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1.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 90, 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) leads to huge economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The high levels of mutations of IBV render vaccines partially protective. Therefore, it is urgent to explore an effective antiviral drug or agent. The present study aimed to investigate the in vivo anti-IBV activity of a mixture of plant essential oils (PEO) of cinnamaldehyde (CA) and glycerol monolaurate (GML), designated as Jin-Jing-Zi. RESULTS: The antiviral effects were evaluated by clinical signs, viral loads, immune organ indices, antibody levels, and cytokine levels. The infection rates in the PEO-M (middle dose) and PEO-H (high dose) groups were significantly lower than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L (low dose) groups. The cure rates in the PEO-M and PEO-H groups were significantly higher than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups, and the PEO-M group had the highest cure rate of 92.31%. The symptom scores and IBV mRNA expression levels were significantly reduced in the PEO-M group. PEO significantly improved the immune organ indices and IBV-specific antibody titers of infected chickens. The anti-inflammatory factor levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the PEO-M group maintained high concentrations for a long time. The IL-6 levels in the PEO-M group were lower than those in prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups. CONCLUSION: The PEO had remarkable inhibition against IBV and the PEO acts by inhibiting virus multiplication and promoting immune function, suggesting that the PEO has great potential as a novel anti-IBV agent for inhibiting IBV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Oils, Volatile , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Poultry Diseases/drug therapy , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
2.
J Virol ; 96(6): e0205921, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788916

ABSTRACT

The Gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly contagious global pathogen prevalent in all types of poultry flocks. IBV is responsible for economic losses and welfare issues in domestic poultry, resulting in a significant risk to food security. IBV vaccines are currently generated by serial passage of virulent IBV field isolates through embryonated hens' eggs. The different patterns of genomic variation accumulated during this process means that the exact mechanism of attenuation is unknown and presents a risk of reversion to virulence. Additionally, the passaging process adapts the virus to replicate in chicken embryos, increasing embryo lethality. Vaccines produced in this manner are therefore unsuitable for in ovo application. We have developed a reverse genetics system, based on the pathogenic IBV strain M41, to identify genes which can be targeted for rational attenuation. During the development of this reverse genetics system, we identified four amino acids, located in nonstructural proteins (nsps) 10, 14, 15, and 16, which resulted in attenuation both in vivo and in ovo. Further investigation highlighted a role of amino acid changes, Pro85Leu in nsp 10 and Val393Leu in nsp 14, in the attenuated in vivo phenotype observed. This study provides evidence that mutations in nsps offer a promising mechanism for the development of rationally attenuated live vaccines against IBV, which have the potential for in ovo application. IMPORTANCE The Gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the etiological agent of infectious bronchitis, an acute, highly contagious, economically important disease of poultry. Vaccination is achieved using a mixture of live attenuated vaccines for young chicks and inactivated vaccines as boosters for laying hens. Live attenuated vaccines are generated through serial passage in embryonated hens' eggs, an empirical process which achieves attenuation but retains immunogenicity. However, these vaccines have a risk of reversion to virulence, and they are lethal to the embryo. In this study, we identified amino acids in the replicase gene which attenuated IBV strain M41, both in vivo and in ovo. Stability assays indicate that the attenuating amino acids are stable and unlikely to revert. The data in this study provide evidence that specific modifications in the replicase gene offer a promising direction for IBV live attenuated vaccine development, with the potential for in ovo application.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Gammacoronavirus , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Amino Acids , Animals , Chick Embryo , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Female , Poultry , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics
3.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 38(4): 634-642, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780364

ABSTRACT

The development and production of safe and effective vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) provides hope for controlling the current pandemic. Adverse events following immunization are unwanted responses or unintended events that must be carefully monitored, as all vaccines, including those developed against SARS-CoV-2, are required to meet safety criteria for administration in humans. Information was collected from the PubMed/Medline database during the months of August 2020 to November 2021. Most adverse events reported in clinical trials were mild or moderate; however, thrombotic events associated with some viral vector-based vaccines against COVID-19 were identified in follow-up studies, although completion of the various ongoing studies and post-marketing surveillance is required to determine all potential adverse events, as well as those of special interest.


