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3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2673: 431-452, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233939

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, a number of approaches have been adopted by the scientific communities for developing efficient vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2. Conventional approaches of developing a vaccine require a long time and a series of trials and errors which indeed limit the feasibility of such approaches for developing a dependable vaccine in an emergency situation like the COVID-19 pandemic. Hitherto, most of the available vaccines have been developed against a particular antigen of SARS-CoV, spike protein in most of the cases, and intriguingly, these vaccines are not effective against all the pathogenic coronaviruses. In this context, immunoinformatics-based reverse vaccinology approaches enable a robust design of efficacious peptide-based vaccines against all the infectious strains of coronaviruses within a short frame of time. In this chapter, we enumerate the methodological trajectory of developing a universal anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, namely, "AbhiSCoVac," through advanced computational biology-based immunoinformatics approach and its in-silico validation using molecular dynamics simulations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , Molecular Docking Simulation , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Vaccines, Subunit , Computational Biology
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1134802, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239332

ABSTRACT

There has been progressive improvement in immunoinformatics approaches for epitope-based peptide design. Computational-based immune-informatics approaches were applied to identify the epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 to develop vaccines. The accessibility of the SARS-CoV-2 protein surface was analyzed, and hexa-peptide sequences (KTPKYK) were observed having a maximum score of 8.254, located between amino acids 97 and 102, whereas the FSVLAC at amino acids 112 to 117 showed the lowest score of 0.114. The surface flexibility of the target protein ranged from 0.864 to 1.099 having amino acid ranges of 159 to 165 and 118 to 124, respectively, harboring the FCYMHHM and YNGSPSG hepta-peptide sequences. The surface flexibility was predicted, and a 0.864 score was observed from amino acids 159 to 165 with the hepta-peptide (FCYMHHM) sequence. Moreover, the highest score of 1.099 was observed between amino acids 118 and 124 against YNGSPSG. B-cell epitopes and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes were also identified against SARS-CoV-2. In molecular docking analyses, -0.54 to -26.21 kcal/mol global energy was observed against the selected CTL epitopes, exhibiting binding solid energies of -3.33 to -26.36 kcal/mol. Based on optimization, eight epitopes (SEDMLNPNY, GSVGFNIDY, LLEDEFTPF, DYDCVSFCY, GTDLEGNFY, QTFSVLACY, TVNVLAWLY, and TANPKTPKY) showed reliable findings. The study calculated the associated HLA alleles with MHC-I and MHC-II and found that MHC-I epitopes had higher population coverage (0.9019% and 0.5639%) than MHC-II epitopes, which ranged from 58.49% to 34.71% in Italy and China, respectively. The CTL epitopes were docked with antigenic sites and analyzed with MHC-I HLA protein. In addition, virtual screening was conducted using the ZINC database library, which contained 3,447 compounds. The 10 top-ranked scrutinized molecules (ZINC222731806, ZINC077293241, ZINC014880001, ZINC003830427, ZINC030731133, ZINC003932831, ZINC003816514, ZINC004245650, ZINC000057255, and ZINC011592639) exhibited the least binding energy (-8.8 to -7.5 kcal/mol). The molecular dynamics (MD) and immune simulation data suggest that these epitopes could be used to design an effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in the form of a peptide-based vaccine. Our identified CTL epitopes have the potential to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Molecular Docking Simulation , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Peptides , Vaccines, Subunit , Amino Acids , Endopeptidases , Computational Biology
5.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1161149, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237016

