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1.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 67(4): 338-349, 2020.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293749

ABSTRACT

The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are reminiscent of those of acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by cytokine release syndrome and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis that is observed in patients with other coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Neurologists face the challenge of assessing patients with pre-existing neurological diseases who have contracted SARS-CoV-2, patients with COVID-19 who present neurological emergencies, and patients who are carriers of the virus and have developed secondary neurological complications, either during the course of the disease or after it. Some authors and recent literature reports suggest that the presence of neurological manifestations in patients who are carriers of SARS-CoV-2 may be associated with a greater severity of the disease.


Las manifestaciones clínicas de COVID-19 recuerdan las del síndrome de insuficiencia respiratoria aguda inducido por el síndrome de liberación de citocinas y la linfohistiocitosis hemofagocitica observada en pacientes con otros coronavirus como SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV. Los neurólogos tienen el reto de evaluar pacientes con enfermedades neurológicas preexistentes que contraen SARS-CoV-2, pacientes con COVID-19 que presentan emergencias neurológicas y pacientes portadores del virus que desarrollan complicaciones neurológicas secundarias, durante el curso de la enfermedad o posterior a la misma. Algunos autores y reportes en la literatura recientes sugieren que las manifestaciones neurológicas en pacientes portadores de SARS-CoV-2 pueden asociarse con mayor gravedad de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , Anosmia/etiology , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Leukocytes/immunology , Organ Specificity , Viral Tropism
2.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(2): e1011168, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281969

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), part of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), serves as an entry point for SARS-CoV-2, leading to viral proliferation in permissive cell types. Using mouse lines in which the Ace2 locus has been humanized by syntenic replacement, we show that regulation of basal and interferon induced ACE2 expression, relative expression levels of different ACE2 transcripts, and sexual dimorphism in ACE2 expression are unique to each species, differ between tissues, and are determined by both intragenic and upstream promoter elements. Our results indicate that the higher levels of expression of ACE2 observed in the lungs of mice relative to humans may reflect the fact that the mouse promoter drives expression of ACE2 in populous airway club cells while the human promoter drives expression in alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells. In contrast to transgenic mice in which human ACE2 is expressed in ciliated cells under the control of the human FOXJ1 promoter, mice expressing ACE2 in club cells under the control of the endogenous Ace2 promoter show a robust immune response after infection with SARS-CoV-2, leading to rapid clearance of the virus. This supports a model in which differential expression of ACE2 determines which cell types in the lung are infected, and this in turn modulates the host response and outcome of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Receptors, Virus , Animals , Humans , Mice , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Mice, Transgenic , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Tropism
3.
BMC Biol ; 21(1): 36, 2023 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to rely on angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors, whose expression in the testis is among the highest in the body. Additionally, the risk of mortality seems higher among male COVID-19 patients, and though much has been published since the first cases of COVID-19, there remain unanswered questions regarding SARS-CoV-2 impact on testes and potential consequences for reproductive health. We investigated testicular alterations in non-vaccinated deceased COVID-19-patients, the precise location of the virus, its replicative activity, and the immune, vascular, and molecular fluctuations involved in the pathogenesis. RESULTS: We found that SARS-CoV-2 testicular tropism is higher than previously thought and that reliable viral detection in the testis requires sensitive nanosensors or RT-qPCR using a specific methodology. Through an in vitro experiment exposing VERO cells to testicular macerates, we observed viral content in all samples, and the subgenomic RNA's presence reinforced the replicative activity of SARS-CoV-2 in testes of the severe COVID-19 patients. The cellular structures and viral particles, observed by transmission electron microscopy, indicated that macrophages and spermatogonial cells are the main SARS-CoV-2 lodging sites, where new virions form inside the endoplasmic reticulum Golgi intermediate complex. Moreover, we showed infiltrative infected monocytes migrating into the testicular parenchyma. SARS-CoV-2 maintains its replicative and infective abilities long after the patient's infection. Further, we demonstrated high levels of angiotensin II and activated immune cells in the testes of deceased patients. The infected testes show thickening of the tunica propria, germ cell apoptosis, Sertoli cell barrier loss, evident hemorrhage, angiogenesis, Leydig cell inhibition, inflammation, and fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that high angiotensin II levels and activation of mast cells and macrophages may be critical for testicular pathogenesis. Importantly, our findings suggest that patients who become critically ill may exhibit severe alterations and harbor the active virus in the testes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Testis , Viral Tropism , Animals , Humans , Male , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Testis/immunology , Testis/virology , Vero Cells
4.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 48(1): 9-24, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Albeit primarily a disease of respiratory tract, the 2019 coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) has been found to have causal association with a plethora of neurological, neuropsychiatric and psychological effects. This review aims to analyze them with a discussion of evolving therapeutic recommendations. METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched from 1 January 2020 to 30 May 2020 with the following key terms: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "pandemic", "neuro-COVID", "stroke-COVID", "epilepsy-COVID", "COVID-encephalopathy", "SARS-CoV-2-encephalitis", "SARS-CoV-2-rhabdomyolysis", "COVID-demyelinating disease", "neurological manifestations", "psychosocial manifestations", "treatment recommendations", "COVID-19 and therapeutic changes", "psychiatry", "marginalised", "telemedicine", "mental health", "quarantine", "infodemic" and "social media". A few newspaper reports related to COVID-19 and psychosocial impacts have also been added as per context. RESULTS: Neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 are abundant. Clinical features of both central and peripheral nervous system involvement are evident. These have been categorically analyzed briefly with literature support. Most of the psychological effects are secondary to pandemic-associated regulatory, socioeconomic and psychosocial changes. CONCLUSION: Neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of this disease are only beginning to unravel. This demands a wide index of suspicion for prompt diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 to prevent further complications and mortality.