El desarrollo y producción de vacunas seguras y eficaces contra la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) ofrece la esperanza para el control de la pandemia actual. Los eventos adversos posteriores a la inmunización son respuestas indeseadas o acontecimientos involuntarios que siguen a la vacunación, y que deben ser cuidadosamente vigilados, ya que todas las vacunas, incluyendo las desarrolladas contra el SARS-CoV-2, requieren cumplir con los criterios de seguridad para su administración en humanos. Se recopiló la información de la base de datos de PubMed/Medline durante los meses de agosto de 2020 a noviembre de 2021. La mayoría de los eventos adversos identificados en los ensayos clínicos fueron leves o moderados; sin embargo, se identificaron eventos trombóticos asociados a algunas vacunas basadas en vectores virales contra la COVID-19 en estudios de seguimiento, aunque se requiere la conclusión de los distintos estudios en curso y vigilancia poscomercialización para determinar todos los posibles eventos adversos y de especial interés.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 842303, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776049

ABSTRACT

Novel Coronary Pneumonia is the most infectious disease with the highest number of morbidity and mortality in 100 years. Despite aggressive and effective COVID-19 prevention and control measures, countries have been unable to stop its outbreaks. With the widespread use of vaccines, the occurrence of COVID-19 has declined markedly. April 21, 2021, New York scholars reported Vaccine Breakthrough Infections with SARS-CoV-2 Variants, which immediately attracted widespread attention. In this mini-review, we focus on the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and its mutant strains and vaccine breakthrough infections. We have found that outbreaks of vaccine-breaking SARS-CoV-2 Delta infections in many countries are primarily the result of declining vaccine-generated antibody titers and relaxed outbreak management measures. For this reason, we believe that the main response to vaccine-breaking infections with the SARS-CoV-2 variant is to implement a rigorous outbreak defense policy and vaccine application. Only by intensifying the current vaccination intensity, gradually improving the vaccine and its application methods, and strengthening non-pharmaceutical measures such as travel restrictions, social distancing, masking and hand hygiene, can the COVID-19 outbreak be fully controlled at an early date.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1699, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773974

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants that partly evade neutralizing antibodies raises concerns of reduced vaccine effectiveness and increased infection. We previously demonstrated that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein vaccine adjuvanted with AS03 (CoV2 preS dTM-AS03) elicits robust neutralizing antibody responses in naïve subjects. Here we show that, in macaques primed with mRNA or protein-based subunit vaccine candidates, one booster dose of CoV2 preS dTM-AS03 (monovalent D614 or B.1.351, or bivalent D614 + B.1.351 formulations), significantly boosts the pre-existing neutralizing antibodies against the parental strain from 177- to 370-fold. Importantly, the booster dose elicits high and persistent cross-neutralizing antibodies covering five former or current SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron) and, unexpectedly, SARS-CoV-1. Interestingly, we show that the booster specifically increases the functional antibody responses as compared to the receptor binding domain (RBD)-specific responses. Our findings show that these vaccine candidates, when used as a booster, have the potential to offer cross-protection against a broad spectrum of variants. This has important implications for vaccine control of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and informs on the benefit of a booster with the vaccine candidates currently under evaluation in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Primates , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
Vaccine ; 40(16): 2370-2378, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773835

