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1.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636493

ABSTRACT

Cell surface receptors play a key role in a virus' ability to recognize and invade cells and tissues, which basically defines viral pathogenicity [...].


Subject(s)
Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Viral Tropism/physiology , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Epithelial Cells , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tropism , Vaccines
3.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580411

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) quickly spread worldwide following its emergence in Wuhan, China, and hit pandemic levels. Its tremendous incidence favoured the emergence of viral variants. The current genome diversity of SARS-CoV-2 has a clear impact on epidemiology and clinical practice, especially regarding transmission rates and the effectiveness of vaccines. In this study, we evaluated the replication of different SARS-CoV-2 isolates representing different virus genotypes which have been isolated throughout the pandemic. We used three distinct cell lines, including Vero E6 cells originating from monkeys; Caco-2 cells, an intestinal epithelium cell line originating from humans; and Calu-3 cells, a pulmonary epithelium cell line also originating from humans. We used RT-qPCR to replicate different SARS-CoV-2 genotypes by quantifying the virus released in the culture supernatant of infected cells. We found that the different viral isolates replicate similarly in Caco-2 cells, but show very different replicative capacities in Calu-3 cells. This was especially highlighted for the lineages B.1.1.7, B.1.351 and P.1, which are considered to be variants of concern. These results underscore the importance of the evaluation and characterisation of each SARS-CoV-2 isolate in order to establish the replication patterns before performing tests, and of the consideration of the ideal SARS-CoV-2 genotype-cell type pair for each assay.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Genotype , Humans , Intestines/cytology , Lung/cytology , Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Tropism/physiology
4.
Nat Med ; 27(9): 1600-1606, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526089

ABSTRACT

Clinical evidence suggests the central nervous system is frequently impacted by SARS-CoV-2 infection, either directly or indirectly, although the mechanisms are unclear. Pericytes are perivascular cells within the brain that are proposed as SARS-CoV-2 infection points. Here we show that pericyte-like cells (PLCs), when integrated into a cortical organoid, are capable of infection with authentic SARS-CoV-2. Before infection, PLCs elicited astrocytic maturation and production of basement membrane components, features attributed to pericyte functions in vivo. While traditional cortical organoids showed little evidence of infection, PLCs within cortical organoids served as viral 'replication hubs', with virus spreading to astrocytes and mediating inflammatory type I interferon transcriptional responses. Therefore, PLC-containing cortical organoids (PCCOs) represent a new 'assembloid' model that supports astrocytic maturation as well as SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication in neural tissue; thus, PCCOs serve as an experimental model for neural infection.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes/virology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Pericytes/virology , Viral Tropism/physiology , Astrocytes/cytology , Brain/pathology , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Interferon Type I/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/physiology
5.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444334

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a group of enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses and can cause deadly diseases in animals and humans. Cell entry is the first and essential step of successful virus infection and can be divided into two ongoing steps: cell binding and membrane fusion. Over the past two decades, stimulated by the global outbreak of SARS-CoV and pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, numerous efforts have been made in the CoV research. As a result, significant progress has been achieved in our understanding of the cell entry process. Here, we review the current knowledge of this essential process, including the viral and host components involved in cell binding and membrane fusion, molecular mechanisms of their interactions, and the sites of virus entry. We highlight the recent findings of host restriction factors that inhibit CoVs entry. This knowledge not only enhances our understanding of the cell entry process, pathogenesis, tissue tropism, host range, and interspecies-transmission of CoVs but also provides a theoretical basis to design effective preventive and therapeutic strategies to control CoVs infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Attachment , Virus Internalization , Animals , Cats/virology , Cattle/virology , Chickens/virology , Coronavirus/genetics , Dogs/virology , Livestock/virology , Membrane Fusion/physiology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Swine/virology , Viral Tropism/physiology
6.
Cell Signal ; 87: 110121, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370457