ABSTRACT

Mosquito-borne viral diseases are a group of viral illnesses that are predominantly transmitted by mosquitoes, including viruses from the Togaviridae and Flaviviridae families. In recent years, outbreaks caused by Dengue and Zika viruses from the Flaviviridae family, and Chikungunya virus from the Togaviridae family, have raised significant concerns for public health. However, there are currently no safe and effective vaccines available for these viruses, except for CYD-TDV, which has been licensed for Dengue virus. Efforts to control the transmission of COVID-19, such as home quarantine and travel restrictions, have somewhat limited the spread of mosquito-borne viral diseases. Several vaccine platforms, including inactivated vaccines, viral-vector vaccines, live attenuated vaccines, protein vaccines, and nucleic acid vaccines, are being developed to combat these viruses. This review analyzes the various vaccine platforms against Dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya viruses and provides valuable insights for responding to potential outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chikungunya virus , Culicidae , Dengue , Viral Vaccines , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Animals , Humans , Mosquito Vectors , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Vaccines, Attenuated , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Vaccine Development
6.
Expert Opin Drug Discov ; 18(7): 769-780, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244932

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 pandemic is one of the most serious public health events of this century. There have been more than 670 million confirmed cases and more than 6 million deaths worldwide. From the emergence of the Alpha variant to the later rampant Omicron variant, the high transmissibility and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 accelerate the research and development of effective vaccines. Against this background, mRNA vaccines stepped onto the historical stage and became an important tool for COVID-19 prevention. AREAS COVERED: This article introduces the characteristics of different mRNA vaccines in the prevention of COVID-19, including antigen selection, therapeutic mRNA design and modification, and different delivery systems of mRNA molecules. It also summarizes and discusses the mechanisms, safety, effectiveness, side effects, and limitations of current COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. EXPERT OPINION: Therapeutic mRNA molecules have plenty of advantages, including flexible design, rapid production, sufficient immune activation, safety without the risk of genome insertion in the host cells, and no viral vectors or particles involved, making them an important tool to fight diseases in the future. However, the application of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines also faces many challenges, such as storage and transportation, mass production, and nonspecific immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , mRNA Vaccines
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1028246, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326410

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to explore the short-term safety and immunogenicity of inactivated and peptide-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with endocrine-related cancer (ER). Methods: Eighty-eight patients with ER cancer and 82 healthy controls who had completed a full course of inactivated or peptide-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were recruited. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded. Responses to receptor-binding domain IgG antibody (anti-RBD-IgG), neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and RBD+ memory B cells (MBCs) were evaluated. Results: Approximately 26.14% (23/88) of patients with ER cancer reported AEs within 7 days, which was comparable to that reported by healthy controls (24.39%, 20/82). Both the overall seroprevalence of anti-RBD-IgG and NAbs was obviously lower in the cancer group (70.45% vs. 86.59%, P < 0.05; 69.32% vs. 82.93%, P < 0.05, respectively). Anti-RBD-IgG and NAbs titers exhibited similar results, and dropped gradually over time. Patients with ongoing treatment had an attenuated immune response, especially in patients receiving active chemotherapy. The frequency of overall RBD+ MBCs was similar between the two groups, but the percentage of active MBCs was remarkably reduced in patients with ER cancer. Unlike antibody titers, MBCs responses were relatively constant over time. Conclusion: Inactivated and peptide-based COVID-19 vaccines were well tolerated, but with lower immunogenicity for ER cancer patients. More intensive antibody monitoring and timely booster immunization is recommended for patients with ER cancer presenting disordered subpopulations of RBD+ MBCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunoglobulin G , Neoplasms/chemically induced , Peptides , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Viral Vaccines
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 960001, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325197

