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3.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 39(5): 1059-1064, 2022 Oct 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100337

ABSTRACT

The raging global epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) not only poses a major threat to public health, but also has a huge impact on the global health care system and social and economic development. Therefore, accelerating the development of vaccines and antibody drugs to provide people with effective protection and treatment measures has become the top priority of researchers and medical institutions in the field. At present, several vaccines and antibody drugs targeting SARS-Cov-2 have been in the stage of clinical research or approved for marketing around the world. In this manuscript, we summarized the vaccines and antibody drugs which apply genetic engineering technologies to target spike protein, including subunit vaccines, viral vector vaccines, DNA vaccines, mRNA vaccines, and several neutralizing antibody drugs, and discussed the trends of vaccines and antibody drugs in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing
7.
J Biomed Sci ; 29(1): 68, 2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021289

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic remains a global public health crisis, presenting a broad range of challenges. To help address some of the main problems, the scientific community has designed vaccines, diagnostic tools and therapeutics for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The rapid pace of technology development, especially with regard to vaccines, represents a stunning and historic scientific achievement. Nevertheless, many challenges remain to be overcome, such as improving vaccine and drug treatment efficacies for emergent mutant strains of SARS-CoV-2. Outbreaks of more infectious variants continue to diminish the utility of available vaccines and drugs. Thus, the effectiveness of vaccines and drugs against the most current variants is a primary consideration in the continual analyses of clinical data that supports updated regulatory decisions. The first two vaccines granted Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs), BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273, still show more than 60% protection efficacy against the most widespread current SARS-CoV-2 variant, Omicron. This variant carries more than 30 mutations in the spike protein, which has largely abrogated the neutralizing effects of therapeutic antibodies. Fortunately, some neutralizing antibodies and antiviral COVID-19 drugs treatments have shown continued clinical benefits. In this review, we provide a framework for understanding the ongoing development efforts for different types of vaccines and therapeutics, including small molecule and antibody drugs. The ripple effects of newly emergent variants, including updates to vaccines and drug repurposing efforts, are summarized. In addition, we summarize the clinical trials supporting the development and distribution of vaccines, small molecule drugs, and therapeutic antibodies with broad-spectrum activity against SARS-CoV-2 strains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
10.
N Engl J Med ; 387(6): 525-532, 2022 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947717

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since it was first identified in early November 2021, the B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread quickly and replaced the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant as the dominant variant in many countries. Data on the real-world effectiveness of vaccines against the omicron variant in children are lacking. METHODS: In a study conducted from January 21, 2022, through April 8, 2022, when the omicron variant was spreading rapidly, we analyzed data on children in Singapore who were 5 to 11 years of age. We assessed the incidences of all reported SARS-CoV-2 infections (confirmed on polymerase-chain-reaction [PCR] assay, rapid antigen testing, or both), SARS-CoV-2 infections confirmed on PCR assay, and coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19)-related hospitalizations among unvaccinated, partially vaccinated (≥1 day after the first dose of vaccine and up to 6 days after the second dose), and fully vaccinated children (≥7 days after the second dose). Poisson regression was used to estimate vaccine effectiveness from the incidence rate ratio of outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 255,936 children were included in the analysis. Among unvaccinated children, the crude incidence rates of all reported SARS-CoV-2 infections, PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, and Covid-19-related hospitalizations were 3303.5, 473.8, and 30.0 per 1 million person-days, respectively. Among partially vaccinated children, vaccine effectiveness was 13.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.7 to 15.5) against all SARS-CoV-2 infections, 24.3% (95% CI, 19.5 to 28.9) against PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and 42.3% (95% CI, 24.9 to 55.7) against Covid-19-related hospitalization; in fully vaccinated children, vaccine effectiveness was 36.8% (95% CI, 35.3 to 38.2), 65.3% (95% CI, 62.0 to 68.3), and 82.7% (95% CI, 74.8 to 88.2), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: During a period when the omicron variant was predominant, BNT162b2 vaccination reduced the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection and Covid-19-related hospitalization among children 5 to 11 years of age.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccine Efficacy , BNT162 Vaccine/pharmacology , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Singapore/epidemiology , Vaccine Efficacy/statistics & numerical data , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
13.
N Engl J Med ; 386(23): 2201-2212, 2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864786