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has caused a worldwide COVID-19 pandemic. In less than a year and a half, more than 200 million people have been infected and more than four million have died. Despite some improvement in the treatment strategies, no definitive treatment protocol has been developed. The pathogenesis of the disease has not been clearly elucidated yet. A clear understanding of its pathogenesis will help develop effective vaccines and drugs. The immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 is characteristic with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan involvement with impaired Type I interferon response and hyperinflammation. The destructive systemic effects of COVID-19 cannot be explained simply by the viral tropism through the ACE2 and TMPRSS2 receptors. In addition, the recently identified mutations cannot fully explain the defect in all cases of Type I interferon synthesis. We hypothesize that retinol depletion and resulting impaired retinoid signaling play a central role in the COVID-19 pathogenesis that is characteristic for dysregulated immune system, defect in Type I interferon synthesis, severe inflammatory process, and destructive systemic multiorgan involvement. Viral RNA recognition mechanism through RIG-I receptors can quickly consume a large amount of the body's retinoid reserve, which causes the retinol levels to fall below the normal serum levels. This causes retinoid insufficiency and impaired retinoid signaling, which leads to interruption in Type I interferon synthesis and an excessive inflammation. Therefore, reconstitution of the retinoid signaling may prove to be a valid strategy for management of COVID-19 as well for some other chronic, degenerative, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Vitamin A/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System/metabolism , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism , Viral Tropism/physiology , Vitamin A/blood
7.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264419

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, the betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was identified as the viral agent responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Coronaviruses Spike proteins are responsible for their ability to interact with host membrane receptors and different proteins have been identified as SARS-CoV-2 interactors, among which Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and Basigin2/EMMPRIN/CD147 (CD147). CD147 plays an important role in human immunodeficiency virus type 1, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infections. In particular, SARS-CoV recognizes the CD147 receptor expressed on the surface of host cells by its nucleocapsid protein binding to cyclophilin A (CyPA), a ligand for CD147. However, the involvement of CD147 in SARS-CoV-2 infection is still debated. Interference with both the function (blocking antibody) and the expression (knock down) of CD147 showed that this receptor partakes in SARS-CoV-2 infection and provided additional clues on the underlying mechanism: CD147 binding to CyPA does not play a role; CD147 regulates ACE2 levels and both receptors are affected by virus infection. Altogether, these findings suggest that CD147 is involved in SARS-CoV-2 tropism and represents a possible therapeutic target to challenge COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Basigin/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization , A549 Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Basigin/antagonists & inhibitors , Basigin/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Hep G2 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , RNA Interference/physiology , RNA, Small Interfering/pharmacology , RNA, Small Interfering/therapeutic use , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vero Cells , Viral Tropism/physiology
8.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(5): 1062-1070, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121340

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) represent enveloped, ss RNA viruses with the ability to infect a range of vertebrates causing mainly lung, CNS, enteric, and hepatic disease. While the infection with human CoV is commonly associated with mild respiratory symptoms, the emergence of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 highlights the potential for CoVs to cause severe respiratory and systemic disease. The devastating global health burden caused by SARS-CoV-2 has spawned countless studies seeking clinical correlates of disease severity and host susceptibility factors, revealing a complex network of antiviral immune circuits. The mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is, like SARS-CoV-2, a beta-CoV and is endemic in wild mice. Laboratory MHV strains have been extensively studied to reveal coronavirus virulence factors and elucidate host mechanisms of antiviral immunity. These are reviewed here with the aim to identify translational insights for SARS-CoV-2 learned from murine CoVs.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Murine hepatitis virus/immunology , Murine hepatitis virus/pathogenicity , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Tropism/physiology
9.
Cornea ; 39(12): 1556-1562, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109355

