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1.
Nature ; 590(7844): 36, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061177
2.
Vaccine ; 39(7): 1027, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060831
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(3): 515-518, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060674

ABSTRACT

While the role of children in the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains to be defined, children likely play an important role based on our knowledge of other respiratory viruses. Children are more likely to be asymptomatic or have milder symptoms and less likely to present for healthcare and be tested for SARS-CoV-2. Thus, our current estimates are likely under-representative of the true burden of SARS-CoV-2 in children. Given the potential direct benefit of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in children and the substantial indirect benefit through community protection, or "herd immunity," we argue that planning and implementation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines should include children. Furthermore, community protection occurred after widespread implementation of prior childhood vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae, rubella, and rotavirus. We detail considerations for vaccine clinical trials, potential barriers to the implementation of widespread vaccination and argue why children would be an ideal target population for vaccination.


Subject(s)
Viral Vaccines , Child , Humans , Immunity, Herd
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(3): 513-514, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060411

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus pandemic is unlike any other since 1918. A century of dramatic medical advances has produced a public expectation that the medical field will rapidly provide solutions to restore normalcy. In less than 6 months, since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified, the massive international effort to develop a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine has generated more than 140 vaccines in different stages of development, with 9 already recruiting into clinical trials posted on ClinicalTrials.gov. The long-term strategy to handle coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) will almost certainly rely on vaccines. But what type of protection can we realistically expect to achieve from vaccines and when?


Subject(s)
Vaccines , Viral Vaccines , Humans , Motivation
5.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059784

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus research has gained tremendous attention because of the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (nCoV or SARS-CoV-2). In this review, we highlight recent studies that provide atomic-resolution structural details important for the development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that can be used therapeutically and prophylactically and for vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Structural studies with SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing mAbs have revealed a diverse set of binding modes on the spike's receptor-binding domain and N-terminal domain and highlight alternative targets on the spike. We consider this structural work together with mAb effects in vivo to suggest correlations between structure and clinical applications. We also place mAbs against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 spike to suggest features that may be desirable to design mAbs or vaccines capable of conferring broad protection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , /immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Internalization/drug effects
6.
Lancet ; 397(10275): 643-645, 2021 02 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057540
7.
Science ; 371(6528): 460-461, 2021 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054605
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050616

ABSTRACT

The prevention and control of infectious diseases is crucial to the maintenance and protection of social and public healthcare. The global impact of SARS-CoV-2 has demonstrated how outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging infections can lead to pandemics of significant public health and socio-economic burden. Vaccination is one of the most effective approaches to protect against infectious diseases, and to date, multiple vaccines have been successfully used to protect against and eradicate both viral and bacterial pathogens. The main criterion of vaccine efficacy is the induction of specific humoral and cellular immune responses, and it is well established that immunogenicity depends on the type of vaccine as well as the route of delivery. In addition, antigen delivery to immune organs and the site of injection can potentiate efficacy of the vaccine. In light of this, microvesicles have been suggested as potential vehicles for antigen delivery as they can carry various immunogenic molecules including proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides directly to target cells. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms of microvesicle biogenesis and the role of microvesicles in infectious diseases. Further, we discuss the application of microvesicles as a novel and effective vaccine delivery system.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Immunologic Factors/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Animals , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Humans , Vaccination/methods , Viral Vaccines/immunology
9.
Immunity ; 54(2): 205-210, 2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046373

ABSTRACT

Immunological memory is a mechanism to protect us against reinfection. Antibodies produced by B cells are integral to this defense strategy and underlie virtually all vaccine success. Here, we explain how B cells memory is generated by infection and vaccination, what influences its efficacy and its persistence, and how characterizing these parameters in the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) will help achieve protective immunity through vaccination.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunologic Memory , /immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Humans , Plasma Cells/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/immunology
10.
Front Immunol ; 11: 601170, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045522

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are one of the greatest public health achievements and have saved millions of lives. They represent a key countermeasure to limit epidemics caused by emerging infectious diseases. The Ebola virus disease crisis in West Africa dramatically revealed the need for a rapid and strategic development of vaccines to effectively control outbreaks. Seven years later, in light of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, this need has never been as urgent as it is today. Vaccine development and implementation of clinical trials have been greatly accelerated, but still lack strategic design and evaluation. Responses to vaccination can vary widely across individuals based on factors like age, microbiome, co-morbidities and sex. The latter aspect has received more and more attention in recent years and a growing body of data provide evidence that sex-specific effects may lead to different outcomes of vaccine safety and efficacy. As these differences might have a significant impact on the resulting optimal vaccine regimen, sex-based differences should already be considered and investigated in pre-clinical and clinical trials. In this Review, we will highlight the clinical observations of sex-specific differences in response to vaccination, delineate sex differences in immune mechanisms, and will discuss the possible resulting implications for development of vaccine candidates against emerging infections. As multiple vaccine candidates against COVID-19 that target the same antigen are tested, vaccine development may undergo a decisive change, since we now have the opportunity to better understand mechanisms that influence vaccine-induced reactogenicity and effectiveness of different vaccines.


Subject(s)
Immunity/immunology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sex Characteristics , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/immunology , Humans , Vaccination/methods
19.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(1): 165978, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023476

ABSTRACT

An epidemic caused by COVID-19 in China turned into pandemic within a short duration affecting countries worldwide. Researchers and companies around the world are working on all the possible strategies to develop a curative or preventive strategy for the same, which includes vaccine development, drug repurposing, plasma therapy, and drug discovery based on Artificial intelligence. Therapeutic approaches based on Computational biology and Machine-learning algorithms are specially considered, with a view that these could provide a fast and accurate outcome in the present scenario. As an effort towards developing possible therapeutics for COVID-19, we have used machine-learning algorithms for the generation of alignment kernels from diverse viral sequences of Covid-19 reported from India, China, Italy and USA. Using these diverse sequences we have identified the conserved motifs and subsequently a peptide library was designed against them. Of these, 4 peptides have shown strong binding affinity against the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 (Mpro) and also maintained their stability and specificity under physiological conditions as observed through MD Simulations. Our data suggest that these evolutionary peptides against COVID-19 if found effective may provide cross-protection against diverse Covid-19 variants.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Peptides/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , /prevention & control , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Library , Peptides/pharmacology , /isolation & purification , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Replication/drug effects
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