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) provides natural immunity against reinfection. Recent studies have shown waning of the immunity provided by the BNT162b2 vaccine. The time course of natural and hybrid immunity is unknown. METHODS: Using the Israeli Ministry of Health database, we extracted data for August and September 2021, when the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant was predominant, on all persons who had been previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 or who had received coronavirus 2019 vaccine. We used Poisson regression with adjustment for confounding factors to compare the rates of infection as a function of time since the last immunity-conferring event. RESULTS: The number of cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection per 100,000 person-days at risk (adjusted rate) increased with the time that had elapsed since vaccination with BNT162b2 or since previous infection. Among unvaccinated persons who had recovered from infection, this rate increased from 10.5 among those who had been infected 4 to less than 6 months previously to 30.2 among those who had been infected 1 year or more previously. Among persons who had received a single dose of vaccine after previous infection, the adjusted rate was low (3.7) among those who had been vaccinated less than 2 months previously but increased to 11.6 among those who had been vaccinated at least 6 months previously. Among previously uninfected persons who had received two doses of vaccine, the adjusted rate increased from 21.1 among those who had been vaccinated less than 2 months previously to 88.9 among those who had been vaccinated at least 6 months previously. CONCLUSIONS: Among persons who had been previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 (regardless of whether they had received any dose of vaccine or whether they had received one dose before or after infection), protection against reinfection decreased as the time increased since the last immunity-conferring event; however, this protection was higher than that conferred after the same time had elapsed since receipt of a second dose of vaccine among previously uninfected persons. A single dose of vaccine after infection reinforced protection against reinfection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Reinfection/immunology , Reinfection/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
15.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 90, 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) leads to huge economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The high levels of mutations of IBV render vaccines partially protective. Therefore, it is urgent to explore an effective antiviral drug or agent. The present study aimed to investigate the in vivo anti-IBV activity of a mixture of plant essential oils (PEO) of cinnamaldehyde (CA) and glycerol monolaurate (GML), designated as Jin-Jing-Zi. RESULTS: The antiviral effects were evaluated by clinical signs, viral loads, immune organ indices, antibody levels, and cytokine levels. The infection rates in the PEO-M (middle dose) and PEO-H (high dose) groups were significantly lower than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L (low dose) groups. The cure rates in the PEO-M and PEO-H groups were significantly higher than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups, and the PEO-M group had the highest cure rate of 92.31%. The symptom scores and IBV mRNA expression levels were significantly reduced in the PEO-M group. PEO significantly improved the immune organ indices and IBV-specific antibody titers of infected chickens. The anti-inflammatory factor levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the PEO-M group maintained high concentrations for a long time. The IL-6 levels in the PEO-M group were lower than those in prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups. CONCLUSION: The PEO had remarkable inhibition against IBV and the PEO acts by inhibiting virus multiplication and promoting immune function, suggesting that the PEO has great potential as a novel anti-IBV agent for inhibiting IBV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Oils, Volatile , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Poultry Diseases/drug therapy , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
16.
Mil Med ; 187(9-10): 233-234, 2022 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769320

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines are a remarkable scientific achievement. The perspective on past viral vaccine performance and viral characteristics, such as incubation period, can help with messaging and instilling vaccine confidence. Protection against mild infection occurs in the short term (months), but the persistence of protection against severe disease will likely endure longer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
17.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 59-73, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719339

ABSTRACT

As of April 15, 2020, the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) pandemic has swept through 213 countries and infected more than 1,870,000 individuals, posing an unprecedented threat to international health and the economy. There is currently no specific treatment available for patients with COVID-19 infection. The lessons learned from past management of respiratory viral infections have provided insights into treating COVID-19. Numerous potential therapies, including supportive intervention, immunomodulatory agents, antiviral therapy, and convalescent plasma transfusion, have been tentatively applied in clinical settings. A number of these therapies have provided substantially curative benefits in treating patients with COVID-19 infection. Furthermore, intensive research and clinical trials are underway to assess the efficacy of existing drugs and identify potential therapeutic targets to develop new drugs for treating COVID-19. Herein, we summarize the current potential therapeutic approaches for diseases related to COVID-19 infection and introduce their mechanisms of action, safety, and effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Interferons/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Killer Cells, Natural , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Nitric Oxide/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use
19.
Life Sci ; 280: 119744, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281492

ABSTRACT

Viral respiratory tract infections have significantly impacted global health as well as socio-economic growth. Respiratory viruses such as the influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and the recent SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) typically infect the upper respiratory tract by entry through the respiratory mucosa before reaching the lower respiratory tract, resulting in respiratory disease. Generally, vaccination is the primary method in preventing virus pathogenicity and it has been shown to remarkably reduce the burden of various infectious diseases. Nevertheless, the efficacy of conventional vaccines may be hindered by certain limitations, prompting the need to develop novel vaccine delivery vehicles to immunize against various strains of respiratory viruses and to mitigate the risk of a pandemic. In this review, we provide an insight into how polymer-based nanoparticles can be integrated with the development of vaccines to effectively enhance immune responses for combating viral respiratory tract infections.


Subject(s)
Nanoparticles/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Vaccination/methods , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
20.
Microbiol Immunol ; 64(1): 33-51, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262996

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) protein of coronavirus, which binds to cellular receptors and mediates membrane fusion for cell entry, is a candidate vaccine target for blocking coronavirus infection. However, some animal studies have suggested that inadequate immunization against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) induces a lung eosinophilic immunopathology upon infection. The present study evaluated two kinds of vaccine adjuvants for use with recombinant S protein: gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which are expected to function as both an antigen carrier and an adjuvant in immunization; and Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, which have previously been shown to be an effective adjuvant in an ultraviolet-inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine. All the mice immunized with more than 0.5 µg S protein without adjuvant escaped from SARS after infection with mouse-adapted SARS-CoV; however, eosinophilic infiltrations were observed in the lungs of almost all the immunized mice. The AuNP-adjuvanted protein induced a strong IgG response but failed to improve vaccine efficacy or to reduce eosinophilic infiltration because of highly allergic inflammatory responses. Whereas similar virus titers were observed in the control animals and the animals immunized with S protein with or without AuNPs, Type 1 interferon and pro-inflammatory responses were moderate in the mice treated with S protein with and without AuNPs. On the other hand, the TLR agonist-adjuvanted vaccine induced highly protective antibodies without eosinophilic infiltrations, as well as Th1/17 cytokine responses. The findings of this study will support the development of vaccines against severe pneumonia-associated coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Gold/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lung/immunology , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Analysis of Variance , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Immunization , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Toll-Like Receptors , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , Vero Cells , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
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