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To confirm the ocular tropism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by evaluating the expression of viral entry factors in human ocular tissues using immunohistochemistry. METHODS: Fresh donor corneas and primary explant cultures of corneal, limbal, and conjunctival epithelial cells were evaluated for the expression of viral entry factors. Using immunohistochemistry, the samples were tested for the expression of angiotension-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), dendritic cell-specific intracellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), DC-SIGN-related protein (DC-SIGNR), and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2). RESULTS: In total, 5 donor corneas were evaluated for the expression of viral entry factors. In all specimens, both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were expressed throughout the surface epithelium (corneal, limbal, and conjunctival) and corneal endothelium. In corneal stromal cells, ACE2 was sporadically expressed, whereas TMPRSS2 was absent. DC-SIGN/DC-SIGNR expression varied between donor specimens. Four specimens expressed DC-SIGN/DC-SIGNR in a similar distribution to ACE2, but 1 specimen from a young donor showed no expression of DC-SIGN/DC-SIGNR. ACE2, TMPRSS2, and DC-SIGN/DC-SIGNR were all expressed in the cultured corneal, limbal, and conjunctival epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Both corneal and conjunctival epithelia express ACE2, DC-SIGN/DC-SIGNR, and TMPRSS2, suggesting that the ocular surface is a potential route for the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The risk of viral transmission with corneal transplantation cannot be ruled out, given the presence of ACE2 in corneal epithelium and endothelium. Cultured corneal, limbal, and conjunctival epithelial cells mimic the expression of viral entry factors in fresh donor tissue and may be useful for future in vitro SARS-CoV-2 infection studies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Conjunctiva/metabolism , Epithelium, Corneal/metabolism , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Conjunctiva/cytology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Humans , Limbus Corneae/cytology , Male , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Donors , Viral Tropism/physiology , Virus Internalization , Young Adult
10.
mSphere ; 6(1)2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088203

ABSTRACT

Many viruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), have a structure consisting of spikes protruding from an underlying spherical surface. Research in biological and colloidal sciences has revealed secrets of why spikes exist on virus surfaces. Specifically, the spikes favor virus attachment on surfaces via receptor-specific interactions (RSIs), mediate the membrane fusion, and determine or change viral tropism. The spikes also facilitate viruses to approach surfaces before attachment and subsequently escape back to the environment if RSIs do not occur (i.e., easy come and easy go). Therefore, virus spikes create the paradox of having a large capacity for binding with cells (high infectivity) and meanwhile great mobility in the environment. Such structure-function relationships have important implications for the fabrication of virus-like particles and analogous colloids (e.g., hedgehog- and raspberry-like particles) for applications such as the development of antiviral vaccines and drug delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , HIV/metabolism , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/transmission , Humans , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Viral Tropism/physiology , Virus Internalization
11.
Arch Virol ; 166(3): 733-753, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064515

ABSTRACT

The chronic dysfunction of neuronal cells, both central and peripheral, a characteristic of neurological disorders, may be caused by irreversible damage and cell death. In 2016, more than 276 million cases of neurological disorders were reported worldwide. Moreover, neurological disorders are the second leading cause of death. Generally, the etiology of neurological diseases is not fully understood. Recent studies have related the onset of neurological disorders to viral infections, which may cause neurological symptoms or lead to immune responses that trigger these pathological signs. Currently, this relationship is mostly based on epidemiological data on infections and seroprevalence of patients who present with neurological disorders. The number of studies aiming to elucidate the mechanism of action by which viral infections may directly or indirectly contribute to the development of neurological disorders has been increasing over the years but these studies are still scarce. Comprehending the pathogenesis of these diseases and exploring novel theories may favor the development of new strategies for diagnosis and therapy in the future. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to review the main pieces of evidence for the relationship between viral infection and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy. Viruses belonging to the families Herpesviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, and Retroviridae have been reported to be involved in one or more of these conditions. Also, neurological symptoms and the future impact of infection with SARS-CoV-2, a member of the family Coronaviridae that is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic that started in late 2019, are reported and discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Viral Tropism/physiology , Alzheimer Disease/virology , COVID-19/virology , Epilepsy/virology , Flaviviridae/metabolism , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Herpesviridae/metabolism , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/virology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Orthomyxoviridae/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/virology , Retroviridae/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
12.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(4): 348-351, Jul.-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1042065

