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1.
J Hum Lact ; 38(3): 401-406, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies are secreted into human milk after women are vaccinated against COVID-19, which might protect the breastfed infant. Due to several reports of severe side-effects of the Oxford-AstraZeneca ChAdOx1 (AZD1222) vaccine against COVID-19, some lactating women followed a heterologous vaccination schedule consisting of the first dose of AZD1222 and a second dose of an mRNA-based vaccine. However, it is unclear whether this generates a significant SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody response in human milk. MAIN ISSUE: To quantify the SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody response in human milk of two lactating women receiving a heterologous vaccination schedules: AZD1222 and mRNA-based vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech [BNT162b2] and Moderna [mRNA-1273]). MANAGEMENT: Both participants collected 16 samples of human milk longitudinally. SARS-CoV-2-specific Immunoglobulin A was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, it could be suggested that heterologous vaccination with AZD1222 and an mRNA-based vaccine can elicit a significant SARS-CoV-2 specific IgA response in human milk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine , Breast Feeding , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Female , Humans , Lactation , Milk, Human , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology
2.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(6): e612, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866537

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Surrogate rapid serological assay was urgently demanded for accessibly interpretation of immunity potency and duration of neutralizing antibody against SARS-CoV-2. The longitudinal trajectory of antibody profile with a reliable large-scale assay was crucial to judge the protective immune status, avoid futile therapy and provide insight into the booster vaccination minimizing the risk of COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 195 volunteers were enrolled for a two-doses procedure (0 and 28 days) of inactive vaccination, as well as ten COVID-19 convalescents. The serum was collected at six time point and detected by chemiluminescent immunoassay with SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody (Nab), SARS-CoV-2 RBD immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody (RBD IgG) and RBD total antibody. The diagnostic results and the correlation of antibody level were evaluated among three serological (Nab, RBD IgG, and RBD total antibody) assay, as well as with an authorized cPass kit (Nab). Referred to the assay-specific threshold, the seroconversion rate and dynamic titer of antibody were exhibited from 0 to 56 days since vaccination. RESULTS: There was no difference observed with diagnostic results between neutralizing and RBD IgG antibody (p > 0.05). Both diagnostic results of neutralizing and RBD IgG antibody testing differentiated from RBD total antibody assay (p < 0.05). The coefficient of correlation (R) was above 0.90 among the levels of those three antibodies, more than 0.60 in comparison with neutralizing antibody by cPass enzyme-linked immunoassay. The "S" varying pattern for various antibodies level was observed with time extension after vaccination. The seroconversion rate was below 11.1% in 2 weeks after the priming dose, while the value climbed to 81% in 1 week after the boosting dose. The seroconversion rate was maintained around 91%. The inactive vaccine elicited 81-fold higher antibody levels after finished the vaccination schedule than that at the basic point. Besides, the level of neutralizing antibody induced by vaccine was found with a 0.2-fold ratio by comparison with that in COVID-19 convalescents. CONCLUSION: The humoral immune response products including SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing, RBD IgG antibody and total antibody and the varying pattern of the antibody profile could be rapidly detected by CILA method. Meanwhile, the continuing and dynamic determination was attributed to evaluate the protection effect of humoral immunity against the SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology
3.
Immunohorizons ; 6(4): 275-282, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818325

ABSTRACT

Putative subcomponent vaccines of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein and ARNAX (TLR3-specific adjuvant for priming dendritic cells) were examined and compared with spike protein + Alum in a mouse BALB/c model. Survival, body weight, virus-neutralizing Ab titer in the blood, and viral titer in the lung were evaluated for prognosis markers. The infiltration degrees of eosinophils in the lung were histopathologically monitored at 10 d postinfection. The results were: (1) adjuvant was essential in vaccines to achieve a complete recovery from infection, (2) ARNAX displayed optimal body weight recovery compared with Alum, (3) ARNAX was optimal for the amelioration of eosinophilic pneumonia, and (4) the eosinophil infiltration score was not associated with the neutralizing Ab titer in the blood or viral titer in the lung. Although the pathological link between the TLR3 vaccine and lung eosinophil infiltration remains unclear, severe acute respiratory syndrome-mediated eosinophilic pneumonia can be blocked by the prior induction of dendritic cell priming by ARNAX.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Eosinophilia , SARS Virus , Viral Vaccines , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Animals , Body Weight , Dendritic Cells , Disease Models, Animal , Mice , Pulmonary Eosinophilia/prevention & control , Toll-Like Receptor 3 , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology
4.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 128, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765453