Les impacts neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques d'une infection à la COVID-19. CONTEXTE: Bien qu'il s'agisse principalement d'une maladie des voies respiratoires, la maladie infectieuse à coronavirus apparue en 2019 (COVID-19) s'est avérée avoir un lien de causalité avec une pléthore d'impacts d'ordre neurologique, neuropsychiatrique et psychologique. Cette étude entend donc analyser ces impacts tout en discutant l'évolution des recommandations thérapeutiques se rapportant à cette maladie. MÉTHODES: Les bases de données PubMed et Google Scholar ont été interrogées entre les 1er janvier et 30 mai 2020. Les termes clés suivants ont été utilisés : « COVID-19 ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ¼, « Pandémie ¼, « Neuro ­ COVID ¼, « AVC ­ COVID ¼, « Épilepsie ­ COVID ¼, « COVID ­ encéphalopathie ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ­ encéphalite ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ­ rhabdomyolyse ¼, « COVID ­ maladie démyélinisante ¼, « Manifestations neurologiques ¼, « Manifestations psychosociales ¼, « Recommandations thérapeutiques ¼, « COVID-19 et changement thérapeutiques ¼, « Psychiatrie ¼, « Marginalisés ¼, « Télémédecine ¼, « Santé mentale ¼, « Quarantaine ¼, « Infodémique ¼ et « Médias sociaux ¼. De plus, quelques articles de journaux relatifs à la pandémie de COVID-19 et à ses impacts psychosociaux ont également été ajoutés en fonction du contexte. RÉSULTATS: Il appert que les manifestations neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques des infections à la COVID-19 sont nombreuses. Les caractéristiques cliniques d'une implication des systèmes nerveux central et périphérique sautent désormais aux yeux. Ces caractéristiques ont fait l'objet d'une brève analyse systématique à l'aide de publications scientifiques. En outre, la plupart des impacts d'ordre psychologique de cette pandémie se sont révélés moins apparents que les changements réglementaires, socioéconomiques et psychosociaux. CONCLUSION: Les manifestations neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques de cette maladie ne font que commencer à être élucidées. Cela exige donc une capacité accrue de vigilance en vue d'un diagnostic rapide, et ce, afin de prévenir des complications additionnelles et une mortalité accrue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Ageusia/etiology , Ageusia/physiopathology , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Brain Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cerebellar Ataxia/etiology , Cerebellar Ataxia/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Delivery of Health Care , Demyelinating Diseases/therapy , Disease Management , Dizziness/etiology , Dizziness/physiopathology , Epilepsy/therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Headache/etiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Hypoxia, Brain/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Meningoencephalitis/etiology , Meningoencephalitis/physiopathology , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , Myelitis, Transverse/physiopathology , Myoclonus/etiology , Myoclonus/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/therapy , Viral Tropism
5.
Viruses ; 15(1)2023 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200877