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Reports of dermatological manifestations in patients with COVID-19 suggest a possible cutaneous tropism of SARS-CoV-2; however, the capacity of this virus to infect the skin is unknown. Objective: To determine the susceptibility of the skin to SARS-CoV-2 infection based on the expression of viral entry factors ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in this organ. Method: A comprehensive analysis of human tissue gene expression databases was carried out looking for the presence of the ACE2 and TMPRSS2 genes in the skin. mRNA expression of these genes in skin-derived human cell lines was also assessed. Results: The analyses showed high co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the gastrointestinal tract and kidney, but not in the skin. Only the human immortalized keratinocyte HaCaT cell line expressed detectable levels of ACE2, and no cell line originating in the skin expressed TMPRSS2. Conclusions: Our results suggest that cutaneous manifestations in patients with COVID-19 cannot be directly attributed to the virus. It is possible that cutaneous blood vessels endothelial damage, as well as the effect of circulating inflammatory mediators produced in response to the virus, are the cause of skin involvement.


Resumen Introducción: Reportes de manifestaciones dermatológicas en pacientes con COVID-19 sugieren un posible tropismo cutáneo del virus SARS-CoV-2; sin embargo, se desconoce la capacidad de este virus para infectar la piel. Objetivo: Determinar la susceptibilidad de la piel a la infección por SARS-CoV-2 con base en la expresión de los factores de entrada viral ACE2 y TMPRSS2 en dicho órgano. Método: Se buscaron los genes ACE2 y TMPRSS2 en la piel, para lo cual se realizó un análisis extenso de las bases de datos de expresión genética en tejidos humanos. Asimismo, se evaluó la expresión de dichos genes en líneas celulares humanas derivadas de la piel. Resultados: Los análisis mostraron alta expresión conjunta de ACE2 y TMPRSS2 en el tracto gastrointestinal y en los riñones, pero no en la piel. Solo la línea celular de queratinocitos humanos inmortalizados HaCaT expresó niveles detectables de ACE2 y ninguna línea celular de origen cutáneo expresó TMPRSS2. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que las manifestaciones dermatológicas en pacientes con COVID-19 no pueden ser atribuidas directamente al virus; es posible que sean originadas por el daño endotelial a los vasos sanguíneos cutáneos y el efecto de los mediadores inflamatorios circulantes producidos en respuesta al virus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Skin Diseases, Viral/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Skin/virology , Cell Line , Gene Expression Regulation , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Virus Internalization , Viral Tropism/physiology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
13.
J Infect Dis ; 224(5): 821-830, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human spillovers of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to dogs and the emergence of a highly contagious avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus have raised concerns on the role of dogs in the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and their susceptibility to existing human and avian influenza viruses, which might result in further reassortment. METHODS: We systematically studied the replication kinetics of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, influenza A viruses of H1, H3, H5, H7, and H9 subtypes, and influenza B viruses of Yamagata-like and Victoria-like lineages in ex vivo canine nasal cavity, soft palate, trachea, and lung tissue explant cultures and examined ACE2 and sialic acid (SA) receptor distribution in these tissues. RESULTS: There was limited productive replication of SARS-CoV-2 in canine nasal cavity and SARS-CoV in canine nasal cavity, soft palate, and lung, with unexpectedly high ACE2 levels in canine nasal cavity and soft palate. Canine tissues were susceptible to a wide range of human and avian influenza viruses, which matched with the abundance of both human and avian SA receptors. CONCLUSIONS: Existence of suitable receptors and tropism for the same tissue foster virus adaptation and reassortment. Continuous surveillance in dog populations should be conducted given the many chances for spillover during outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Influenza A virus/physiology , Lung/virology , Nasal Cavity/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Trachea/virology , Viral Tropism/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Dogs , Humans , Influenza, Human/metabolism , Influenza, Human/virology , Lung/metabolism , Nasal Cavity/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Trachea/metabolism
14.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(22): 3697-3700, 2020 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894366