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Binding and neutralising anti-Spike antibodies play a key role in immune defence against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Since it is known that antibodies wane with time and new immune-evasive variants are emerging, we aimed to assess the dynamics of anti-Spike antibodies in an African adult population with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and to determine the effect of subsequent COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: Using a prospective cohort design, we recruited adults with prior laboratory-confirmed mild/moderate COVID-19 in Blantyre, Malawi, and followed them up for 270 days (n = 52). A subset of whom subsequently received a single dose of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine (ChAdOx nCov-19) (n = 12). We measured the serum concentrations of anti-Spike and receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG antibodies using a Luminex-based assay. Anti-RBD antibody cross-reactivity across SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) was measured using a haemagglutination test. A pseudovirus neutralisation assay was used to measure neutralisation titres across VOCs. Ordinary or repeated measures one-way ANOVA was used to compare log10 transformed data, with p value adjusted for multiple comparison using Sídák's or Holm-Sídák's test. RESULTS: We show that neutralising antibodies wane within 6 months post mild/moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection (30-60 days vs. 210-270 days; Log ID50 6.8 vs. 5.3, p = 0.0093). High levels of binding anti-Spike or anti-RBD antibodies in convalescent serum were associated with potent neutralisation activity against the homologous infecting strain (p < 0.0001). A single dose of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine following mild/moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection induced a 2 to 3-fold increase in anti-Spike and -RBD IgG levels 30 days post-vaccination (both, p < 0.0001). The anti-RBD IgG antibodies from these vaccinated individuals were broadly cross-reactive against multiple VOCs and had neutralisation potency against original D614G, beta, and delta variants. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine is an effective booster for waning cross-variant antibody immunity after initial priming with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The potency of hybrid immunity and its potential to maximise the benefits of COVID-19 vaccines needs to be taken into consideration when formulating vaccination policies in sub-Saharan Africa, where there is still limited access to vaccine doses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 645210, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383856

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is one of the most efficient public healthcare measures to fight infectious diseases. Nevertheless, the immune mechanisms induced in vivo by vaccination are still unclear. The route of administration, an important vaccination parameter, can substantially modify the quality of the response. How the route of administration affects the generation and profile of immune responses is of major interest. Here, we aimed to extensively characterize the profiles of the innate and adaptive response to vaccination induced after intradermal, subcutaneous, or intramuscular administration with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara model vaccine in non-human primates. The adaptive response following subcutaneous immunization was clearly different from that following intradermal or intramuscular immunization. The subcutaneous route induced a higher level of neutralizing antibodies than the intradermal and intramuscular vaccination routes. In contrast, polyfunctional CD8+ T-cell responses were preferentially induced after intradermal or intramuscular injection. We observed the same dichotomy when analyzing the early molecular and cellular immune events, highlighting the recruitment of cell populations, such as CD8+ T lymphocytes and myeloid-derived suppressive cells, and the activation of key immunomodulatory gene pathways. These results demonstrate that the quality of the vaccine response induced by an attenuated vaccine is shaped by early and subtle modifications of the innate immune response. In this immunization context, the route of administration must be tailored to the desired type of protective immune response. This will be achieved through systems vaccinology and mathematical modeling, which will be critical for predicting the efficacy of the vaccination route for personalized medicine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccinia virus/immunology , Vaccinia/immunology , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , Animals , Injections, Intradermal , Injections, Intramuscular , Macaca fascicularis , Male , Vaccines, Attenuated/pharmacology
7.
Cell Rep ; 36(4): 109452, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306891