ABSTRACT

The ß-Coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV-A59)-RSA59 has a patent stretch of fusion peptide (FP) containing two consecutive central prolines (PP) in the S2 domain of the Spike protein. Our previous studies compared the PP-containing fusogenic-demyelinating strain RSA59(PP) to its one proline-deleted mutant strain RSA59(P) and one proline-containing non-fusogenic non-demyelinating parental strain RSMHV2(P) to its one proline inserted mutant strain RSMHV2(PP). These studies highlighted the crucial role of PP in fusogenicity, hepato-neuropathogenesis, and demyelination. Computational studies combined with biophysical data indicate that PP at the center of the FP provides local rigidity while imparting global fluctuation to the Spike protein that enhances the fusogenic properties of RSA59(PP) and RSMHV2(PP). To elaborate on the understanding of the role of PP in the FP of MHV, the differential neuroglial tropism of the PP and P mutant strains was investigated. Comparative studies demonstrated that PP significantly enhances the viral tropism for neurons, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. PP, however, is not essential for viral tropism for either astroglial or oligodendroglial precursors or the infection of meningeal fibroblasts in the blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers. PP in the fusion domain is critical for promoting gliopathy, making it a potential region for designing antivirals for neuro-COVID therapy.


Subject(s)
Murine hepatitis virus , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Tropism , Animals , Mice , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Peptides/metabolism , Proline , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
6.
Vet Microbiol ; 277: 109619, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150799

ABSTRACT

The virulence of avian gamma-coronavirus infectious bronchitis viruses (IBV) for the kidney has led to high mortality in dominant-genotype isolations, but the key sites of viral protein that determine kidney tropism are still not fully clear. In this study, the amino acid sequences of the S2 subunit of IBVs with opposing adaptivity to chicken embryonic kidney cells (CEKs) were aligned to identify putative sites associated with differences in viral adaptability. The S2 gene and the putative sites of the non-adapted CN strain were introduced into the CEKs-adapted SczyC30 strain to rescue seven mutants. Analysis of growth characteristics showed that the replacement of the entire S2 subunit and the L1089I substitution in the S2 subunit entirely abolished the proliferation of recombinant IBV in CEKs as well as in primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells. Pathogenicity assays also support the decisive role of this L1089 for viral nephrotropism, and this non-nephrotropic L1089I substitution significantly attenuates pathogenicity. Analysis of the putative cause of proliferation inhibition in CEKs suggests that the L1089I substitution affects neither virus attachment nor endocytosis, but instead fails to form double-membrane vesicles to initiate the viral replication and translation. Position 1089 of the IBV S2 subunit is conservative and predicted to lie in heptad repeat 2 domains. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that the L1089I substitution alters the nephrotropism of parent strain by affecting virus-cell fusion. These findings provide crucial insights into the adaptive mechanisms of IBV and have applications in the development of vaccines and drugs against IB.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Chick Embryo , Animals , Cell Fusion/veterinary , Chickens , Viral Tropism , Kidney , Tropism , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
7.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 68(10): 1476-1480, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140985

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of mutations by comparing wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and Omicron regarding clinical features in patients with COVID-19. It also aimed to assess whether SARS-CoV-2 cycle threshold value could predict COVID-19 severity. METHODS: A total of 960 wild-type and 411 Omicron variant patients with positive results in SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction test from oropharyngeal and/or nasopharyngeal samples during their hospital admissions were included in this retrospective study. The reference symptoms of the patients were obtained from the hospital database. The correlation between chest computed tomography findings and the "cycle threshold" of patients with wild-type SARS-CoV-2 was assessed. RESULTS: Cough, fever, shortness of breath, loss of taste and smell, and diarrhea were found to be statistically significantly higher (p=0.001; 0.001; 0.001; 0.001; and 0.006; respectively) in the wild-type cohort, while in the Omicron cohort, sore throat and headache were found to be statistically significantly higher (p=0.001 and 0.003, respectively). An inverse relationship was found between chest computed tomography findings and viral load. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the Omicron variant tended to infect predominantly the upper respiratory tract and showed decreased lung infectivity, and the disease progressed with a milder clinical course. Therefore, the study showed that the tropism of the virus was changed and the viral phenotype was affected. It was also found that SARS-CoV-2 viral load did not predict COVID-19 severity in patients with wild-type SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Tropism
8.
J Pathol ; 258(3): 211-212, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013710