ABSTRACT

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae, Mhp) are two of the most common pathogens involved in the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) resulting in significant economic losses worldwide. Vaccination is the most effective approach to disease prevention. Since PRRSV and Mhp co-infections are very common, an efficient dual vaccine against these pathogens is required for the global swine industry. Compared with traditional vaccines, multi-epitope vaccines have several advantages, they are comparatively easy to produce and construct, are chemically stable, and do not have an infectious potential. In this study, to develop a safe and effective vaccine, B cell and T cell epitopes of PRRSV-GP5, PRRSV-M, Mhp-P46, and Mhp-P65 protein had been screened to construct a recombinant epitope protein rEP-PM that has good hydrophilicity, strong antigenicity, and high surface accessibility, and each epitope is independent and complete. After immunization in mice, rEP-PM could induce the production of high levels of antibodies, and it had good immunoreactivity with anti-rEP-PM, anti-PRRSV, and anti-Mhp antibodies. The anti-rEP-PM antibody specifically recognizes proteins from PRRSV and Mhp. Moreover, rEP-PM induced a Th1-dominant cellular immune response in mice. Our results showed that the rEP-PM protein could be a potential candidate for the development of a safe and effective multi-epitope peptide combined vaccine to control PRRSV and Mhp infections.


Subject(s)
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Mice , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal/prevention & control , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Swine
8.
Int Heart J ; 63(2): 388-392, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770812

ABSTRACT

CoronaVac is an inactivated coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine that was granted an emergency authorization by the World Health Organization in June 2021. We present the two cases of patients presenting with chest pain, abnormal electrocardiography, and elevated troponin consistent with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction within 24 hours after receiving the CoronaVac COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265011, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770748

ABSTRACT

While mass vaccination campaigns against COVID-19 have inoculated almost 200 million Americans and billions more worldwide, significant pockets of vaccine hesitancy remain. Research has firmly established that vaccine efficacy is an important driver of public vaccine acceptance and choice. However, current vaccines offer widely varying levels of protection against different adverse health outcomes of COVID-19. This study employs an experiment embedded on a survey of 1,194 US adults in June 2021 to examine how communications about vaccine efficacy affect vaccine choice. The experiment manipulated how vaccine efficacy was defined across four treatments: (1) protection against symptomatic infection; (2) protection against severe illness; (3) protection against hospitalization/death; (4) efficacy data on all three metrics. The control group received no efficacy information. Subjects were asked to choose between a pair of vaccines-a one-dose viral vector vaccine or two-dose mRNA vaccine-whose efficacy data varied across the four experimental treatment groups. Efficacy data for each vaccine on each dimension were adapted from clinical trial data on the Johnson & Johnson/Janssen and Pfizer/BioNTech vaccines. Among all respondents, only modest preference gaps between the two vaccines emerged in the control group and when the two vaccines' roughly equivalent efficacy data against hospitalization and death were reported. Strong preferences for a two-dose mRNA vaccine emerged in treatments where its higher efficacy against symptomatic or severe illness was reported, as well as in the treatment where data on all three efficacy criteria were reported. Unvaccinated respondents preferred a one-dose viral vector vaccine when only efficacy data against hospitalization or death was presented. Black and Latino respondents were significantly more likely to choose the one-shot viral vector vaccine in the combined efficacy treatment than were whites. Results speak to the importance of understanding how communications about vaccine efficacy affect public preferences in an era of increasing uncertainty about efficacy against variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Communication , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
10.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05008, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771702

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of the B.1.617.2 Delta variant of concern was associated with increasing numbers of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections and COVID-19 hospital admissions. We aim to study national population level SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 associated hospitalisations by vaccination status to provide insight into the association of vaccination on temporal trends during the time in which the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant became dominant in Scotland. Methods: We used the Scotland-wide Early Pandemic Evaluation and Enhanced Surveillance (EAVE II) platform, covering the period when Delta was pervasive (May 01 to October 23, 2021). We performed a cohort analysis of every vaccine-eligible individual aged 20 or over from across Scotland. We determined the vaccination coverage, SARS-CoV-2 incidence rate and COVID-19 associated hospitalisations incidence rate. We then stratified those rates by age group, vaccination status (defined as "unvaccinated", "partially vaccinated" (1 dose), or "fully vaccinated" (2 doses)), vaccine type (BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19), and coexisting conditions known to be associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes. Results: During the follow-up of 4 183 022 individuals, there were 407 405 SARS-CoV-2 positive cases with 10 441 (2.6%) associated with a hospital admission. Those vaccinated with two doses (defined as fully vaccinated in the current study) of either vaccine had lower incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 infections and much lower incidence rates of COVID-19 associated hospitalisations than those unvaccinated in the Delta era in Scotland. Younger age groups were substantially more likely to get infected. In contrast, older age groups were much more likely to be hospitalised. The incidence rates stratified by coexisting conditions were broadly comparable with the overall age group patterns. Conclusions: This study suggests that national population level vaccination was associated with a reduction in SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 associated hospitalisation in Scotland throughout the Delta era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Young Adult
11.
Future Microbiol ; 17: 417-424, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770941