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the factors that have significant impact on the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and vaccination induced immune response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Serological response was measured by quantifying anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies, while the cell-mediated response was measured by a whole-blood test quantifying the interferon (IFN)-γ response to different SARS-CoV-2-specific domains. Results: We prospectively enrolled 109 RA patients and 43 healthy controls. The median time (IQR) between the confirmed infection or the last vaccination dose and the day when samples were taken ("sampling interval") was 3.67 (2.03, 5.50) months in the RA group. Anti-Spike (anti-S) specific antibodies were detected in 94% of RA patients. Among the investigated patient related variables, age (p<0.004), sampling interval (p<0.001), the brand of the vaccine (p<0.001) and targeted RA therapy (TNF-inhibitor, IL-6 inhibitor, anti-CD20 therapy) had significant effect on the anti-S levels. After covariate adjustment TNF-inhibitor therapy decreased the anti-S antibody concentrations by 80% (p<0.001). The same figures for IL-6 inhibitor and anti-CD20 therapy were 74% (p=0.049) and 97% (p=0.002), respectively. Compared to subjects who were infected but were not vaccinated, the RNA COVID-19 vaccines increased the anti-S antibody levels to 71.1 (mRNA-1273) and 36.0 (BNT162b2) fold (p<0.001). The corresponding figure for the ChAdOx1s vaccine is 18.1(p=0.037). Anti-CCP (anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides) positive patients had 6.28 times (p= 0.00165) higher anti-S levels, than the anti-CCP negative patients. Positive T-cell response was observed in 87% of the healthy volunteer group and in 52% of the RA patient group. Following vaccination or infection it declined significantly (p= 0.044) but more slowly than that of anti-S titer (6%/month versus 25%). Specific T-cell responses were decreased by 65% in patients treated with anti-CD20 therapy (p=0.055). Conclusion: Our study showed that the SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody levels were substantially reduced in RA patients treated with TNF-α-inhibitors (N=51) and IL-6-inhibitor (N=15). In addition, anti-CD20 therapy (N=4) inhibited both SARS-CoV-2-induced humoral and cellular immune responses. Furthermore, the magnitude of humoral and cellular immune response was dependent on the age and decreased over time. The RNA vaccines and ChAdOx1s vaccine effectively increased the level of anti-S antibodies.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Citrullinated Protein Antibodies , Interleukin-6 , BNT162 Vaccine , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination , Immunity , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1012526, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324276

ABSTRACT

A gradual decay in humoral and cellular immune responses over time upon SAR1S-CoV-2 vaccination may cause a lack of protective immunity. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of antibodies, T cells, and monocytes in 25 participants vaccinated with mRNA or ChAdOx1-S up to 12 weeks after the 3rd (booster) dose with mRNA vaccine. We observed a substantial increase in antibodies and CD8 T cells specific for the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 after vaccination. Moreover, vaccination induced activated T cells expressing CD69, CD137 and producing IFN-γ and TNF-α. Virus-specific CD8 T cells showed predominantly memory phenotype. Although the level of antibodies and frequency of virus-specific T cells reduced 4-6 months after the 2nd dose, they were augmented after the 3rd dose followed by a decrease later. Importantly, T cells generated after the 3rd vaccination were also reactive against Omicron variant, indicated by a similar level of IFN-γ production after stimulation with Omicron peptides. Breakthrough infection in participants vaccinated with two doses induced more SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells than the booster vaccination. We found an upregulation of PD-L1 expression on monocytes but no accumulation of myeloid cells with MDSC-like immunosuppressive phenotype after the vaccination. Our results indicate that the 3rd vaccination fosters antibody and T cell immune response independently from vaccine type used for the first two injections. However, such immune response is attenuated over time, suggesting thereby the need for further vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control
10.
J Med Virol ; 95(5): e28806, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327389

ABSTRACT

Intranasal (i.n.) vaccines can induce mucosal and systemic immunity against respiratory pathogens. Previously, we demonstrated that the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV)-based COVID-19 vaccine rVSV-SARS-CoV-2, with poor immunogenicity via the intramuscular route (i.m.), is more suitable for i.n. administration in mice and nonhuman primates. Here, we found that the rVSV-SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant was more immunogenic than the wild-type strain and other variants of concern (VOCs) in golden Syrian hamsters. Furthermore, the immune responses elicited by rVSV-based vaccine candidates via the i.n. route were significantly higher than those of two licensed vaccines: the inactivated vaccine KCONVAC delivered via the i.m. route and the adenovirus-based Vaxzevria delivered i.n. or i.m. We next assessed the booster efficacy of rVSV following two i.m. doses of KCONVAC. Twenty-eight days after receiving two i.m. doses of KCONVAC, hamsters were boosted with a third dose of KCONVAC (i.m.), Vaxzevria (i.m. or i.n.), or rVSVs (i.n.). Consistent with other heterologous booster studies, Vaxzevria and rVSV elicited significantly higher humoral immunity than the homogenous KCONVAC. In summary, our results confirmed that two i.n. doses of rVSV-Beta elicited significantly higher humoral immune responses than commercial inactivated and adeno-based COVID vaccines in hamsters. As a heterologous booster dose, rVSV-Beta induced potent, persistent, and broad-spectrum humoral and mucosal neutralizing responses against all VOCs, highlighting its potential to be developed into a nasal-spray vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , Animals , Mice , COVID-19 Vaccines , Rodentia , Nasal Sprays , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vesiculovirus , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
11.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(3): e0256422, 2023 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322171