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 virus, the cause of COVID-19 disease, establishes infection in the human body via interaction with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor on cell membranes. The lung is the major organ affected, and all respiratory epithelium from nose to alveolus is infectable. A recent study published in The Journal of Pathology looked at a wide range of other human tissues, mostly autopsy-derived, to identify susceptible cells. The virus (associated with ACE2) is found in all endothelial cells (an important finding), renal and biliary epithelium, in megakaryocytes, and occasionally in hepatocytes. It was not found in heart myofibres or brain neurones but is present in gut myenteric plexus cells. This work confirms previous work on SARS-CoV-2-infectable cells, and so supports investigations into the pathogenesis of COVID-19 disease as it affects (or does not directly affect) the different organs. © 2022 The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Tropism
9.
EBioMedicine ; 83: 104232, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Omicron BA.2 sublineage has replaced BA.1 worldwide and has comparable levels of immune evasion to BA.1. These observations suggest that the increased transmissibility of BA.2 cannot be explained by the antibody evasion. METHODS: Here, we characterized the replication competence and respiratory tissue tropism of three Omicron variants (BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2), and compared these with the wild-type virus and Delta variant, in human nasal, bronchial and lung tissues cultured ex vivo. FINDINGS: BA.2 replicated more efficiently in nasal and bronchial tissues at 33°C than wild-type, Delta and BA.1. Both BA.2 and BA.1 had higher replication competence than wild-type and Delta viruses in bronchial tissues at 37°C. BA.1, BA.1.1 and BA.2 replicated at a lower level in lung parenchymal tissues compared to wild-type and Delta viruses. INTERPRETATION: Higher replication competence of Omicron BA.2 in the human upper airway at 33°C than BA.1 may be one of the reasons to explain the current advantage of BA.2 over BA.1. A lower replication level of the tested Omicron variants in human lung tissues is in line with the clinical manifestations of decreased disease severity of patients infected with the Omicron strains compared with other ancestral strains. FUNDING: This work was supported by US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Theme-Based Research Scheme under University Grants Committee of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Bronchi , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Tropism , Virus Replication
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(30): e2122236119, 2022 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947759

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) readily infects a variety of cell types impacting the function of vital organ systems, with particularly severe impact on respiratory function. Neurological symptoms, which range in severity, accompany as many as one-third of COVID-19 cases, indicating a potential vulnerability of neural cell types. To assess whether human cortical cells can be directly infected by SARS-CoV-2, we utilized stem-cell-derived cortical organoids as well as primary human cortical tissue, both from developmental and adult stages. We find significant and predominant infection in cortical astrocytes in both primary tissue and organoid cultures, with minimal infection of other cortical populations. Infected and bystander astrocytes have a corresponding increase in inflammatory gene expression, reactivity characteristics, increased cytokine and growth factor signaling, and cellular stress. Although human cortical cells, particularly astrocytes, have no observable ACE2 expression, we find high levels of coronavirus coreceptors in infected astrocytes, including CD147 and DPP4. Decreasing coreceptor abundance and activity reduces overall infection rate, and increasing expression is sufficient to promote infection. Thus, we find tropism of SARS-CoV-2 for human astrocytes resulting in inflammatory gliosis-type injury that is dependent on coronavirus coreceptors.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes , Cerebral Cortex , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Tropism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Astrocytes/enzymology , Astrocytes/virology , Cerebral Cortex/virology , Humans , Organoids/virology , Primary Cell Culture , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
11.
Eur Respir J ; 60(6)2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) utilises the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) transmembrane peptidase as cellular entry receptor. However, whether SARS-CoV-2 in the alveolar compartment is strictly ACE2-dependent and to what extent virus-induced tissue damage and/or direct immune activation determines early pathogenesis is still elusive. METHODS: Spectral microscopy, single-cell/-nucleus RNA sequencing or ACE2 "gain-of-function" experiments were applied to infected human lung explants and adult stem cell derived human lung organoids to correlate ACE2 and related host factors with SARS-CoV-2 tropism, propagation, virulence and immune activation compared to SARS-CoV, influenza and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) autopsy material was used to validate ex vivo results. RESULTS: We provide evidence that alveolar ACE2 expression must be considered scarce, thereby limiting SARS-CoV-2 propagation and virus-induced tissue damage in the human alveolus. Instead, ex vivo infected human lungs and COVID-19 autopsy samples showed that alveolar macrophages were frequently positive for SARS-CoV-2. Single-cell/-nucleus transcriptomics further revealed nonproductive virus uptake and a related inflammatory and anti-viral activation, especially in "inflammatory alveolar macrophages", comparable to those induced by SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, but different from NL63 or influenza virus infection. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our findings indicate that severe lung injury in COVID-19 probably results from a macrophage-triggered immune activation rather than direct viral damage of the alveolar compartment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Adult , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Lung/pathology , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Tropism
12.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e3297-e3304, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879106

