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2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1403, 2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117351

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are advancing into human clinical trials, with emphasis on eliciting high titres of neutralising antibodies against the viral spike (S). However, the merits of broadly targeting S versus focusing antibody onto the smaller receptor binding domain (RBD) are unclear. Here we assess prototypic S and RBD subunit vaccines in homologous or heterologous prime-boost regimens in mice and non-human primates. We find S is highly immunogenic in mice, while the comparatively poor immunogenicity of RBD is associated with limiting germinal centre and T follicular helper cell activity. Boosting S-primed mice with either S or RBD significantly augments neutralising titres, with RBD-focussing driving moderate improvement in serum neutralisation. In contrast, both S and RBD vaccines are comparably immunogenic in macaques, eliciting serological neutralising activity that generally exceed levels in convalescent humans. These studies confirm recombinant S proteins as promising vaccine candidates and highlight multiple pathways to achieving potent serological neutralisation.


Subject(s)
/therapeutic use , /pathogenicity , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody Formation/physiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Macaca , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/metabolism , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
3.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115090

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a causative agent of the CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, enters host cells via the interaction of its receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein with host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Therefore, the RBD is a promising vaccine target to induce protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, we report the development of an RBD protein-based vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2 using self-assembling Helicobacter pylori-bullfrog ferritin nanoparticles as an antigen delivery system. RBD-ferritin protein purified from mammalian cells efficiently assembled into 24-mer nanoparticles. Sixteen- to 20-month-old ferrets were vaccinated with RBD-ferritin nanoparticles (RBD nanoparticles) by intramuscular or intranasal inoculation. All vaccinated ferrets with RBD nanoparticles produced potent neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Strikingly, vaccinated ferrets demonstrated efficient protection from SARS-CoV-2 challenge, showing no fever, body weight loss, or clinical symptoms. Furthermore, vaccinated ferrets showed rapid clearance of infectious virus in nasal washes and lungs as well as of viral RNA in respiratory organs. This study demonstrates that spike RBD-nanoparticles are an effective protein vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , /chemistry , Animals , Cellulose/chemistry , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Ferrets , Ferritins , Viral Vaccines/chemistry
4.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115089

ABSTRACT

There are no approved vaccines against the life-threatening Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Attenuated vaccines have proven their potential to induce strong and long-lasting immune responses. We have previously described that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) envelope (E) protein is a virulence factor. Based on this knowledge, a collection of mutants carrying partial deletions spanning the C-terminal domain of the E protein (rMERS-CoV-E*) has been generated using a reverse genetics system. One of these mutants, MERS-CoV-E*Δ2in, was attenuated and provided full protection in a challenge with virulent MERS-CoV after a single immunization dose. The MERS-CoV-E*Δ2in mutant was stable as it maintained its attenuation after 16 passages in cell cultures and has been selected as a promising vaccine candidate.IMPORTANCE The emergence of the new highly pathogenic human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 that has already infected more than 80 million persons, killing nearly two million of them, clearly indicates the need to design efficient and safe vaccines protecting from these coronaviruses. Modern vaccines can be derived from virus-host interaction research directed to the identification of signaling pathways essential for virus replication and for virus-induced pathogenesis, in order to learn how to attenuate these viruses and design vaccines. Using a reverse genetics system developed in our laboratory, an infectious cDNA clone of MERS-CoV was engineered. Using this cDNA, we sequentially deleted several predicted and conserved motifs within the envelope (E) protein of MERS-CoV, previously associated with the presence of virulence factors. The in vitro and in vivo evaluation of these deletion mutants highlighted the relevance of predicted linear motifs in viral pathogenesis. Two of them, an Atg8 protein binding motif (Atg8-BM), and a forkhead-associated binding motif (FHA-BM), when deleted, rendered an attenuated virus that was evaluated as a vaccine candidate, leading to full protection against challenge with a lethal dose of MERS-CoV. This approach can be extended to the engineering of vaccines protecting against the new pandemic SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , /immunology , Genetic Engineering/methods , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/therapeutic use , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
5.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 58, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094025