ABSTRACT

The emerging virus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 virus), agent of COVID-19, appeared in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and became a serious threat to global health and public safety. Many COVID-19 vaccines have been approved and licensed around the world. Most of the developed vaccines include S protein and induce an antibody-based immune response. Additionally, T-cell response to the SARS-CoV-2 antigens could be beneficial for combating the infection. The type of immune response is greatly dependent not only on the antigen, but also on adjuvants used in vaccine formulation. Here, we compared the effect of four different adjuvants (AddaS03, Alhydrogel/MPLA, Alhydrogel/ODN2395, Quil A) on the immunogenicity of a mixture of recombinant RBD and N SARS-CoV-2 proteins. We have analyzed the antibody and T-cell response specific to RBD and N proteins and assessed the impact of adjuvants on virus neutralization. Our results clearly indicated that Alhydrogel/MPLA and Alhydrogel/ODN2395 adjuvants elicited the higher titers of specific and cross-reactive antibodies to S protein variants from various SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1 strains. Moreover, Alhydrogel/ODN2395 stimulated high cellular response to both antigens, as assessed by IFN-γ production. Importantly, sera collected from mice immunized with RBD/N cocktail in combination with these adjuvants exhibited neutralizing activity against the authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus as well as particles pseudotyped with S protein from various virus variants. The results from our study demonstrate the immunogenic potential of RBD and N antigens and point out the importance of adjuvants selection in vaccine formulation in order to enhance the immunological response. IMPORTANCE Although several COVID-19 vaccines have been approved worldwide, continuous emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants calls for new efficient vaccines against them, providing long-lasting immunity. As the immune response after vaccination is dependent not only on antigen used, but also on other vaccine components, e.g., adjuvants, the purpose of this work was to study the effect of different adjuvants on the immunogenicity of RBD/N SARS-CoV-2 cocktail proteins. In this work, it has been shown that immunization with both antigens plus the different adjuvants studied elicited higher Th1 and Th2 responses against RBD and N, which contributed to higher neutralization of the virus. The obtained results can be used for design of new vaccines, not only against SARS-CoV-2, but also against other important viral pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Mice , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Aluminum Hydroxide , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunogenicity, Vaccine
12.
Ther Deliv ; 11(9): 541-546, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319552

ABSTRACT

The present industry update covers the period 1-31 May 2020, with information sourced from company press releases, regulatory and patent agencies as well as scientific literature.


Subject(s)
Drug Delivery Systems/trends , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Device Approval , Drug Industry , Humans , Nanostructures , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/pharmacokinetics , Viral Vaccines/supply & distribution
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 975533, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320547