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants that attenuate antibody neutralization could jeopardize vaccine efficacy. We recently reported the protective activity of an intranasally administered spike protein-based chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine (ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S) in animals, which has advanced to human trials. Here, we assessed its durability, dose response, and cross-protective activity in mice. A single intranasal dose of ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S induced durably high neutralizing and Fc effector antibody responses in serum and S-specific IgG and IgA secreting long-lived plasma cells in the bone marrow. Protection against a historical SARS-CoV-2 strain was observed across a 100-fold vaccine dose range and over a 200-day period. At 6 weeks or 9 months after vaccination, serum antibodies neutralized SARS-CoV-2 strains with B.1.351, B.1.1.28, and B.1.617.1 spike proteins and conferred almost complete protection in the upper and lower respiratory tracts after challenge with variant viruses. Thus, in mice, intranasal immunization with ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S provides durable protection against historical and emerging SARS-CoV-2 strains.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , Administration, Intranasal/methods , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , Mice , Vaccination/methods , Viral Vaccines/immunology
8.
Microbiol Immunol ; 64(1): 33-51, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262996

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) protein of coronavirus, which binds to cellular receptors and mediates membrane fusion for cell entry, is a candidate vaccine target for blocking coronavirus infection. However, some animal studies have suggested that inadequate immunization against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) induces a lung eosinophilic immunopathology upon infection. The present study evaluated two kinds of vaccine adjuvants for use with recombinant S protein: gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which are expected to function as both an antigen carrier and an adjuvant in immunization; and Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, which have previously been shown to be an effective adjuvant in an ultraviolet-inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine. All the mice immunized with more than 0.5 µg S protein without adjuvant escaped from SARS after infection with mouse-adapted SARS-CoV; however, eosinophilic infiltrations were observed in the lungs of almost all the immunized mice. The AuNP-adjuvanted protein induced a strong IgG response but failed to improve vaccine efficacy or to reduce eosinophilic infiltration because of highly allergic inflammatory responses. Whereas similar virus titers were observed in the control animals and the animals immunized with S protein with or without AuNPs, Type 1 interferon and pro-inflammatory responses were moderate in the mice treated with S protein with and without AuNPs. On the other hand, the TLR agonist-adjuvanted vaccine induced highly protective antibodies without eosinophilic infiltrations, as well as Th1/17 cytokine responses. The findings of this study will support the development of vaccines against severe pneumonia-associated coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Gold/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lung/immunology , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Analysis of Variance , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Immunization , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Toll-Like Receptors , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , Vero Cells , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
9.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 896: 173930, 2021 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139488

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which emerged in December 2019 and caused the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, took the world by surprise with an unprecedented public health emergency. Since this pandemic began, extraordinary efforts have been made by scientists to understand the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and to fight the infection by providing various preventive, diagnostic and treatment opportunities based on either novel hypotheses or past experiences. Despite all the achievements, COVID-19 continues to be an accelerating health threat with no specifically approved vaccine or therapy. This review highlights the recent advances in COVID-19 infection, with a particular emphasis on nanomedicine applications that can help in the development of effective vaccines or therapeutics against COVID-19. A novel future perspective has been proposed in this review based on utilizing polymersome nano-objects for effectively suppressing the cytokine storm, which may reduce the severity of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Nanomedicine/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Development , Humans
10.
Expert Opin Drug Discov ; 16(2): 115-117, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066185

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has catalyzed the production of potential antivirals and vaccines from research organizations across the globe. The initial step for all drug discovery models is the identification of suitable targets. One approach organizations may take to tackle this involves issuing raw data publicly for collaboration with other organizations in order to spark discussion, collectively experiment and stay up to date with advances in scientific knowledge. Areas covered: Numerous organizations have released genomic data, amongst other tools, for the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and this has led to the development of growing datasets of knowledge for continued collaboration amongst different scientific communities. A different technique employs a more closed, market-driven method in order to stay ahead financially in the race for developing a suitable antiviral or vaccine. The latter allows sustained motivation for company ambitions and progress has been made toward clinical trials for potential drugs. Expert opinion: A case can be made for both open and closed drug discovery models; however, due to the rapidly evolving nature of this deadly virus, organizations should collate their research and support one another to ensure satisfactory treatment can be approved in a timely manner.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Discovery/economics , Drug Discovery/methods , Humans , International Cooperation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 883: 173375, 2020 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959749