ABSTRACT

Background: Emergence of vaccine-escaping SARS-CoV-2 variants is a serious problem for global public health. The currently rampant Omicron has been shown to possess remarkable vaccine escape; however, the selection pressure exerted by vaccines might pave the way for other escape mutants in the near future. Materials & methods: For detection of neutralizing antibodies, the authors used the recently developed HiBiT-based virus-like particle neutralization test system. Sera after vaccination (two doses of Pfizer/BioNTech mRNA vaccine) were used to evaluate the neutralizing activity against various strains of SARS-CoV-2. Results: Beta+R346K, which was identified in the Philippines in August 2021, exhibited the highest vaccine resistance among the tested mutants. Surprisingly, Mu+K417N mutant exhibited almost no decrease in neutralization. Imdevimab retained efficacy against these strains. Conclusions: Mutations outside the receptor-binding domain contributed to vaccine escape. Both genomic surveillance and phenotypic analysis synergistically accelerate identifications of vaccine-escaping strains.


Prior to the Omicron variant, the SARS-CoV-2 Beta sub-variant found in the Philippines in August 2021 exhibited remarkable vaccine-escaping capacity. Although Omicron is, at the time of writing, causing most of the infections globally, both genomic surveillance and phenotypic analysis should be reinforced to accelerate the identification of newly emerging vaccine-escaping SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic
12.
RMD Open ; 8(1)2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769951

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The majority of patients with B-cell-depleting therapies show compromised vaccination-induced immune responses. Herein, we report on the trajectories of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses in patients of the RituxiVac study compared with healthy volunteers and investigate the immunogenicity of a third vaccination in previously humoral non-responding patients. METHODS: We investigated the humoral and cell-mediated immune response after SARS-CoV-2 messanger RNA vaccination in patients with a history with anti-CD20 therapies. Coprimary outcomes were antispike and SARS-CoV-2-stimulated interferon-γ concentrations in vaccine responders 4.3 months (median; IQR: 3.6-4.8 months) after first evaluation, and humoral and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) after a third vaccine dose in previous humoral non-responders. Immunity decay rates were compared using analysis of covariance in linear regression. RESULTS: 5.6 months (IQR: 5.1-6.7) after the second vaccination, we detected antispike IgG in 88% (29/33) and CMI in 44% (14/32) of patients with a humoral response after two-dose vaccination compared with 92% (24/26) healthy volunteers with antispike IgG and 69% (11/16) with CMI 6.8 months after the second vaccination (IQR: 6.0-7.1). Decay rates of antibody concentrations were comparable between patients and controls (p=0.70). In two-dose non-responders, a third SARS-CoV-2 vaccine elicited humoral responses in 19% (6/32) and CMI in 32% (10/31) participants. CONCLUSION: This study reveals comparable immunity decay rates between patients with anti-CD20 treatments and healthy volunteers, but inefficient humoral or CMI after a third SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in most two-dose humoral non-responders calling for individually tailored vaccination strategies in this population.Trial registration numberNCT04877496; ClinicalTrials.gov number.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e225018, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767288