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has caused a global pandemic and the death toll is increasing. With the coronavirus continuously mutating, Omicron has replaced Delta as the most widely reported variant in the world. Studies have shown that the plasma of some vaccinated people does not neutralize the Omicron variant. However, further studies are needed to determine whether plasma neutralizes Omicron after one- or two-dose vaccine in patients who have recovered from infection with the original strain. Methods: The pseudovirus neutralization assays were performed on 64 plasma samples of convalescent COVID-19 patients, which were divided into pre-vaccination group, one-dose vaccinated group and two-dose vaccinated group. Results: In the three groups, there were significant reductions of sera neutralizing activity from WT to Delta variant (B.1.617.2), and from WT to Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) (ps<0.001), but the difference between Delta and Omicron variants were not significant (p>0.05). The average neutralization of the Omicron variant showed a significant difference between pre-vaccination and two-dose vaccinated convalescent individuals (p<0.01). Conclusions: Among the 64 plasma samples of COVID-19 convalescents, whether vaccinated or not, Omicron (B.1.1.529) escaped the neutralizing antibodies, with a significantly decreased neutralization activity compared to WT. And two-dose of vaccine could significantly raise the average neutralization of Omicron in convalescent individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 964525, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319476

ABSTRACT

Background: Results showing that sera from double vaccinated individuals have minimal neutralizing activity against Omicron have been interpreted as indicating the need for a third vaccine dose for protection. However, there is little information about early immune responses to Omicron infection in double vaccinated individuals. Methods: We measured inflammatory mediators, antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins, and spike peptide-induced release of interferon gamma in whole blood in 51 double-vaccinated individuals infected with Omicron, in 14 infected with Delta, and in 18 healthy controls. The median time points for the first and second samples were 7 and 14 days after symptom onset, respectively. Findings: Infection with Omicron or Delta led to a rapid and similar increase in antibodies to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of Omicron protein and spike peptide-induced interferon gamma in whole blood. Both the Omicron- and the Delta-infected patients had a mild and transient increase in inflammatory parameters. Interpretation: The results suggest that two vaccine doses are sufficient to mount a rapid and potent immune response upon infection in healthy individuals of with the Omicron variant. Funding: The study was funded by the Oslo University Hospital, and by grants from The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, Research Council of Norway (no 312780, 324272), South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority (no 2019067, 2021071, 10357, 2021047, 33612, 2021087, 2017092), EU Horizon 2020 grant no 848099, a philantropic donation from Vivaldi Invest A/S, and The European Virus Archive Global.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Inflammation Mediators , Interferon-gamma , Nucleocapsid Proteins , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1000006, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318073

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) led to a global health outbreak known as the COVID-19 pandemic which has been lasting since March 2020. Vaccine became accessible to people only at the beginning of 2021 which greatly helped reducing the mortality rate and severity of COVID-19 infection afterwards. The efficacy of vaccines was not fully known and studies documenting the immune responses following vaccination are continuing to emerge. Recent evidence indicate that natural infection prior vaccination may improve the antibody and cellular immune responses, while little is known about the factors influencing those processes. Here we investigated the antibody responses following BNT162b2 vaccination in relation to previous-infection status and age, and searched for possible biomarkers associated with the observed changes in immune responses. We found that the previous-infection status caused at least 8-times increase in the antibody titres, effect that was weaker in people over 60 years old and unaltered by the vitamin D serum levels. Furthermore, we identified adiponectin to positively associate with antibody responses and negatively correlate with pro-inflammatory molecules (MCP-1, factor D, CRP, PAI-1), especially in previously-infected individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adipokines , Adiponectin , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Complement Factor D , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vitamin D , Vitamins
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 953949, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316700