ABSTRACT

Of the single-celled eukaryotic microbes, Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Acanthamoeba spp. are known to cause fatal encephalitis in humans. Being eukaryotes, these cells have been used as a model for studying and understanding complex cellular processes in humans like cell motility, phagocytosis, and metabolism. The ongoing pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 that infects multiple organs has emerged as a challenge to unravel its mode of infection and the pathogenicity resulting in eukaryotic cell death. Working with these single-celled eukaryotic microbes provided us the opportunity to plan bioinformatic approaches to look into the likelihood of studying the known and alternative mode of infection of the SARS-CoV-2 in eukaryotic cells. Genome databases of N. fowleri, B. mandrillaris, and Acanthamoeba spp. were used to explore the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), androgen-regulated serine protease precursor (TMPRSS2), CD4, CD147, and furin that are known to be cardinal for SARS-CoV-2 in recognition and binding to human cells. It was hypothesized that if a receptor-dependent or phagocytosis-assisted SARS-CoV-2 uptake does occur in free-living amoebae (FLA), this model can provide an alternative to human cells to study cellular recognition and binding of SARS-CoV-2 that can help design drugs and treatment modalities in COVID-19. We show that, of the FLA, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are not expressed in Acanthamoeba spp. and B. mandrillaris, but primitive forms of these cell recognition proteins were seen to be encoded in N. fowleri. Acanthamoeba spp. and N. fowleri encode for human-like furin which is a known SARS-CoV-2 spike protein involved in host cell recognition and binding.


Subject(s)
Amoeba/virology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Amino Acid Sequence , Amoeba/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Protein Structure, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Tropism/physiology
16.
Gac Med Mex ; 156(4): 354-357, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-722454

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Reports of dermatological manifestations in patients with COVID-19 suggest a possible cutaneous tropism of SARS-CoV-2; however, the capacity of this virus to infect the skin is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the susceptibility of the skin to SARS-CoV-2 infection based on the expression of viral entry factors ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in this organ. METHOD: A comprehensive analysis of human tissue gene expression databases was carried out looking for the presence of the ACE2 and TMPRSS2 genes in the skin. mRNA expression of these genes in skin-derived human cell lines was also assessed. RESULTS: The analyses showed high co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the gastrointestinal tract and kidney, but not in the skin. Only the human immortalized keratinocyte HaCaT cell line expressed detectable levels of ACE2, and no cell line originating in the skin expressed TMPRSS2. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that cutaneous manifestations in patients with COVID-19 cannot be directly attributed to the virus. It is possible that cutaneous blood vessels endothelial damage, as well as the effect of circulating inflammatory mediators produced in response to the virus, are the cause of skin involvement.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Reportes de manifestaciones dermatológicas en pacientes con COVID-19 sugieren un posible tropismo cutáneo del virus SARS-CoV-2; sin embargo, se desconoce la capacidad de este virus para infectar la piel. OBJETIVO: Determinar la susceptibilidad de la piel a la infección por SARS-CoV-2 con base en la expresión de los factores de entrada viral ACE2 y TMPRSS2 en dicho órgano. MÉTODO: Se buscaron los genes ACE2 y TMPRSS2 en la piel, para lo cual se realizó un análisis extenso de las bases de datos de expresión genética en tejidos humanos. Asimismo, se evaluó la expresión de dichos genes en líneas celulares humanas derivadas de la piel. RESULTADOS: Los análisis mostraron alta expresión conjunta de ACE2 y TMPRSS2 en el tracto gastrointestinal y en los riñones, pero no en la piel. Solo la línea celular de queratinocitos humanos inmortalizados HaCaT expresó niveles detectables de ACE2 y ninguna línea celular de origen cutáneo expresó TMPRSS2. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados sugieren que las manifestaciones dermatológicas en pacientes con COVID-19 no pueden ser atribuidas directamente al virus; es posible que sean originadas por el daño endotelial a los vasos sanguíneos cutáneos y el efecto de los mediadores inflamatorios circulantes producidos en respuesta al virus.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Skin Diseases, Viral/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin/virology , Skin Diseases, Viral/genetics , Viral Tropism/physiology , Virus Internalization
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(16)2020 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721503