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and its overlap with the influenza season lead to concerns over severe disease caused by the influenza virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) co-infections. Using a Syrian hamster co-infection model with SARS-CoV-2 and the pandemic influenza virus A/California/04/2009 (H1N1), we found (a) more severe disease in co-infected animals, compared to those infected with influenza virus alone but not SARS-CoV-2 infection alone; (b) altered haematological changes in only co-infected animals and (c) altered influenza virus tropism in the respiratory tracts of co-infected animals. Overall, our study revealed that co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus is associated with altered disease severity and tissue tropism, as well as haematological changes, compared to infection with either virus alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Rodent Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Coinfection/veterinary , Cricetinae , Humans , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Tropism
13.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869805

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) not only affects the respiratory tract but also causes neurological symptoms such as loss of smell and taste, headache, fatigue or severe cerebrovascular complications. Using transgenic mice expressing human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), we investigated the spatiotemporal distribution and pathomorphological features in the CNS following intranasal infection with SARS-CoV-2 variants, as well as after prior influenza A virus infection. Apart from Omicron, we found all variants to frequently spread to and within the CNS. Infection was restricted to neurons and appeared to spread from the olfactory bulb mainly in basally oriented regions in the brain and into the spinal cord, independent of ACE2 expression and without evidence of neuronal cell death, axonal damage or demyelination. However, microglial activation, microgliosis and a mild macrophage and T cell dominated inflammatory response was consistently observed, accompanied by apoptotic death of endothelial, microglial and immune cells, without their apparent infection. Microgliosis and immune cell apoptosis indicate a potential role of microglia for pathogenesis and viral effect in COVID-19 and the possible impairment of neurological functions, especially in long COVID. These data may also be informative for the selection of therapeutic candidates and broadly support the investigation of agents with adequate penetration into relevant regions of the CNS.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Central Nervous System , Viral Tropism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Central Nervous System/physiopathology , Central Nervous System/virology , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
14.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792410

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus that caused the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Though previous studies have suggested that SARS-CoV-2 cellular tropism depends on the host-cell-expressed proteins, whether transcriptional regulation controls SARS-CoV-2 tropism factors in human lung cells remains unclear. In this study, we used computational approaches to identify transcription factors (TFs) regulating SARS-CoV-2 tropism for different types of lung cells. We constructed transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) controlling SARS-CoV-2 tropism factors for healthy donors and COVID-19 patients using lung single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) data. Through differential network analysis, we found that the altered regulatory role of TFs in the same cell types of healthy and SARS-CoV-2-infected networks may be partially responsible for differential tropism factor expression. In addition, we identified the TFs with high centralities from each cell type and proposed currently available drugs that target these TFs as potential candidates for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Altogether, our work provides valuable cell-type-specific TRN models for understanding the transcriptional regulation and gene expression of SARS-CoV-2 tropism factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gene Regulatory Networks , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Tropism , Humans , Lung/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics , Viral Tropism/genetics
15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1024-1036, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740712

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has caused the COVID-19 pandemic. B.1.617 variants (including Kappa and Delta) have been transmitted rapidly in India. The transmissibility, pathogenicity, and neutralization characteristics of these variants have received considerable interest. In this study, 22 pseudotyped viruses were constructed for B.1.617 variants and their corresponding single amino acid mutations. B.1.617 variants did not exhibit significant enhanced infectivity in human cells, but mutations T478K and E484Q in the receptor binding domain led to enhanced infectivity in mouse ACE2-overexpressing cells. Furin activities were slightly increased against B.1.617 variants and cell-cell fusion after infection of B.1.617 variants were enhanced. Furthermore, B.1.617 variants escaped neutralization by several mAbs, mainly because of mutations L452R, T478K, and E484Q in the receptor binding domain. The neutralization activities of sera from convalescent patients, inactivated vaccine-immunized volunteers, adenovirus vaccine-immunized volunteers, and SARS-CoV-2 immunized animals against pseudotyped B.1.617 variants were reduced by approximately twofold, compared with the D614G variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Cell Fusion , Humans , Mice , Mutation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Tropism
16.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732242

