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1.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687051

ABSTRACT

The persistent expansion of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) requires the rapid development of safe and effective countermeasures to reduce transmission, morbidity, and mortality. Several highly efficacious vaccines are actively being deployed around the globe to expedite mass vaccination and control of COVID-19. Notably, viral vectored vaccines (VVVs) are among the first to be approved for global distribution and use. In this review, we examine the humoral, cellular, and innate immune responses elicited by viral vectors, and the immune correlates of protection against COVID-19 in preclinical and clinical studies. We also discuss the durability and breadth of immune response induced by VVVs and boosters. Finally, we present challenges associated with VVVs and offer solutions for overcoming certain limitations of current vaccine regimens. Collectively, this review provides the rationale for expanding the portfolio of VVVs against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Disease Models, Animal , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunity, Innate , Immunization, Secondary , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines/classification
2.
Poult Sci ; 99(6): 2944-2954, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824735

ABSTRACT

This trial assessed the efficacy of a commercial essential oil (EO) product on the immune response to vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND) and subsequent challenge with virulent ND virus genotype VII (vNDv genotype VII) by using the following experimental groups of broiler chickens (Each group had 21 birds with 3 replicates in each, n = 7): NC (negative control), PC (positive control), VC (vaccinated), and VTC (vaccinated and treated with EOs). Moreover, in a trial to study the effect of EOs on vNDv genotype VII in vivo as a preventive or therapeutic measure, 2 additional ND-vaccinated groups were used (PRV: medicated 1 D before vNDv challenge for 5 D; and TTT: medicated 2 D after vNDv challenge for 5 D). In addition, the immune-modulatory effect of EOs on the avian influenza (AI), infectious bronchitis (IB), and infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccines was assessed through the serological response. The use of EOs along with administration of ND vaccines (VTC) revealed a lower mortality rate (42.86%), clinical signs, and postmortem lesion score (11) than ND vaccines alone (VC) (52.28% mortality and score 15), in addition to lower hemagglutination inhibition (P < 0.05) (6.5 ± 0.46) and viral shedding (10 log 2.28 ± 0.24) titres 1 wk after challenge in comparison with VC (8.63 ± 0.65 and 10 log 3.29 ± 0.72, respectively). Nevertheless, the EOs mixture (VTC) (1952 ± 28.82) did not significantly (P > 0.05) improve growth performance compared with the nontreated birds (NC and VC) (1970 ± 19.56 and 1904 ± 38.66). EOs showed an antiviral effect on vNDv in vivo (in chickens) as a preventive measure (PRV) as well as some therapeutic effect (TTT) through decreasing the viral shedding titres (loNC0), mortality rate, and severity of clinical signs and postmortem lesions, in addition to serum malondialdhyde level. Regarding the other viruses, the EOs mixture did not improve the immune response to the AI and IB vaccines but significantly (P < 0.05) increased the ELISA antibody titre for IBD virus at the 28th D of age (2,108 ± 341.05). The studied EOs mixture showed an immune-stimulating response to ND and IBD vaccines, antiviral effect against ND virus, especially if administered before the challenge; however, it did not have a growth-promoting effect.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Immunity, Humoral , Newcastle Disease/prevention & control , Newcastle disease virus/immunology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , Animals , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/classification
3.
Microbes Infect ; 22(6-7): 245-253, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-351314

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 (also known as 2019-nCoV and HCoV-19) has posed serious threats to public health and economic stability worldwide, thus calling for development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and other emerging and reemerging coronaviruses. Since SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV have high similarity of their genomic sequences and share the same cellular receptor (ACE2), it is essential to learn the lessons and experiences from the development of SARS-CoV vaccines for the development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge on the advantages and disadvantages of the SARS-CoV vaccine candidates and prospected the strategies for the development of safe, effective and broad-spectrum coronavirus vaccines for prevention of infection by currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 and other emerging and reemerging coronaviruses that may cause future epidemics or pandemics.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/classification , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cross Protection , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Viral Vaccines/classification
4.
Int J Mol Med ; 46(1): 3-16, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-197747

ABSTRACT

In the current context of the pandemic triggered by SARS-COV-2, the immunization of the population through vaccination is recognized as a public health priority. In the case of SARS­COV­2, the genetic sequencing was done quickly, in one month. Since then, worldwide research has focused on obtaining a vaccine. This has a major economic impact because new technological platforms and advanced genetic engineering procedures are required to obtain a COVID­19 vaccine. The most difficult scientific challenge for this future vaccine obtained in the laboratory is the proof of clinical safety and efficacy. The biggest challenge of manufacturing is the construction and validation of production platforms capable of making the vaccine on a large scale.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/classification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Drug Compounding/methods , Drug Compounding/standards , Drug Compounding/trends , Drug Development/methods , Drug Development/standards , Drug Development/trends , Humans , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccine Potency , Viral Vaccines/classification , Viral Vaccines/standards , Viral Vaccines/supply & distribution , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
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