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1.
Biotechnol Lett ; 44(1): 45-57, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536319

ABSTRACT

After its emergence in late 2019 SARS-CoV-2 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on 11 March 2020 and has claimed more than 2.8 million lives. There has been a massive global effort to develop vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and the rapid and low cost production of large quantities of vaccine is urgently needed to ensure adequate supply to both developed and developing countries. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are composed of viral antigens that self-assemble into structures that mimic the structure of native viruses but lack the viral genome. Thus they are not only a safer alternative to attenuated or inactivated vaccines but are also able to induce potent cellular and humoral immune responses and can be manufactured recombinantly in expression systems that do not require viral replication. VLPs have successfully been produced in bacteria, yeast, insect and mammalian cell cultures, each production platform with its own advantages and limitations. Plants offer a number of advantages in one production platform, including proper eukaryotic protein modification and assembly, increased safety, low cost, high scalability as well as rapid production speed, a critical factor needed to control outbreaks of potential pandemics. Plant-based VLP-based viral vaccines currently in clinical trials include, amongst others, Hepatitis B virus, Influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Here we discuss the importance of plants as a next generation expression system for the fast, scalable and low cost production of VLP-based vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/biosynthesis , Plants, Genetically Modified/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/biosynthesis , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/economics , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Gene Expression , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/economics , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/genetics , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis , Viral Vaccines/genetics
2.
Vaccine ; 38(48): 7668-7673, 2020 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872530

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: More than 100 COVID-19 vaccine candidates are in development since the SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequence was published in January 2020. The uptake of a COVID-19 vaccine among children will be instrumental in limiting the spread of the disease as herd immunity may require vaccine coverage of up to 80% of the population. Prior history of pandemic vaccine coverage was as low as 40% among children in the United States during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. PURPOSE: To investigate predictors associated with global caregivers' intent to vaccinate their children against COVID-19, when the vaccine becomes available. METHOD: An international cross sectional survey of 1541 caregivers arriving with their children to 16 pediatric Emergency Departments (ED) across six countries from March 26 to May 31, 2020. RESULTS: 65% (n = 1005) of caregivers reported that they intend to vaccinate their child against COVID-19, once a vaccine is available. A univariate and subsequent multivariate analysis found that increased intended uptake was associated with children that were older, children with no chronic illness, when fathers completed the survey, children up-to-date on their vaccination schedule, recent history of vaccination against influenza, and caregivers concerned their child had COVID-19 at the time of survey completion in the ED. The most common reason reported by caregivers intending to vaccinate was to protect their child (62%), and the most common reason reported by caregivers refusing vaccination was the vaccine's novelty (52%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of caregivers intend to vaccinate their children against COVID-19, though uptake will likely be associated with specific factors such as child and caregiver demographics and vaccination history. Public health strategies need to address barriers to uptake by providing evidence about an upcoming COVID-19 vaccine's safety and efficacy, highlighting the risks and consequences of infection in children, and educating caregivers on the role of vaccination.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Viral Vaccines/economics , Adult , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Herd , International Cooperation , Israel/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Multivariate Analysis , North America/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis
3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 237, 2020 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-867546

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging virus that is highly pathogenic and has caused the recent worldwide pandemic officially named coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Currently, considerable efforts have been put into developing effective and safe drugs and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Vaccines, such as inactivated vaccines, nucleic acid-based vaccines, and vector vaccines, have already entered clinical trials. In this review, we provide an overview of the experimental and clinical data obtained from recent SARS-CoV-2 vaccines trials, and highlight certain potential safety issues that require consideration when developing vaccines. Furthermore, we summarize several strategies utilized in the development of vaccines against other infectious viruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), with the aim of aiding in the design of effective therapeutic approaches against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunization Schedule , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Patient Safety , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, DNA , Vaccines, Subunit , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage
6.
Vaccine ; 38(48): 7612-7628, 2020 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-845923