ABSTRACT

Importance: COVID-19 vaccines are effective, but inequities in vaccine administration and waning immunity may limit vaccine effectiveness. Objectives: To report statewide trends in vaccine administration and vaccine effectiveness in Minnesota. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used COVID-19 vaccine data from the Minnesota Immunization Information Connection from October 25, 2020, through October 30, 2021 that were linked with electronic health record (EHR) data from health systems collaborating as part of the Minnesota EHR Consortium (MNEHRC). Participants included individuals who were seen at a participating health system in Minnesota. Exposures: Individuals were considered fully vaccinated in the second week after receipt of a second dose of a BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccine or a single dose of an Ad26.COV.2.S vaccine. Main Outcomes and Measures: A completed vaccination series and vaccine breakthrough, defined as either a positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test or a hospital admission the same week or within the 3 weeks following a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test. A test-negative design and incident rate ratio were used to evaluate COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness separately for the BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, and Ad26.COV.2.S vaccines. Rurality and social vulnerability index were assessed at the area level. Results: This study included 4 431 190 unique individuals at participating health systems, and 3 013 704 (68%) of the individuals were fully vaccinated. Vaccination rates were lowest among Minnesotans who identified as Hispanic (116 422 of 217 019 [54%]), multiracial (30 066 of 57 412 [52%]), American Indian or Alaska Native (22 190 of 41 437 [54%]), and Black or African American (158 860 of 326 595 [49%]) compared with Minnesotans who identified as Asian or Pacific Islander (159 999 of 210 994 [76%]) or White (2 402 928 of 3 391 747 [71%]). Among individuals aged 19 to 64 years, vaccination rates were lower in rural areas (196 479 of 308 047 [64%]) compared with urban areas (151 541 of 1 951 265 [77%]) and areas with high social vulnerability (544 433 of 774 952 [70%]) compared with areas with low social vulnerability (571 613 of 724 369 [79%]). In the 9 weeks ending October 30, 2021, vaccine effectiveness as assessed by a test-negative design was 33% (95% CI, 30%-37%) for Ad26.COV.2.S; 53% (95% CI, 52%-54%) for BNT162b2; and 66% (95% CI, 65%-67%) for mRNA-1273. For SARS-CoV-2-related hospitalizations, vaccine effectiveness in the 9 weeks ending October 30, 2021, was 78% (95% CI, 75%-81%) for Ad26.COV.2.S; 81% (95% CI, 79%-82%) for BNT162b2; and 81% (95% CI, 79%-82%) for mRNA-1273. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study of data from a Minnesota statewide consortium suggests disparities in vaccine administration and effectiveness. Vaccine effectiveness against infection was lower for Ad26.COV.2.S and BNT162b2 but was associated with protection against SARS-CoV-2-related hospitalizations despite the increased prevalence of the Delta variant in Minnesota.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 128, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765453

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Binding and neutralising anti-Spike antibodies play a key role in immune defence against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Since it is known that antibodies wane with time and new immune-evasive variants are emerging, we aimed to assess the dynamics of anti-Spike antibodies in an African adult population with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and to determine the effect of subsequent COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: Using a prospective cohort design, we recruited adults with prior laboratory-confirmed mild/moderate COVID-19 in Blantyre, Malawi, and followed them up for 270 days (n = 52). A subset of whom subsequently received a single dose of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine (ChAdOx nCov-19) (n = 12). We measured the serum concentrations of anti-Spike and receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG antibodies using a Luminex-based assay. Anti-RBD antibody cross-reactivity across SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) was measured using a haemagglutination test. A pseudovirus neutralisation assay was used to measure neutralisation titres across VOCs. Ordinary or repeated measures one-way ANOVA was used to compare log10 transformed data, with p value adjusted for multiple comparison using Sídák's or Holm-Sídák's test. RESULTS: We show that neutralising antibodies wane within 6 months post mild/moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection (30-60 days vs. 210-270 days; Log ID50 6.8 vs. 5.3, p = 0.0093). High levels of binding anti-Spike or anti-RBD antibodies in convalescent serum were associated with potent neutralisation activity against the homologous infecting strain (p < 0.0001). A single dose of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine following mild/moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection induced a 2 to 3-fold increase in anti-Spike and -RBD IgG levels 30 days post-vaccination (both, p < 0.0001). The anti-RBD IgG antibodies from these vaccinated individuals were broadly cross-reactive against multiple VOCs and had neutralisation potency against original D614G, beta, and delta variants. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine is an effective booster for waning cross-variant antibody immunity after initial priming with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The potency of hybrid immunity and its potential to maximise the benefits of COVID-19 vaccines needs to be taken into consideration when formulating vaccination policies in sub-Saharan Africa, where there is still limited access to vaccine doses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology
15.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1614, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764178

