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1.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792410

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus that caused the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Though previous studies have suggested that SARS-CoV-2 cellular tropism depends on the host-cell-expressed proteins, whether transcriptional regulation controls SARS-CoV-2 tropism factors in human lung cells remains unclear. In this study, we used computational approaches to identify transcription factors (TFs) regulating SARS-CoV-2 tropism for different types of lung cells. We constructed transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) controlling SARS-CoV-2 tropism factors for healthy donors and COVID-19 patients using lung single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) data. Through differential network analysis, we found that the altered regulatory role of TFs in the same cell types of healthy and SARS-CoV-2-infected networks may be partially responsible for differential tropism factor expression. In addition, we identified the TFs with high centralities from each cell type and proposed currently available drugs that target these TFs as potential candidates for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Altogether, our work provides valuable cell-type-specific TRN models for understanding the transcriptional regulation and gene expression of SARS-CoV-2 tropism factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gene Regulatory Networks , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Tropism , Humans , Lung/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics , Viral Tropism/genetics
2.
PLoS Genet ; 16(12): e1009272, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388879

ABSTRACT

The Betacoronaviruses comprise multiple subgenera whose members have been implicated in human disease. As with SARS, MERS and now SARS-CoV-2, the origin and emergence of new variants are often attributed to events of recombination that alter host tropism or disease severity. In most cases, recombination has been detected by searches for excessively similar genomic regions in divergent strains; however, such analyses are complicated by the high mutation rates of RNA viruses, which can produce sequence similarities in distant strains by convergent mutations. By applying a genome-wide approach that examines the source of individual polymorphisms and that can be tested against null models in which recombination is absent and homoplasies can arise only by convergent mutations, we examine the extent and limits of recombination in Betacoronaviruses. We find that recombination accounts for nearly 40% of the polymorphisms circulating in populations and that gene exchange occurs almost exclusively among strains belonging to the same subgenus. Although experimental studies have shown that recombinational exchanges occur at random along the coronaviral genome, in nature, they are vastly overrepresented in regions controlling viral interaction with host cells.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Recombination, Genetic/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Crossing Over, Genetic/genetics , Genes, Viral/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Host Specificity/genetics , Models, Genetic , Polymorphism, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Tropism/genetics
3.
IUBMB Life ; 73(8): 1005-1015, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291220

ABSTRACT

The kidney is one of the main targets attacked by viruses in patients with a coronavirus infection. Until now, SARS-CoV-2 has been identified as the seventh member of the coronavirus family capable of infecting humans. In the past two decades, humankind has experienced outbreaks triggered by two other extremely infective members of the coronavirus family; the MERS-CoV and the SARS-CoV. According to several investigations, SARS-CoV causes proteinuria and renal impairment or failure. The SARS-CoV was identified in the distal convoluted tubules of the kidney of infected patients. Also, renal dysfunction was observed in numerous cases of MERS-CoV infection. And recently, during the 2019-nCoV pandemic, it was found that the novel coronavirus not only induces acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but also can induce damages in various organs including the liver, heart, and kidney. The kidney tissue and its cells are targeted massively by the coronaviruses due to the abundant presence of ACE2 and Dpp4 receptors on kidney cells. These receptors are characterized as the main route of coronavirus entry to the victim cells. Renal failure due to massive viral invasion can lead to undesirable complications and enhanced mortality rate, thus more attention should be paid to the pathology of coronaviruses in the kidney. Here, we have provided the most recent knowledge on the coronaviruses (SARS, MERS, and COVID19) pathology and the mechanisms of their impact on the kidney tissue and functions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Viral Tropism/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Survival Analysis
4.
J Virol ; 94(2)2020 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-822990