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, a newly emerged pathogen in December 2019, marked as one of the highly pathogenic Coronavirus, and altogether this is the third coronavirus attack that crossed the species barrier. As of 1st July 2020, it is spreading around 216 countries, areas or territories, and a total of 10,185,374 and 503,862 confirmed cases and death reports, respectively. The SARS-CoV-2 virus entered into the target cells by binding with the hACE2 receptors. Spike glycoprotein promotes the entry of the virus into host target cells. Literature reported a significant mutation in receptor binding sites and membrane proteins of the previous SARS-CoV to turned as SARS-CoV-2 virus, responsible for most dreadful pandemic COVID-19. These modifications may be the probable reason for the extreme transmission and pathogenicity of the virus. A hasty spread of COVID-19 throughout the world is highly threatening, but still, scientists do not have a proper therapeutic measure to fight with it. Scientists are endeavoring across the world to find effective therapy to combat COVID 19. Several drugs such as Remdesivir, Hydroxychloroquine, Chloroquine, Ribavirin, Ritonavir, Lopinavir, Favipiravir, Interferons, Bevacizumab, Azithromycin, etc. are currently under clinical trials. Vaccine development from various pharmaceutical companies and research institutes is under progress, and more than ten vaccine candidates are in the various phases of clinical trials. This review work highlighted the origin, emergence, structural features, pathogenesis, and clinical features of COVID-19. We have also discussed the in-line treatment strategies, preventive measures, and vaccines to combat the emergence of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 883: 173372, 2020 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959747

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the global pandemic caused by novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has put a challenge to identify or derive the therapeutics for its prevention and treatment. Despite the unprecedented advances in the modern medicinal system, currently, there are no proven effective therapies. However, rapid research on SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology help unveiling some new targets for potential drug therapies. Many drugs have been screened, and even their clinical trials are going on at an exceptional pace. Amongst these RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors (favipiravir and remdesivir) and steroids especially dexamethasone showed promising effects. The biological agents like tocilizumab, interferons, and convalescent plasma prove to be beneficial in viral clearance. Moreover, many immunomodulatory and viral S protein targeting vaccines have their ongoing clinical trials. The establishment of various in vitro and in vivo models for preclinical studies can additionally help the current research. The volume and the pace of the clinical trials launched to evaluate the safety and efficacy of various agents against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reflect the need for high-quality evidence for various therapies to be practiced by clinicians. This study aims to sum up all the current advances in the global medicinal system against the COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Development , Drug Discovery , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 132: 110914, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-880405

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of the SARS-CoV2 infection has become a worldwide threat and the urgent need to discover therapeutic interventions remains paramount. The primary roles of the coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein are to interact with the viral genome and pack them into ribonucleoprotein complex. It also plays critical roles at many stages of the viral life cycle. Herein, we explore the N protein of SARS-CoV2 to identify promising epitope-based vaccine candidates and target the N-terminal domain of SARS-CoV2 N-protein for potential inhibitors using an integrative bioinformatics approach. We identified B-cell epitopes and T-cell epitopes that are non-toxic, non-allergenic, capable of inducing IFN-γ and structurally stable with high global population coverage of response. The 404SKQLQQSMSSADS416 and 92RRIRGGDGKMKDL104 sequences of N-protein were identified to induce B-cell immunity. We also identified 79SSPDDQIGY87 and 305AQFAPSASAFFGMSR319 as potential T-cell epitopes that form stable structures with human leucocyte antigens. We have also identified zidovudine triphosphate, an anti-HIV agent, as a potential inhibitor of the N-terminal domain of SARS-CoV2 N-protein based on docking and simulation analysis and should be considered for experimental validations. The findings of this study can help fast-track the discovery of therapeutic options to combat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/physiology , Drug Discovery/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology/methods , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Phosphoproteins/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Zidovudine/pharmacology
17.
Vaccine ; 38(49): 7702-7707, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-867163