ABSTRACT

Animal models recapitulating COVID-19 are critical to enhance our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. Intranasally inoculated transgenic mice expressing human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 under the cytokeratin 18 promoter (K18-hACE2) represent a lethal model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We evaluated the clinical and virological dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 using two intranasal doses (104 and 106 PFUs), with a detailed spatiotemporal pathologic analysis of the 106 dose cohort. Despite generally mild-to-moderate pneumonia, clinical decline resulting in euthanasia or death was commonly associated with hypothermia and viral neurodissemination independent of inoculation dose. Neuroinvasion was first observed at 4 days post-infection, initially restricted to the olfactory bulb suggesting axonal transport via the olfactory neuroepithelium as the earliest portal of entry. Absence of viremia suggests neuroinvasion occurs independently of transport across the blood-brain barrier. SARS-CoV-2 tropism was neither restricted to ACE2-expressing cells (e.g., AT1 pneumocytes), nor inclusive of some ACE2-positive cell lineages (e.g., bronchiolar epithelium and brain vasculature). Absence of detectable ACE2 protein expression in neurons but overexpression in neuroepithelium suggest this as the most likely portal of neuroinvasion, with subsequent ACE2 independent lethal neurodissemination. A paucity of epidemiological data and contradicting evidence for neuroinvasion and neurodissemination in humans call into question the translational relevance of this model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Humans , Keratin-18 , Melphalan , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Tropism , gamma-Globulins
17.
J Virol ; 96(3): e0184221, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691423

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a beta coronavirus that emerged in 2012, causing severe pneumonia and renal failure. MERS-CoV encodes five accessory proteins. Some of them have been shown to interfere with host antiviral immune response. However, the roles of protein 8b in innate immunity and viral virulence was rarely studied. Here, we introduced individual MERS-CoV accessory protein genes into the genome of an attenuated murine coronavirus (Mouse hepatitis virus, MHV), respectively, and found accessory protein 8b could enhance viral replication in vivo and in vitro and increase the lethality of infected mice. RNA-seq analysis revealed that protein 8b could significantly inhibit type I interferon production (IFN-I) and innate immune response in mice infected with MHV expressing protein 8b. We also found that MERS-CoV protein 8b could initiate from multiple internal methionine sites and at least three protein variants were identified. Residues 1-23 of protein 8b was demonstrated to be responsible for increased virulence in vivo. In addition, the inhibitory effect on IFN-I of protein 8b might not contribute to its virulence enhancement as aa1-23 deletion did not affect IFN-I production in vitro and in vivo. Next, we also found that protein 8b was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi membrane in infected cells, which was disrupted by C-terminal region aa 88-112 deletion. This study will provide new insight into the pathogenesis of MERS-CoV infection. IMPORTANCE Multiple coronaviruses (CoV) cause severe respiratory infections and become global public health threats such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. Each coronavirus contains different numbers of accessory proteins which show high variability among different CoVs. Accessory proteins are demonstrated to play essential roles in pathogenesis of CoVs. MERS-CoV contains 5 accessory proteins (protein 3, 4a, 4b, 5, 8b), and deletion of all four accessory proteins (protein 3, 4a, 4b, 5), significantly affects MERS-CoV replication and pathogenesis. However, whether ORF8b also regulates MERS-CoV infection is unknown. Here, we constructed mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) recombinant virus expressing MERS-CoV protein 8b and demonstrated protein 8b could significantly enhance the virulence of MHV, which is mediated by N-terminal domain of protein 8b. This study will shed light on the understanding of pathogenesis of MERS-CoV infection.


