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1.
Nanoscale ; 14(16): 5942-5959, 2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778650

ABSTRACT

Filamentous bacteriophages are natural nanoparticles formed by the self-assembly of structural proteins that have the capability of replication and infection. They are used as a highly efficient vaccine platform to enhance immunogenicity and effectively stimulate the innate and adaptive immune response. Compared with traditional vaccines, phage-based vaccines offer thermodynamic stability, biocompatibility, homogeneity, high carrying capacity, self-assembly, scalability, and low toxicity. This review summarizes recent research on phage-based vaccines in virus prevention. In addition, the expression systems of filamentous phage-based virus vaccines and their application principles are discussed. Moreover, the prospect of the prevention of emerging infectious diseases, such as coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , COVID-19 , Inovirus , Nanoparticles , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Inovirus/metabolism , Viral Vaccines/metabolism
2.
Vaccine ; 38(48): 7612-7628, 2020 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-845923

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 causes a severe respiratory disease called COVID-19. Currently, global health is facing its devastating outbreak. However, there is no vaccine available against this virus up to now. In this study, a novel multi-epitope vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 was designed to provoke both innate and adaptive immune responses. The immunodominant regions of six non-structural proteins (nsp7, nsp8, nsp9, nsp10, nsp12 and nsp14) of SARS-CoV-2 were selected by multiple immunoinformatic tools to provoke T cell immune response. Also, immunodominant fragment of the functional region of SARS-CoV-2 spike (400-510 residues) protein was selected for inducing neutralizing antibodies production. The selected regions' sequences were connected to each other by furin-sensitive linker (RVRR). Moreover, the functional region of ß-defensin as a well-known agonist for the TLR-4/MD complex was added at the N-terminus of the vaccine using (EAAAK)3 linker. Also, a CD4 + T-helper epitope, PADRE, was used at the C-terminal of the vaccine by GPGPG and A(EAAAK)2A linkers to form the final vaccine construct. The physicochemical properties, allergenicity, antigenicity, functionality and population coverage of the final vaccine construct were analyzed. The final vaccine construct was an immunogenic, non-allergen and unfunctional protein which contained multiple CD8 + and CD4 + overlapping epitopes, IFN-γ inducing epitopes, linear and conformational B cell epitopes. It could form stable and significant interactions with TLR-4/MD according to molecular docking and dynamics simulations. Global population coverage of the vaccine for HLA-I and II were estimated 96.2% and 97.1%, respectively. At last, the final vaccine construct was reverse translated to design the DNA vaccine. Although the designed vaccine exhibited high efficacy in silico, further experimental validation is necessary.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis , Amino Acid Sequence , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/chemistry , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/chemistry , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , Protein Structure, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, DNA , Vaccines, Subunit , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Viral Vaccines/metabolism
3.
Infect Genet Evol ; 85: 104517, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737519

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to predict a novel chimeric vaccine by simultaneously targeting four major structural proteins via the establishment of ancestral relationship among different strains of coronaviruses. Conserved regions from the homologous protein sets of spike glycoprotein, membrane protein, envelope protein and nucleocapsid protein were identified through multiple sequence alignment. The phylogeny analyses of whole genome stated that four proteins reflected the close ancestral relation of SARS-CoV-2 to SARS-COV-1 and bat coronavirus. Numerous immunogenic epitopes (both T cell and B cell) were generated from the common fragments which were further ranked on the basis of antigenicity, transmembrane topology, conservancy level, toxicity and allergenicity pattern and population coverage analysis. Top putative epitopes were combined with appropriate adjuvants and linkers to construct a novel multiepitope subunit vaccine against COVID-19. The designed constructs were characterized based on physicochemical properties, allergenicity, antigenicity and solubility which revealed the superiority of construct V3 in terms safety and efficacy. Essential molecular dynamics and normal mode analysis confirmed minimal deformability of the refined model at molecular level. In addition, disulfide engineering was investigated to accelerate the stability of the protein. Molecular docking study ensured high binding affinity between construct V3 and HLA cells, as well as with different host receptors. Microbial expression and translational efficacy of the constructs were checked using pET28a(+) vector of E. coli strain K12. However, the in vivo and in vitro validation of suggested vaccine molecule might be ensured with wet lab trials using model animals for the implementation of the presented data.