ABSTRACT

Two doses of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine induces a strong systemic SARS-CoV-2 specific humoral response. However, SARS-CoV-2 airborne transmission makes mucosal immune response a crucial first line of defense. Therefore, we characterized SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG responses induced by BNT162b2 vaccine, as well as IgG responses to other pathogenic and seasonal human coronaviruses in oral fluid and plasma from 200 UK healthcare workers who were naïve (N=62) or previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 (N=138) using a pan-coronavirus multiplex binding immunoassay (Meso Scale Discovery®). Additionally, we investigated the impact of historical SARS-CoV-2 infection on vaccine-induced IgG, IgA and neutralizing responses in selected oral fluid samples before vaccination, after a first and second dose of BNT162b2, as well as following a third dose of mRNA vaccine or breakthrough infections using the same immunoassay and an ACE2 inhibition assay. Prior to vaccination, we found that spike-specific IgG levels in oral fluid positively correlated with IgG levels in plasma from previously-infected individuals (Spearman r=0.6858, p<0.0001) demonstrating that oral fluid could be used as a proxy for the presence of plasma SARS-CoV-2 IgG. However, the sensitivity was lower in oral fluid (0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.91) than in plasma (0.94, 95% CI 0.88-0.97). Similar kinetics of mucosal and systemic spike-specific IgG levels were observed following vaccination in naïve and previously-infected individuals, respectively. In addition, a significant enhancement of OC43 and HKU1 spike-specific IgG levels was observed in previously-infected individuals following one vaccine dose in oral fluid (OC43 S: p<0.0001; HKU1 S: p=0.0423) suggesting cross-reactive IgG responses to seasonal beta coronaviruses. Mucosal spike-specific IgA responses were induced by mRNA vaccination particularly in previously-infected individuals (71%) but less frequently in naïve participants (23%). Neutralizing responses to SARS-CoV-2 ancestral and variants of concerns were detected following vaccination in naïve and previously-infected participants, with likely contribution from both IgG and IgA in previously-infected individuals (correlations between neutralizing responses and IgG: Spearman r=0.5642, p<0.0001; IgA: Spearman r=0.4545, p=0.0001). We also observed that breakthrough infections or a third vaccine dose enhanced mucosal antibody levels and neutralizing responses. These data contribute to show that a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection tailors the mucosal antibody profile induced by vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 947021, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316385

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron infections are common among individuals who are vaccinated or have recovered from prior variant infection, but few reports have immunologically assessed serial Omicron infections. We characterized SARS-CoV-2 humoral responses in an individual who acquired laboratory-confirmed Omicron BA.1.15 ten weeks after a third dose of BNT162b2, and BA.2 thirteen weeks later. Responses were compared to 124 COVID-19-naive vaccinees. One month post-second and -third vaccine doses, the participant's wild-type and BA.1-specific IgG, ACE2-displacement and virus neutralization activities were average for a COVID-19-naive triple-vaccinated individual. BA.1 infection boosted the participant's responses to the cohort ≥95th percentile, but even this strong "hybrid" immunity failed to protect against BA.2. Reinfection increased BA.1 and BA.2-specific responses only modestly. Though vaccines clearly protect against severe disease, results highlight the continued importance of maintaining additional protective measures to counteract the immune-evasive Omicron variant, particularly as vaccine-induced immune responses naturally decline over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 954801, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315271

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 and its mutant strains continue to rapidly spread with high infection and fatality. Large-scale SARS-CoV-2 vaccination provides an important guarantee for effective resistance to existing or mutated SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. However, whether the host metabolite levels respond to SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-influenced host immunity remains unclear. To help delineate the serum metabolome profile of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated volunteers and determine that the metabolites tightly respond to host immune antibodies and cytokines, in this study, a total of 59 sera samples were collected from 30 individuals before SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and from 29 COVID-19 vaccines 2 weeks after the two-dose vaccination. Next, untargeted metabolomics was performed and a distinct metabolic composition was revealed between the pre-vaccination (VB) group and two-dose vaccination (SV) group by partial least squares-discriminant and principal component analyses. Based on the criteria: FDR < 0.05, absolute log2 fold change greater than 0.25, and VIP >1, we found that L-glutamic acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), succinic acid, and taurine showed increasing trends from SV to VB. Furthermore, SV-associated metabolites were mainly annotated to butanoate metabolism and glutamate metabolism pathways. Moreover, two metabolite biomarkers classified SV from VB individuals with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.96. Correlation analysis identified a positive association between four metabolites enriched in glutamate metabolism and serum antibodies in relation to IgG, IgM, and IgA. These results suggest that the contents of gamma-aminobutyric acid and indole in serum could be applied as biomarkers in distinguishing vaccinated volunteers from the unvaccinated. What's more, metabolites such as GABA and taurine may serve as a metabolic target for adjuvant vaccines to boost the ability of the individuals to improve immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Biomarkers , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cytokines , Glutamic Acid , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Indoles , Metabolomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Succinic Acid , Taurine , Vaccination , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1006040, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315050