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 causes a severe respiratory disease called COVID-19. Currently, global health is facing its devastating outbreak. However, there is no vaccine available against this virus up to now. In this study, a novel multi-epitope vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 was designed to provoke both innate and adaptive immune responses. The immunodominant regions of six non-structural proteins (nsp7, nsp8, nsp9, nsp10, nsp12 and nsp14) of SARS-CoV-2 were selected by multiple immunoinformatic tools to provoke T cell immune response. Also, immunodominant fragment of the functional region of SARS-CoV-2 spike (400-510 residues) protein was selected for inducing neutralizing antibodies production. The selected regions' sequences were connected to each other by furin-sensitive linker (RVRR). Moreover, the functional region of ß-defensin as a well-known agonist for the TLR-4/MD complex was added at the N-terminus of the vaccine using (EAAAK)3 linker. Also, a CD4 + T-helper epitope, PADRE, was used at the C-terminal of the vaccine by GPGPG and A(EAAAK)2A linkers to form the final vaccine construct. The physicochemical properties, allergenicity, antigenicity, functionality and population coverage of the final vaccine construct were analyzed. The final vaccine construct was an immunogenic, non-allergen and unfunctional protein which contained multiple CD8 + and CD4 + overlapping epitopes, IFN-γ inducing epitopes, linear and conformational B cell epitopes. It could form stable and significant interactions with TLR-4/MD according to molecular docking and dynamics simulations. Global population coverage of the vaccine for HLA-I and II were estimated 96.2% and 97.1%, respectively. At last, the final vaccine construct was reverse translated to design the DNA vaccine. Although the designed vaccine exhibited high efficacy in silico, further experimental validation is necessary.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis , Amino Acid Sequence , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/chemistry , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/chemistry , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , Protein Structure, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, DNA , Vaccines, Subunit , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Viral Vaccines/metabolism
7.
Vaccine ; 38(48): 7581-7584, 2020 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-845859

ABSTRACT

Today, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health emergency and vaccination measures to counter its diffusion are deemed necessary. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of the disease, unleashes a T-helper 2 immune response in those patients requiring intensive care. Here, we illustrate the immunological mechanism to train the immune system towards a more effective and less symptomatic T-helper 1 immune response, to be exploited against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Bacterial Vaccines/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Propionibacteriaceae/immunology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Corynebacterium , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Interleukins/genetics , Interleukins/immunology , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Th1 Cells/drug effects , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/virology , Th1-Th2 Balance/drug effects , Th2 Cells/drug effects , Th2 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/virology , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis
8.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(11): 709-713, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-834892

ABSTRACT

Immunity is a multifaceted phenomenon. For T cell-mediated memory responses to SARS-CoV-2, it is relevant to consider their impact both on COVID-19 disease severity and on viral spread in a population. Here, we reflect on the immunological and epidemiological aspects and implications of pre-existing cross-reactive immune memory to SARS-CoV-2, which largely originates from previous exposure to circulating common cold coronaviruses. We propose four immunological scenarios for the impact of cross-reactive CD4+ memory T cells on COVID-19 severity and viral transmission. For each scenario, we discuss its implications for the dynamics of herd immunity and on projections of the global impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the human population, and assess its plausibility. In sum, we argue that key potential impacts of cross-reactive T cell memory are already incorporated into epidemiological models based on data of transmission dynamics, particularly with regard to their implications for herd immunity. The implications of immunological processes on other aspects of SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology are worthy of future study.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronaviridae Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronaviridae/drug effects , Coronaviridae/immunology , Coronaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Coronaviridae Infections/immunology , Coronaviridae Infections/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immunity, Herd/drug effects , Immunologic Memory , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Rhinovirus/drug effects , Rhinovirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis
11.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 20(26): 2362-2378, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789061

ABSTRACT

The article highlights an up-to-date progress in studies on structural and the remedial aspects of novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV, renamed as SARS-CoV-2, leading to the disease COVID-19, a pandemic. In general, all CoVs including SARS-CoV-2 are spherical positive single-stranded RNA viruses containing spike (S) protein, envelope (E) protein, nucleocapsid (N) protein, and membrane (M) protein, where S protein has a Receptor-binding Domain (RBD) that mediates the binding to host cell receptor, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2). The article details the repurposing of some drugs to be tried for COVID-19 and presents the status of vaccine development so far. Besides drugs and vaccines, the role of Convalescent Plasma (CP) therapy to treat COVID-19 is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Gene Expression , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive/methods , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Models, Molecular , Niclosamide/therapeutic use , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/drug effects , Protein Structure, Secondary , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/ultrastructure , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis
12.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(10): 594-602, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759596
13.
Molecules ; 25(18)2020 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750656