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 and its associated pathology, COVID-19, have been of particular concerns these last months due to the worldwide burden they represent. The number of cases requiring intensive care being the critical point in this epidemic, a better understanding of the pathophysiology leading to these severe cases is urgently needed. Tissue lesions can be caused by the pathogen or can be driven by an overwhelmed immune response. Focusing on SARS-CoV-2, we and others have observed that this virus can trigger indeed an immune response that can be dysregulated in severe patients and leading to further injury to multiple organs. The purpose of the review is to bring to light the current knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 virologic and immunologic features. Thus, we address virus biology, life cycle, tropism for many organs and how ultimately it will affect several host biological and physiological functions, notably the immune response. Given that therapeutic avenues are now highly warranted, we also discuss the immunotherapies available to manage the infection and the clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Age Factors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Lung/pathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Viral Tropism/physiology , Virus Assembly/physiology , Virus Replication/physiology
19.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 41(5): 102612, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-603944

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this manuscript is to investigate transversally Ear Nose Throat (ENT) symptoms COVID-19 infection correlated and to study the neurotropism and neuroinvasiveness of the virus in the head-neck district through the investigation of the sense of smell, taste, tearing, salivation and hearing. METHODS: A total of 50 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection were included in our study. For each patient we evaluated the short version of the Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders-Negative Statements (sQOD-NS), the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version (SXI-DV), The Standardized Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness (SPEED), Schirmer test I, the Hearing Handicap Inventory For Adults (HHIA) and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI). All the tests we carried out were performed during the active phase of the symptomatology from COVID-19 (Condition A) and 15 after SARS-COV-2 RT-PCR test negative (Condition B). RESULTS: A total of 46 patients (92%) had olfactory dysfunction related to the infection. The 70% of patients reported gustatory disorders. Cough, fever, headache and asthenia were the most prevalent symptoms. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0,001) in sQOD-NS, SXI-DV, SPEED, Schirmer test, HHIA and THI between Condition A and Condition B. CONCLUSIONS: In our population there was an alteration of the sense of taste, of the sense of smell, dry eyes and of the oral cavity and an auditory discomfort, symptoms probably linked to the neurotropism of the virus. Furthermore, anosmia, dysgeusia and xerostomia are early symptoms of COVID-19, which can be exploited for an early quarantine and a limitation of viral contagion.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Sensation Disorders/virology , Viral Tropism/physiology , COVID-19 , Head/innervation , Humans , Neck/innervation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Nat Med ; 26(7): 1077-1083, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260261

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-emerged in humans in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has since disseminated globally1,2. As of April 16, 2020, the confirmed case count of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had surpassed 2 million. Based on full-genome sequence analysis, SARS-CoV-2 shows high homology to SARS-related coronaviruses identified in horseshoe bats1,2. Here we show the establishment and characterization of expandable intestinal organoids derived from horseshoe bats of the Rhinolophus sinicus species that can recapitulate bat intestinal epithelium. These bat enteroids are fully susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and sustain robust viral replication. Development of gastrointestinal symptoms in some patients with COVID-19 and detection of viral RNA in fecal specimens suggest that SARS-CoV-2 might cause enteric, in addition to respiratory, infection3,4. Here we demonstrate active replication of SARS-CoV-2 in human intestinal organoids and isolation of infectious virus from the stool specimen of a patient with diarrheal COVID-19. Collectively, we established the first expandable organoid culture system of bat intestinal epithelium and present evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can infect bat intestinal cells. The robust SARS-CoV-2 replication in human intestinal organoids suggests that the human intestinal tract might be a transmission route of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Intestines/virology , Organoids/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Animals , COVID-19 , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Child, Preschool , Chiroptera/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enterocytes/pathology , Enterocytes/physiology , Enterocytes/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Intestines/pathology , Male , Organoids/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells , Viral Load/genetics , Viral Load/methods , Viral Tropism/physiology
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