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infects ciliated epithelial cells in the chicken respiratory tract. While some IBV strains replicate locally, others can disseminate to various organs, including the kidney. Here, we elucidate the determinants for kidney tropism by studying interactions between the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral attachment protein spike from two IBV strains with different tropisms. Recombinantly produced RBDs from the nephropathogenic IBV strain QX and from the nonnephropathogenic strain M41 bound to the epithelial cells of the trachea. In contrast, only QX-RBD binds more extensively to cells of the digestive tract, urogenital tract, and kidneys. While removal of sialic acids from tissues prevented binding of all proteins to all tissues, binding of QX-RBD to trachea and kidney could not be blocked by preincubation with synthetic alpha-2,3-linked sialic acids. The lack of binding of QX-RBD to a previously identified IBV-M41 receptor was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), demonstrating that tissue binding of QX-RBD is dependent on a different sialylated glycan receptor. Using chimeric RBD proteins, we discovered that the region encompassing amino acids 99 to 159 of QX-RBD was required to establish kidney binding. In particular, QX-RBD amino acids 110 to 112 (KIP) were sufficient to render IBV-M41 with the ability to bind to kidney, while the reciprocal mutations in IBV-QX abolished kidney binding completely. Structural analysis of both RBDs suggests that the receptor-binding site for QX is located at a different location on the spike than that of M41.IMPORTANCE Infectious bronchitis virus is the causative agent of infectious bronchitis in chickens. Upon infection of chicken flocks, the poultry industry faces substantial economic losses by diminished egg quality and increased morbidity and mortality of infected animals. While all IBV strains infect the chicken respiratory tract via the ciliated epithelial layer of the trachea, some strains can also replicate in the kidneys, dividing IBV into the following two pathotypes: nonnephropathogenic (example, IBV-M41) and nephropathogenic viruses (including IBV-QX). Here, we set out to identify the determinants for the extended nephropathogenic tropism of IBV-QX. Our data reveal that each pathotype makes use of a different sialylated glycan ligand, with binding sites on opposite sides of the attachment protein. This knowledge should facilitate the design of antivirals to prevent coronavirus infections in the field.


Subject(s)
Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Kidney/virology , Mutation, Missense , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Tropism/genetics , Virus Replication/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution , Animals , Chickens/virology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Protein Domains , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
5.
Cell Rep ; 32(12): 108175, 2020 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-747293

ABSTRACT

To predict the tropism of human coronaviruses, we profile 28 SARS-CoV-2 and coronavirus-associated receptors and factors (SCARFs) using single-cell transcriptomics across various healthy human tissues. SCARFs include cellular factors both facilitating and restricting viral entry. Intestinal goblet cells, enterocytes, and kidney proximal tubule cells appear highly permissive to SARS-CoV-2, consistent with clinical data. Our analysis also predicts non-canonical entry paths for lung and brain infections. Spermatogonial cells and prostate endocrine cells also appear to be permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection, suggesting male-specific vulnerabilities. Both pro- and anti-viral factors are highly expressed within the nasal epithelium, with potential age-dependent variation, predicting an important battleground for coronavirus infection. Our analysis also suggests that early embryonic and placental development are at moderate risk of infection. Lastly, SCARF expression appears broadly conserved across a subset of primate organs examined. Our study establishes a resource for investigations of coronavirus biology and pathology.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Viral Tropism/genetics , Virus Internalization , A549 Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Enterocytes/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Goblet Cells/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/cytology , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/metabolism , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis , Vero Cells
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(12): 2961-2965, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690716

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 did not replicate efficiently in 13 bat cell lines, whereas severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replicated efficiently in kidney cells of its ancestral host, the Rhinolophus sinicus bat, suggesting different evolutionary origins. Structural modeling showed that RBD/RsACE2 binding may contribute to the differential cellular tropism.


Subject(s)
SARS Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Tropism/genetics , Animals , COVID-19 , Chiroptera/virology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Pandemics , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication
8.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245401

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is widespread in cattle and wild ruminant populations throughout the world. The virus causes neonatal calf diarrhea and winter dysentery in adult cattle, as well as upper and lower respiratory tract infection in young cattle. We isolated and deep sequenced whole genomes of BCoV from calves with respiratory distress in the south-west of France and conducted a comparative genome analysis using globally collected BCoV sequences to provide insights into the genomic characteristics, evolutionary origins, and global diversity of BCoV. Molecular clock analyses allowed us to estimate that the BCoV ancestor emerged in the 1940s, and that two geographically distinct lineages diverged from the 1960s-1970s. A recombination event in the spike gene (breakpoint at nt 1100) may be at the origin of the genetic divergence sixty years ago. Little evidence of genetic mixing between the spatially segregated lineages was found, suggesting that BCoV genetic diversity is a result of a global transmission pathway that occurred during the last century. However, we found variation in evolution rates between the European and non-European lineages indicating differences in virus ecology.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/veterinary , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus, Bovine/pathogenicity , Evolution, Molecular , France/epidemiology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Geography , Phylogeny , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/veterinary , Selection, Genetic/genetics , Viral Tropism/genetics
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