging (STA). Native structures of the S proteins in pre- and postfusion conformations were determined to average resolutions of 8.7-11 Å. Compositions of the N-linked glycans from the native spikes were analyzed by mass spectrometry, which revealed overall processing states of the native glycans highly similar to that of the recombinant glycoprotein glycans. The native conformation of the ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) and their higher-order assemblies were revealed. Overall, these characterizations revealed the architecture of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in exceptional detail and shed light on how the virus packs its ∼30-kb-long single-segmented RNA in the ∼80-nm-diameter lumen.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , Virus Assembly , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Models, Molecular , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/ultrastructure , Virus Cultivation
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2688, 2020 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-432476

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses (CoVs) are zoonotic pathogens with high fatality rates and pandemic potential. Vaccine development focuses on the principal target of the neutralizing humoral immune response, the spike (S) glycoprotein. Coronavirus S proteins are extensively glycosylated, encoding around 66-87 N-linked glycosylation sites per trimeric spike. Here, we reveal a specific area of high glycan density on MERS S that results in the formation of oligomannose-type glycan clusters, which were absent on SARS and HKU1 CoVs. We provide a comparison of the global glycan density of coronavirus spikes with other viral proteins including HIV-1 envelope, Lassa virus glycoprotein complex, and influenza hemagglutinin, where glycosylation plays a known role in shielding immunogenic epitopes. Overall, our data reveal how organisation of glycosylation across class I viral fusion proteins influence not only individual glycan compositions but also the immunological pressure across the protein surface.


Subject(s)
Glycoproteins/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Polysaccharides , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Fusion Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/immunology , Epitopes/metabolism , Glycoproteins/chemistry , Glycoproteins/ultrastructure , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , HIV-1/immunology , HIV-1/metabolism , Humans , Immune Evasion/physiology , Lassa virus/immunology , Lassa virus/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae/metabolism , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Viral Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Viral Fusion Proteins/ultrastructure , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/immunology , Viral Proteins/ultrastructure
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