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has led to an unprecedented pandemic, which demands urgent development of antiviral drugs and antibodies; as well as prophylactic approaches, namely vaccines. Algae biotechnology has much to offer in this scenario given the diversity of such organisms, which are a valuable source of antiviral and anti-inflammatory compounds that can also be used to produce vaccines and antibodies. Antivirals with possible activity against SARS-CoV-2 are summarized, based on previously reported activity against Coronaviruses or other enveloped or respiratory viruses. Moreover, the potential of algae-derived anti-inflammatory compounds to treat severe cases of COVID-19 is contemplated. The scenario of producing biopharmaceuticals in recombinant algae is presented and the cases of algae-made vaccines targeting viral diseases is highlighted as valuable references for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Successful cases in the production of functional antibodies are described. Perspectives on how specific algae species and genetic engineering techniques can be applied for the production of anti-viral compounds antibodies and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are provided.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Lectins/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biological Products/chemistry , Biological Products/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cell Nucleus/chemistry , Cell Nucleus/genetics , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/chemistry , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/metabolism , Chloroplasts/chemistry , Chloroplasts/genetics , Chloroplasts/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Genetic Engineering/methods , Humans , Lectins/chemistry , Lectins/isolation & purification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Pandemics , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/isolation & purification , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology
14.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 38(2): 210-212, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745217

ABSTRACT

Recent emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and subsequent containment procedures have impacted the world as never seen before. Therefore, there is considerable curiosity about the genome evolution related to the origin, transmission and vaccine impact of this virus. We have analysed genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from Indian patients to gain an in-depth understanding of genomic evolution and transmission in India. Phylogenetic analysis and mutation profiling revealed major lineages being evolved by characteristic mutations. As the mutation frequency in spike protein is comparatively lesser, the candidate vaccines expected to have wide coverage worldwide including India.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/genetics , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Genome, Viral , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Animals , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Eutheria/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , India/epidemiology , Mutation , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis , Viral Vaccines/immunology
15.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(10): 615-632, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744378

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the most formidable challenge to humanity in a century. It is widely believed that prepandemic normalcy will never return until a safe and effective vaccine strategy becomes available and a global vaccination programme is implemented successfully. Here, we discuss the immunological principles that need to be taken into consideration in the development of COVID-19 vaccine strategies. On the basis of these principles, we examine the current COVID-19 vaccine candidates, their strengths and potential shortfalls, and make inferences about their chances of success. Finally, we discuss the scientific and practical challenges that will be faced in the process of developing a successful vaccine and the ways in which COVID-19 vaccine strategies may evolve over the next few years.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genetic Vectors/chemistry , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Herd/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunization Schedule , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, DNA , Vaccines, Subunit , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis
18.
Virus Res ; 288: 198141, 2020 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725473

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of the betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has become a significant concern to public health care worldwide. As of August 19, 2020, more than 22,140,472 people are infected, and over 781,135 people have died due to this deadly virus. In the USA alone, over 5,482,602 people are currently infected, and more than 171,823 people have died. SARS-CoV-2 has shown a higher infectivity rate and a more extended incubation period as compared to previous coronaviruses. SARS-CoV-2 binds much more strongly than SARS-CoV to the same host receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Previously, several methods to develop a vaccine against SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV have been tried with limited success. Since SARS-CoV-2 uses the spike (S) protein for entry to the host cell, it is one of the most preferred targets for making vaccines or therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we have summarised the characteristics of the S protein, as well as the different approaches being used for the development of vaccines and/or therapeutics based on the S protein.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genetic Vectors/chemistry , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Patient Safety , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/immunology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, DNA , Vaccines, Subunit , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/biosynthesis , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis
19.
Mucosal Immunol ; 13(6): 877-891, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724735

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is causing a major once-in-a-century global pandemic. The scientific and clinical community is in a race to define and develop effective preventions and treatments. The major features of disease are described but clinical trials have been hampered by competing interests, small scale, lack of defined patient cohorts and defined readouts. What is needed now is head-to-head comparison of existing drugs, testing of safety including in the background of predisposing chronic diseases, and the development of new and targeted preventions and treatments. This is most efficiently achieved using representative animal models of primary infection including in the background of chronic disease with validation of findings in primary human cells and tissues. We explore and discuss the diverse animal, cell and tissue models that are being used and developed and collectively recapitulate many critical aspects of disease manifestation in humans to develop and test new preventions and treatments.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Animals, Genetically Modified , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cats , Chiroptera , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cricetulus , Female , Ferrets , Haplorhini , Humans , Male , Mice , Organoids/drug effects , Organoids/immunology , Organoids/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Species Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage
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