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A severe form of pneumonia, named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization is widespread on the whole world. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was proved to be the main agent of COVID-19. In the present study, we conducted an in depth analysis of the SARS-COV-2 nucleocapsid to identify potential targets that may allow identification of therapeutic targets. METHODS: The SARS-COV-2 N protein subcellular localization and physicochemical property was analyzed by PSORT II Prediction and ProtParam tool. Then SOPMA tool and swiss-model was applied to analyze the structure of N protein. Next, the biological function was explored by mass spectrometry analysis and flow cytometry. At last, its potential phosphorylation sites were analyzed by NetPhos3.1 Server and PROVEAN PROTEIN. RESULTS: SARS-COV-2 N protein composed of 419 aa, is a 45.6 kDa positively charged unstable hydrophobic protein. It has 91 and 49% similarity to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV and is predicted to be predominantly a nuclear protein. It mainly contains random coil (55.13%) of which the tertiary structure was further determined with high reliability (95.76%). Cells transfected with SARS-COV-2 N protein usually show a G1/S phase block company with an increased expression of TUBA1C, TUBB6. At last, our analysis of SARS-COV-2 N protein predicted a total number of 12 phosphorylated sites and 9 potential protein kinases which would significantly affect SARS-COV-2 N protein function. CONCLUSION: In this study, we report the physicochemical properties, subcellular localization, and biological function of SARS-COV-2 N protein. The 12 phosphorylated sites and 9 potential protein kinase sites in SARS-COV-2 N protein may serve as promising targets for drug discovery and development for of a recombinant virus vaccine.


Subject(s)
/virology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , /pathogenicity , Amino Acid Sequence , /immunology , Genome, Viral/genetics , HCT116 Cells , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Phosphorylation , Reproducibility of Results , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
7.
N Engl J Med ; 383(20): 1920-1931, 2020 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019 and spread globally, prompting an international effort to accelerate development of a vaccine. The candidate vaccine mRNA-1273 encodes the stabilized prefusion SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1, dose-escalation, open-label trial including 45 healthy adults, 18 to 55 years of age, who received two vaccinations, 28 days apart, with mRNA-1273 in a dose of 25 µg, 100 µg, or 250 µg. There were 15 participants in each dose group. RESULTS: After the first vaccination, antibody responses were higher with higher dose (day 29 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay anti-S-2P antibody geometric mean titer [GMT], 40,227 in the 25-µg group, 109,209 in the 100-µg group, and 213,526 in the 250-µg group). After the second vaccination, the titers increased (day 57 GMT, 299,751, 782,719, and 1,192,154, respectively). After the second vaccination, serum-neutralizing activity was detected by two methods in all participants evaluated, with values generally similar to those in the upper half of the distribution of a panel of control convalescent serum specimens. Solicited adverse events that occurred in more than half the participants included fatigue, chills, headache, myalgia, and pain at the injection site. Systemic adverse events were more common after the second vaccination, particularly with the highest dose, and three participants (21%) in the 250-µg dose group reported one or more severe adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The mRNA-1273 vaccine induced anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses in all participants, and no trial-limiting safety concerns were identified. These findings support further development of this vaccine. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; mRNA-1273 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04283461).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , Betacoronavirus , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Male , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , Young Adult
9.
Pharm Nanotechnol ; 8(4): 323-353, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-908311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The newly emerged coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, first reported in December 2019, has infected about five and a half million people globally and resulted in nearly 9063264 deaths until the 24th of June 2020. Nevertheless, the highly contagious virus has instigated an unimaginably rapid response from scientific and medical communities. OBJECTIVES: Pioneering research on molecular mechanisms underlying the viral transmission, molecular pathogenicity, and potential treatments will be highlighted in this review. The development of antiviral drugs specific to SARS-CoV-2 is a complicated and tedious process. To accelerate scientific discoveries and advancement, researchers are consolidating available data from associated coronaviruses into a single pipeline, which can be readily made available to vaccine developers. METHODS: In order to find studies evaluating the COVID-19 virus epidemiology, repurposed drugs and potential vaccines, web searches and bibliographical bases have been used with keywords that matches the content of this review. RESULTS: The published results of SARS-CoV-2 structures and interactomics have been used to identify potential therapeutic candidates. We illustrate recent publications on SARS-CoV-2, concerning its molecular, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics, and focus on innovative diagnostics technologies in the production pipeline. This objective of this review is to enhance the comprehension of the unique characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and strengthen future control measures. Lay Summary: An innovative analysis is evaluating the nature of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim is to increase knowledge of possible viral detection methods, which highlights several new technology limitations and advantages. We have assessed some drugs currently for patients (Lopinavir, Ritonavir, Anakinra and Interferon beta 1a), as the feasibility of COVID-19 specific antivirals is not presently known. The study explores the race toward vaccine development and highlights some significant trials and candidates in various clinical phases. This research addresses critical knowledge gaps by identifying repurposed drugs currently under clinical trials. Findings will be fed back rapidly to the researchers interested in COVID 19 and support the evidence and potential of possible therapeutics and small molecules with their mode of action.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Development , Drug Discovery , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects
12.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(10): e1008292, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874143