Subject(s)
Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Vaccines, Subunit/genetics , Viral Structural Proteins/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/growth & development , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Phylogeny , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/chemistry , Vaccines, Subunit/metabolism , Viral Structural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Structural Proteins/immunology , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Viral Vaccines/metabolism
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10895, 2020 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-629396

ABSTRACT

In the past two decades, 7 coronaviruses have infected the human population, with two major outbreaks caused by SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV in the year 2002 and 2012, respectively. Currently, the entire world is facing a pandemic of another coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, with a high fatality rate. The spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 mediates entry of virus into the host cell and is one of the most important antigenic determinants, making it a potential candidate for a vaccine. In this study, we have computationally designed a multi-epitope vaccine using spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. The overall quality of the candidate vaccine was validated in silico and Molecular Dynamics Simulation confirmed the stability of the designed vaccine. Docking studies revealed stable interactions of the vaccine with Toll-Like Receptors and MHC Receptors. The in silico cloning and codon optimization supported the proficient expression of the designed vaccine in E. coli expression system. The efficiency of the candidate vaccine to trigger an effective immune response was assessed by an in silico immune simulation. The computational analyses suggest that the designed multi-epitope vaccine is structurally stable which can induce specific immune responses and thus, can be a potential vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibody Affinity/immunology , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Histocompatibility Antigens/immunology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Structure, Tertiary , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 2/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Viral Vaccines/metabolism
5.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e926016, 2020 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-401471

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the novel ß-coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in a global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Clinical studies have documented that potentially severe neurological symptoms are associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, thereby suggesting direct CNS penetration by the virus. Prior studies have demonstrated that the destructive neurological effects of rabies virus (RABV) infections are mediated by CNS transport of the virus tightly bound to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). By comparison, it has been hypothesized that a similar mechanism exists to explain the multiple neurological effects of SARS-CoV-2 via binding to peripheral nAChRs followed by orthograde or retrograde transport into the CNS. Genetic engineering of the RABV has been employed to generate novel vaccines consisting of non-replicating RABV particles expressing chimeric capsid proteins containing human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV), Ebolavirus, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) sequences. Accordingly, we present a critical discussion that integrates lessons learned from prior RABV research and vaccine development into a working model of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine that selectively targets and neutralizes CNS penetration of a tightly bound viral nAChR complex.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Rabies virus/physiology , Receptors, Nicotinic/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Replication , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Domains , Rabies virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Viral Vaccines/metabolism
6.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 17(6): 613-620, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-13977

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a serious threat to global public health, calling for the development of safe and effective prophylactics and therapeutics against infection of its causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). The CoV spike (S) protein plays the most important roles in viral attachment, fusion and entry, and serves as a target for development of antibodies, entry inhibitors and vaccines. Here, we identified the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in SARS-CoV-2 S protein and found that the RBD protein bound strongly to human and bat angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. SARS-CoV-2 RBD exhibited significantly higher binding affinity to ACE2 receptor than SARS-CoV RBD and could block the binding and, hence, attachment of SARS-CoV-2 RBD and SARS-CoV RBD to ACE2-expressing cells, thus inhibiting their infection to host cells. SARS-CoV RBD-specific antibodies could cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 RBD protein, and SARS-CoV RBD-induced antisera could cross-neutralize SARS-CoV-2, suggesting the potential to develop SARS-CoV RBD-based vaccines for prevention of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Vaccines , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chiroptera , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cross Reactions , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Protein Binding , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Viral Vaccines/metabolism , Virus Internalization
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