ABSTRACT

Since the introduction of efficient vaccines anti-SARS-CoV-2, antibody quantification becomes increasingly useful for immunological monitoring and COVID-19 control. In several situations, saliva samples may be an alternative to the serological test. Thus, this rapid systematic review aimed to evaluate if saliva is suitable for SARS-CoV-2 detection after vaccination. For this purpose, search strategies were applied at EMBASE, PubMed, and Web of Science. Studies were selected by two reviewers in a two-phase process. After selection, 15 studies were eligible and included in data synthesis. In total, salivary samples of approximately 1,080 vaccinated and/or convalescent individuals were analyzed. The applied vaccines were mostly mRNA-based (BioNTech 162b2 mRNA/Pfizer and Spikevax mRNA-1273/Moderna), but recombinant viral-vectored vaccines (Ad26. COV2. S Janssen - Johnson & Johnson and Vaxzevria/Oxford AstraZeneca) were also included. Different techniques were applied for saliva evaluation, such as ELISA assay, Multiplex immunoassay, flow cytometry, neutralizing and electrochemical assays. Although antibody titers are lower in saliva than in serum, the results showed that saliva is suitable for antibody detection. The mean of reported correlations for titers in saliva and serum/plasma were moderate for IgG (0.55, 95% CI 0.38-9.73), and weak for IgA (0.28, 95% CI 0.12-0.44). Additionally, six out of nine studies reported numerical titers for immunoglobulins detection, from which the level in saliva reached their reference value in four (66%). IgG but not IgA are frequently presented in saliva from vaccinated anti-COVID-19. Four studies reported lower IgA salivary titers in vaccinated compared to previously infected individuals, otherwise, two reported higher titers of IgA in vaccinated. Concerning IgG, two studies reported high antibody titers in the saliva of vaccinated individuals compared to those previously infected and one presented similar results for vaccinated and infected. The detection of antibodies anti-SARS-CoV-2 in the saliva is available, which suggests this type of sample is a suitable alternative for monitoring the population. Thus, the results also pointed out the possible lack of mucosal immunity induction after anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. It highlights the importance of new vaccination strategies also focused on mucosal alternatives directly on primary routes of SARS-CoV-2 entrance. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42022336968, identifier CRD42022336968.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva , Vaccination
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1017863, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314541

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 using mRNA-based vaccines has been highly recommended for fragile subjects, including myelofibrosis patients (MF). Available data on the immune responsiveness of MF patients to mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, and the impact of the therapy with the JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib, are still fragmented. Here, we profile the spike-specific IgG and memory B-cell response in MF patients, treated or not with ruxolitinib, after the second and the third dose of SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 (BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccines. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells samples were collected before vaccination, post the second and the third doses and tested for spike-specific antibodies, ACE2/RBD antibody inhibition binding activity and spike-specific B cells. The third vaccine dose significantly increased the spike-specific IgG titers in both ruxolitinib-treated and untreated patients, and strongly enhanced the percentage of subjects with antibodies capable of in vitro blocking ACE2/RBD interaction, from 50% up to 80%. While a very low frequency of spike-specific B cells was measured in blood 7 days after the second vaccination dose, a strong and significant increase was elicited by the third dose administration, generating a B cell response similar to the one detected in healthy controls. Despite the overall positive impact of the third dose in MF patients, two patients that were under active concomitant immunosuppressive treatment at the time of vaccination, and a patient that received lymphodepleting therapies in the past, remained low responders. The third mRNA vaccine dose strongly increases the SARS-CoV-2 specific humoral and B cell responses in MF patients, promoting a reactivation of the immune response similar to the one observed in healthy controls.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Janus Kinase Inhibitors , Primary Myelofibrosis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Memory B Cells , Nitriles , Pyrazoles , Pyrimidines , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
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