ABSTRACT

Several live-attenuated viral vaccine candidates are among the COVID-19 vaccines in development. The Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) has prepared a standardized template to describe the key considerations for the benefit-risk assessment of live-attenuated viral vaccines. This will help key stakeholders assess potential safety issues and understand the benefit-risk of such vaccines. The standardized and structured assessment provided by the template would also help to contribute to improved communication and support public acceptance of licensed live-attenuated viral vaccines.


Subject(s)
Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/standards , Vaccines, Attenuated/adverse effects , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Risk Assessment , Societies, Scientific , Vaccines, Attenuated/pharmacology , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology
18.
Lancet ; 396(10262): 1595-1606, 2020 11 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-857279

ABSTRACT

Understanding immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is crucial to understanding disease pathogenesis and the usefulness of bridge therapies, such as hyperimmune globulin and convalescent human plasma, and to developing vaccines, antivirals, and monoclonal antibodies. A mere 11 months ago, the canvas we call COVID-19 was blank. Scientists around the world have worked collaboratively to fill in this blank canvas. In this Review, we discuss what is currently known about human humoral and cellular immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and relate this knowledge to the COVID-19 vaccines currently in phase 3 clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Poult Sci ; 99(6): 2944-2954, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824735

ABSTRACT

This trial assessed the efficacy of a commercial essential oil (EO) product on the immune response to vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND) and subsequent challenge with virulent ND virus genotype VII (vNDv genotype VII) by using the following experimental groups of broiler chickens (Each group had 21 birds with 3 replicates in each, n = 7): NC (negative control), PC (positive control), VC (vaccinated), and VTC (vaccinated and treated with EOs). Moreover, in a trial to study the effect of EOs on vNDv genotype VII in vivo as a preventive or therapeutic measure, 2 additional ND-vaccinated groups were used (PRV: medicated 1 D before vNDv challenge for 5 D; and TTT: medicated 2 D after vNDv challenge for 5 D). In addition, the immune-modulatory effect of EOs on the avian influenza (AI), infectious bronchitis (IB), and infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccines was assessed through the serological response. The use of EOs along with administration of ND vaccines (VTC) revealed a lower mortality rate (42.86%), clinical signs, and postmortem lesion score (11) than ND vaccines alone (VC) (52.28% mortality and score 15), in addition to lower hemagglutination inhibition (P < 0.05) (6.5 ± 0.46) and viral shedding (10 log 2.28 ± 0.24) titres 1 wk after challenge in comparison with VC (8.63 ± 0.65 and 10 log 3.29 ± 0.72, respectively). Nevertheless, the EOs mixture (VTC) (1952 ± 28.82) did not significantly (P > 0.05) improve growth performance compared with the nontreated birds (NC and VC) (1970 ± 19.56 and 1904 ± 38.66). EOs showed an antiviral effect on vNDv in vivo (in chickens) as a preventive measure (PRV) as well as some therapeutic effect (TTT) through decreasing the viral shedding titres (loNC0), mortality rate, and severity of clinical signs and postmortem lesions, in addition to serum malondialdhyde level. Regarding the other viruses, the EOs mixture did not improve the immune response to the AI and IB vaccines but significantly (P < 0.05) increased the ELISA antibody titre for IBD virus at the 28th D of age (2,108 ± 341.05). The studied EOs mixture showed an immune-stimulating response to ND and IBD vaccines, antiviral effect against ND virus, especially if administered before the challenge; however, it did not have a growth-promoting effect.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Immunity, Humoral , Newcastle Disease/prevention & control , Newcastle disease virus/immunology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , Animals , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/classification
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