ABSTRACT

The lack of effective vaccines for many endemic diseases often forces policymakers to rely on non-immunizing control measures, such as vector control, to reduce the massive burden of these diseases. Controls can have well-known counterintuitive effects on endemic infections, including the honeymoon effect, in which partially effective controls cause not only a greater initial reduction in infection than expected, but also large outbreaks during control resulting from accumulation of susceptibles. Unfortunately, many control measures cannot be maintained indefinitely, and the results of cessation are poorly understood. Here, we examine the results of stopped or failed non-immunizing control measures in endemic settings. By using a mathematical model to compare the cumulative number of cases expected with and without control, we show that deployment of control can lead to a larger total number of infections, counting from the time that control started, than without any control-the divorce effect. This result is directly related to the population-level loss of immunity resulting from non-immunizing controls and is seen in a variety of models when non-immunizing controls are used against an infection that confers immunity. Finally, we examine three control plans for minimizing the magnitude of the divorce effect in seasonal infections and show that they are incapable of eliminating the divorce effect. While we do not suggest stopping control programs that rely on non-immunizing controls, our results strongly argue that the accumulation of susceptibility should be considered before deploying such controls against endemic infections when indefinite use of the control is unlikely. We highlight that our results are particularly germane to endemic mosquito-borne infections, such as dengue virus, both for routine management involving vector control and for field trials of novel control approaches, and in the context of non-pharmaceutical interventions aimed at COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Endemic Diseases/prevention & control , Immunization Programs , Animals , Basic Reproduction Number , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Culicidae , Dengue Vaccines/therapeutic use , Health Policy , Humans , Insect Vectors , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health , Rubella/prevention & control , Rubella Vaccine/therapeutic use , Seasons , Severe Dengue/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
13.
Front Immunol ; 11: 552925, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-843107

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) induced Coronavirus Disease - 19 (COVID-19) cases have been increasing at an alarming rate (7.4 million positive cases as on June 11 2020), causing high mortality (4,17,956 deaths as on June 11 2020) and economic loss (a 3.2% shrink in global economy in 2020) across 212 countries globally. The clinical manifestations of this disease are pneumonia, lung injury, inflammation, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Currently, there is no vaccine or effective pharmacological agents available for the prevention/treatment of SARS-CoV2 infections. Moreover, development of a suitable vaccine is a challenging task due to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) and Th-2 immunopathology, which aggravates infection with SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, the emerging SARS-CoV-2 strain exhibits several distinct genomic and structural patterns compared to other coronavirus strains, making the development of a suitable vaccine even more difficult. Therefore, the identification of novel small molecule inhibitors (NSMIs) that can interfere with viral entry or viral propagation is of special interest and is vital in managing already infected cases. SARS-CoV-2 infection is mediated by the binding of viral Spike proteins (S-protein) to human cells through a 2-step process, which involves Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE2) and Transmembrane Serine Protease (TMPRSS)-2. Therefore, the development of novel inhibitors of ACE2/TMPRSS2 is likely to be beneficial in combating SARS-CoV-2 infections. However, the usage of ACE-2 inhibitors to block the SARS-CoV-2 viral entry requires additional studies as there are conflicting findings and severe health complications reported for these inhibitors in patients. Hence, the current interest is shifted toward the development of NSMIs, which includes natural antiviral phytochemicals and Nrf-2 activators to manage a SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is imperative to investigate the efficacy of existing antiviral phytochemicals and Nrf-2 activators to mitigate the SARS-CoV-2-mediated oxidative stress. Therefore, in this review, we have reviewed structural features of SARS-CoV-2 with special emphasis on key molecular targets and their known modulators that can be considered for the development of NSMIs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Delivery Systems , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Serine Endopeptidases/immunology , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
14.
Arch Virol ; 165(3): 609-618, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824459

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) targets the intestinal mucosa in pigs. To protect against PEDV invasion, a mucosal vaccine is utilized effectively. In this study, we generated a recombinant adenovirus vaccine encoding the heat-labile enterotoxin B (LTB) and the core neutralizing epitope (COE) of PEDV (rAd-LTB-COE). The fusion protein LTB-COE was successfully expressed by the recombinant adenovirus in HEK293 cells, and the immunogenicity of the vaccine candidate was assessed in BALB/c mice and piglets. Three intramuscular or oral vaccinations with rAd-LTB-COE at two-week intervals induced robust humoral and mucosal immune responses. Moreover, a cell-mediated immune response was promoted in immunized mice, and the neutralizing antibody inhibited both the vaccine strain and the emerging PEDV isolate. Immunization experiments in piglets revealed that rAd-LTB-COE was immunogenic and induced good immune responses in piglets. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of rAd-LTB-COE against a highly virulent PEDV challenge.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenoviridae/immunology , Animals , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Enterotoxins/genetics , Enterotoxins/immunology , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Escherichia coli/immunology , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology , Swine , Swine Diseases/immunology , Swine Diseases/virology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 206, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789897