Subject(s)
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/genetics , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Mice , Mortality , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/chemistry , Viral Tropism , Virulence/genetics , Virulence Factors/genetics
18.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674831

ABSTRACT

This article aims to review all currently known interactions between animal and human coronaviruses and their cellular receptors. Over the past 20 years, three novel coronaviruses have emerged that have caused severe disease in humans, including SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2); therefore, a deeper understanding of coronavirus host-cell interactions is essential. Receptor-binding is the first stage in coronavirus entry prior to replication and can be altered by minor changes within the spike protein-the coronavirus surface glycoprotein responsible for the recognition of cell-surface receptors. The recognition of receptors by coronaviruses is also a major determinant in infection, tropism, and pathogenesis and acts as a key target for host-immune surveillance and other potential intervention strategies. We aim to highlight the need for a continued in-depth understanding of this subject area following on from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, with the possibility for more zoonotic transmission events. We also acknowledge the need for more targeted research towards glycan-coronavirus interactions as zoonotic spillover events from animals to humans, following an alteration in glycan-binding capability, have been well-documented for other viruses such as Influenza A.


Subject(s)
Host Microbial Interactions , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Tropism , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Internalization
19.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 10(1): e00922, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664440

ABSTRACT

Why a systems analysis view of this pandemic? The current pandemic has inflicted almost unimaginable grief, sorrow, loss, and terror at a global scale. One of the great ironies with the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly early on, is counter intuitive. The speed at which specialized basic and clinical sciences described the details of the damage to humans in COVID-19 disease has been impressive. Equally, the development of vaccines in an amazingly short time interval has been extraordinary. However, what has been less well understood has been the fundamental elements that underpin the progression of COVID-19 in an individual and in populations. We have used systems analysis approaches with human physiology and pharmacology to explore the fundamental underpinnings of COVID-19 disease. Pharmacology powerfully captures the thermodynamic characteristics of molecular binding with an exogenous entity such as a virus and its consequences on the living processes well described by human physiology. Thus, we have documented the passage of SARS-CoV-2 from infection of a single cell to species jump, to tropism, variant emergence and widespread population infection. During the course of this review, the recurrent observation was the efficiency and simplicity of one critical function of this virus. The lethality of SARS-CoV-2 is due primarily to its ability to possess and use a variable surface for binding to a specific human target with high affinity. This binding liberates Gibbs free energy (GFE) such that it satisfies the criteria for thermodynamic spontaneity. Its binding is the prelude to human host cellular entry and replication by the appropriation of host cell constituent molecules that have been produced with a prior energy investment by the host cell. It is also a binding that permits viral tropism to lead to high levels of distribution across populations with newly formed virions. This thermodynamic spontaneity is repeated endlessly as infection of a single host cell spreads to bystander cells, to tissues, to humans in close proximity and then to global populations. The principal antagonism of this process comes from SARS-CoV-2 itself, with its relentless changing of its viral surface configuration, associated with the inevitable emergence of variants better configured to resist immune sequestration and importantly with a greater affinity for the host target and higher infectivity. The great value of this physiological and pharmacological perspective is that it reveals the fundamental thermodynamic underpinnings of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Systems Analysis , Thermodynamics , Animals , Chiroptera/virology , Humans , Inflammasomes/physiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Viral Tropism , Virus Internalization , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
20.
Nature ; 603(7902): 715-720, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661972

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern with progressively increased transmissibility between humans is a threat to global public health. The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 also evades immunity from natural infection or vaccines1, but it is unclear whether its exceptional transmissibility is due to immune evasion or intrinsic virological properties. Here we compared the replication competence and cellular tropism of the wild-type virus and the D614G, Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Delta (B.1.617.2) and Omicron (B.1.1.529) variants in ex vivo explant cultures of human bronchi and lungs. We also evaluated the dependence on TMPRSS2 and cathepsins for infection. We show that Omicron replicates faster than all other SARS-CoV-2 variants studied in the bronchi but less efficiently in the lung parenchyma. All variants of concern have similar cellular tropism compared to the wild type. Omicron is more dependent on cathepsins than the other variants of concern tested, suggesting that the Omicron variant enters cells through a different route compared with the other variants. The lower replication competence of Omicron in the human lungs may explain the reduced severity of Omicron that is now being reported in epidemiological studies, although determinants of severity are multifactorial. These findings provide important biological correlates to previous epidemiological observations.


Subject(s)
Bronchi/virology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Viral Tropism , Virus Replication , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cathepsins/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Endocytosis , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Tissue Culture Techniques , Vero Cells
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