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are crucial in controlling COVID-19, but knowledge of which factors determine waning immunity is limited. We examined antibody levels and T-cell gamma-interferon release after two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine or a combination of ChAdOx1-nCoV19 and BNT162b2 vaccines for up to 230 days after the first dose. Generalized mixed models with and without natural cubic splines were used to determine immunity over time. Antibody responses were influenced by natural infection, sex, and age. IgA only became significant in naturally infected. A one-year IgG projection suggested an initial two-phase response in those given the second dose delayed (ChAdOx1/BNT162b2) followed by a more rapid decrease of antibody levels. T-cell responses correlated significantly with IgG antibody responses. Our results indicate that IgG levels will drop at different rates depending on prior infection, age, sex, T-cell response, and the interval between vaccine injections. Only natural infection mounted a significant and lasting IgA response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated
16.
Vaccine ; 40(9): 1208-1212, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757896

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in catastrophic damage worldwide. Accordingly, the development of powerful, safe, easily accessible vaccines with long-term effectiveness is understood as an urgently needed countermeasure against this ongoing pandemic. Guided by this strong promise of using AAVs, we here designed, optimized, and developed an AAV-based vaccines (including AAV-RBD(max), AAV-RBD(wt), AAV-2xRBD, and AAV-3xRBD) that elicit strong immune responses against the RBD domain of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein. These immunogenic responses have proven long-lived, with near peak levels for at least six months in mice. Notably, the sera immunized with AAV-3xRBD vaccine contains powerful neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. Further evidence proven that potent specific antibodies could also be elicited in canines after vaccination with AAV-3xRBD vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Dogs , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e057741, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759370

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Critical questions remain about COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness (VE) in real-world settings, particularly in middle-income countries. We describe a study protocol to evaluate COVID-19 VE in preventing laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in health workers (HWs) in Albania, an upper-middle-income country. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In this 12-month prospective cohort study, we enrolled HWs at three hospitals in Albania. HWs are vaccinated through the routine COVID-19 vaccine campaign. Participants completed a baseline survey about demographics, clinical comorbidities, and infection risk behaviours. Baseline serology samples were also collected and tested against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and respiratory swabs were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. Participants complete weekly symptom questionnaires and symptomatic participants have a respiratory swab collected, which is tested for SARS-CoV-2. At 3, 6, 9 months and 12 months of the study, serology will be collected and tested for antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein and spike protein. VE will be estimated using a piecewise proportional hazards model (VE=1-HR). BASELINE DATA: From February to May 2021, 1504 HWs were enrolled. The median age was 44 (range: 22-71) and 78% were female. At enrolment, 72% of participants were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2. 56% of participants were vaccinated with one dose, of whom 98% received their first shot within 4 days of enrolment. All HWs received the Pfizer BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol and procedures were reviewed and approved by the WHO Ethical Review Board, reference number CERC.0097A, and the Albanian Institute of Public Health Ethical Review Board, reference number 156. All participants have provided written informed consent to participate in this study. The primary results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal at the time of completion. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04811391.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adult , Albania/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
18.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e935879, 2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753960