ABSTRACT

The intense global efforts are directed towards development of vaccines to halt the COVID-19 virus pandemic. There are 160 candidate vaccines under clinical trials across the world using different molecular targets and techniques. This race for the vaccine has several challenges and ethical issues like compressed timelines, generation and proper management of resources and finances, risks to the participating volunteers due to curtailed research trial processes, geopolitical contentions, misinformation through social media and parallel race with drugs. We feel that the fundamental principles of ethics: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice should not be violated in this hastened vaccine development process. We recommend constitute a Consortium on a global platform to formulate, provide and monitor a comprehensive ethical umbrella to the process of vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic/ethics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Bioethical Issues , Communication , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Internationality , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Resource Allocation , Social Media , Time Factors , Viral Vaccines/economics , Viral Vaccines/supply & distribution
18.
Contact Dermatitis ; 83(5): 432-435, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-767205

ABSTRACT

Although the development of successful vaccines against coronaviruses may be achieved, for some individuals the immune response that they stimulate may prove to be insufficient for effective host defence. The principle that a relatively strong contact allergen will have an enhancing effect on sensitization compared with a less potent contact allergen if they are co-administered, may not, at first, appear relevant to this issue. However, this augmentation effect is thought to be due to the sharing of common or complementary pathways. Here, we briefly consider aspects of the shared and complementary pathways between skin sensitization induced by exposure to a contact allergen and the immune response to viruses, with particular reference to COVID-19. The relationship leads us to explore whether this principle, which we name here as "co-operative immune augmentation" may be extended to include viral vaccination. We consider evidence that even relatively weak contact allergens, used in vaccines for other purposes, can show enhanced sensitization, which is in keeping with a co-operative augmentation principle. Finally, we consider how the potent contact allergen diphenylcyclopropenone could be employed safely as an enhancer of vaccine responses.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cyclopropanes/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Allergens/therapeutic use , Desensitization, Immunologic/methods , Female , Humans , Male
19.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol ; 31(6)2020 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760724

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus infection coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged from Wuhan, Hubei Province of China, in December 2019 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is believed to be originated from bats in the local wet markets. Later, animal to human and human-to-human transmission of the virus began and resulting in widespread respiratory illness worldwide to around more than 180 countries. The World Health Organization declared this disease as a pandemic in March 2020. There is no clinically approved antiviral drug or vaccine available to be used against COVID-19. Nevertheless, few broad-spectrum antiviral drugs have been studied against COVID-19 in clinical trials with clinical recovery. In the current review, we summarize the morphology and pathogenesis of COVID-19 infection. A strong rational groundwork was made keeping the focus on current development of therapeutic agents and vaccines for SARS-CoV-2. Among the proposed therapeutic regimen, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, remdisevir, azithromycin, toclizumab and cromostat mesylate have shown promising results, and limited benefit was seen with lopinavir-ritonavir treatment in hospitalized adult patients with severe COVID-19. Early development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine started based on the full-length genome analysis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Several subunit vaccines, peptides, nucleic acids, plant-derived, recombinant vaccines are under pipeline. This article concludes and highlights ongoing advances in drug repurposing, therapeutics and vaccines to counter COVID-19, which collectively could enable efforts to halt the pandemic virus infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Evidence-Based Medicine , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
20.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 59(6): 812-820, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752808

ABSTRACT

The pandemic situation triggered by the spread of COVID-19 has caused great harm worldwide. More than six million people have been infected, and more than 360,000 of them have died. This is the worst catastrophe suffered by mankind in recent history. In the face of this severe disaster, people all over the world are frightened of the prospect of facing an outbreak or an annual recurrence. However, the development of a vaccine will help control the impact of COVID-19. Women in particular have been more seriously affected by the pandemic. Since the pressure and physical load they suffer are often greater than what men endure, women are more threatened by COVID-19. Though women have a poorer quality of life and work and face worse economic conditions, they also tend to have better physiological immunity than men, which can ease the effect of COVID-19. The early development of a vaccine against COVID-19 is an important issue that must take into consideration women's better immune response to the virus along with the technique of hormone regulation. Relevant research has been conducted on female-specific vaccines in the past, and women's issues were considered during those clinical trials to ensure that complications and antibody responses were positive and effective in women. National policies should also propose good strategies for women to be vaccinated. This could improve consciousness, give women a better vaccination experience, enhance their willingness to vaccinate, and protect them from COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Sex Factors , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Health Policy , Health Services Accessibility , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Vaccination/legislation & jurisprudence , Viral Vaccines/immunology
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