ABSTRACT

According to world statistics, men are more susceptible to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) than are women. Considering the interconnection between infections and male infertility, investigation of the potential impact of COVID-19 on men's reproductive health is now a particularly relevant topic. Published data indicate decreased sperm quality and orchitis development in patients with COVID-19, including reduced sperm count, decreased sperm motility, and elevated DNA fragmentation index. Although mass vaccination against COVID-19 is currently being carried out worldwide using available authorized vaccines, the effect of these vaccines on men's reproductive health has not yet been investigated. There is currently no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted in semen, but available data suggest that it can infect spermatogonia, spermatids, Leydig cells, and Sertoli cells. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 orchitis and reduced male fertility may be long-term complications of COVID-19, which requires further investigation. Currently, there is also no evidence that vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have any pathological effects on spermatogenesis or male reproductive health. Thus, further studies are needed to determine the effects of COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccines on men's reproductive health, which will help to optimize the management and rehabilitation of these patients. This review aims to discuss recent studies on the impact of the COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccines on men's reproductive health. The article addresses various issues such as the effect of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on testosterone biosynthesis, semen parameters, testicular tissue, and epididymis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , Sperm Motility/drug effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Male , Reproductive Health/trends , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sperm Motility/physiology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
19.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753693

ABSTRACT

Only limited data are available regarding the immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in HIV-1+ patients. Therefore, we investigated the humoral immune response after BNT162b2-mRNA vaccination or SARS-CoV-2 infection in HIV-1+ patients on antiretroviral therapy compared to HIV-1-uninfected subjects. Serum and saliva samples were analysed by SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific IgG and IgA ELISAs and a surrogate neutralization assay. While all subjects developed anti-spike IgG and IgA and neutralizing antibodies in serum after two doses of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, the HIV-1+ subjects displayed significantly lower neutralizing capacity and anti-spike IgA in serum compared to HIV-1-uninfected subjects. Serum levels of anti-spike IgG and neutralizing activity were significantly higher in vaccinees compared to SARS-CoV-2 convalescents irrespective of HIV-1 status. Among SARS-CoV-2 convalescents, there was no significant difference in spike-specific antibody response between HIV-1+ and uninfected subjects. In saliva, anti-spike IgG and IgA antibodies were detected both in vaccinees and convalescents, albeit at lower frequencies compared to the serum and only rarely with detectable neutralizing activity. In summary, our study demonstrates that the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine induces SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy, however, lower vaccine induced neutralization activity indicates a lower functionality of the humoral vaccine response in HIV-1+ patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV-1 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
20.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 23(4): 95, 2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753147

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 became a serious threat to humankind for the past couple of years. The development of vaccine and its immediate application might be the only to escape from the grasp of this demoniac pandemic. Approximately 343 clinical trials on COVID-19 vaccines are ongoing currently, and almost all countries are motivating ongoing researches at warp speed for the development of vaccines against COVID-19. This review explores the progress in the development of the vaccines, their current status of ongoing clinical research, mechanisms, and regulatory approvals. Many pharmaceutical companies are already in the endgame for manufacturing various vaccines of which some are already being marketed across the globe, while others are yet to get approval for marketing. The primary aim of this review is to compare regulatory accepted vaccines in terms of their composition, doses, regulatory status, and efficacy. The study is conducted by grouping into approved and unapproved vaccines for marketing. Different routes of administration of vaccines along with the efficacy of the routes are also presented in the review. A wide range of database and clinical trial data is reviewed for sorting out the information on different vaccines. Unfortunately, many mutations (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, kappa, omicron etc.) of SARS-CoV-2 have attacked people in very short time, which is the great challenge for investigational vaccines. Moreover, some vaccines like Pfizer's BNT162, Oxford's ChAdOx1, Moderna's mRNA-1273, and Bharat Biotech's Covaxin have got regulatory approval in some countries for its distribution which may prove to stand tall against the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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