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1.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(29): 7251-7263, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460298

ABSTRACT

Supply shortage for the development and production of preventive, therapeutic, and diagnosis tools during the COVID-19 pandemic is an important issue affecting the wealthy and poor nations alike. Antibodies and antigens are especially needed for the production of immunological-based testing tools such as point-of-care tests. Here, we propose a simple and quick magnetic nanoparticle (MNP)-based separation/isolation approach for the repurposing of infected human samples to produce specific antibodies and antigen cocktails. Initially, an antibody cocktail was purified from serums via precipitation and immunoaffinity chromatography. Purified antibodies were conjugated onto MNPs and used as an affinity matrix to separate antigens. The characterization process was performed by ELISA, SDS-PAGE, electrochemistry, isothermal titration calorimetry, and LC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analyses. The MNP-separated peptides can be used for mass spectrometry-based as well as paper-based lateral flow assay diagnostic. The exploitation of the current workflow for the development of efficient diagnostic tools, specific treatments, and fundamental research can significantly impact the present or eventual pandemic. This workflow can be considered as a two birds, one stone-like strategy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Antigens, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Immunoassay/economics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viremia/virology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/blood , COVID-19/virology , Calorimetry , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Specimen Handling , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Viremia/blood , Workflow
2.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43(6): 1334-1340, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443280

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV2 can present from mild flu-like symptoms to acute respiratory distress syndrome. There is multi-organ involvement; particularly, hematopoietic system can be associated with morphological changes in blood cells of COVID-19 patients. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional study on a cohort of 50 COVID-19 patients, confirmed on RT-PCR with documented cycle threshold (Ct) value. Peripheral blood sample of these patients was collected and examined for complete blood counts (CBC) on automated haematological analyser as well as Leishman-stained blood smears to look for morphological changes in blood cells. Morphological changes were evaluated with reference to clinical severity and Ct value. Additionally, association between Ct value and clinical severity was also performed. Statistical tests were performed, and P value <.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Mean age of our study group was 42.16 ± 15.55 years, with male preponderance. Most commonly observed peripheral blood changes were hypolobation (P value = .002) and toxic granules (P value = .005) in neutrophils, atypical granules with nucleolar prominence in lymphocytes, cytoplasmic granulation with clumped nuclear chromatin in monocytes, giant platelets and thrombocytopenia and normocytic normochromic anaemia. CONCLUSION: No association was found between clinical severity and Ct value as well as peripheral blood morphological changes with Ct value. We conclude that examination of peripheral smear coupled with complete blood count (CBC) is only partially supportive of disease pathogenesis and to assess the viral load other parameters should be utilised instead of relying solely on Ct value.


Subject(s)
Blood Cells/ultrastructure , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Viremia/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Cell Count , COVID-19/virology , Cell Shape , Cell Size , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytoplasmic Granules/ultrastructure , Female , Hematopoiesis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
4.
J Clin Invest ; 131(13)2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDSARS-CoV-2 plasma viremia has been associated with severe disease and death in COVID-19 in small-scale cohort studies. The mechanisms behind this association remain elusive.METHODSWe evaluated the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 viremia, disease outcome, and inflammatory and proteomic profiles in a cohort of COVID-19 emergency department participants. SARS-CoV-2 viral load was measured using a quantitative reverse transcription PCR-based platform. Proteomic data were generated with Proximity Extension Assay using the Olink platform.RESULTSThis study included 300 participants with nucleic acid test-confirmed COVID-19. Plasma SARS-CoV-2 viremia levels at the time of presentation predicted adverse disease outcomes, with an adjusted OR of 10.6 (95% CI 4.4-25.5, P < 0.001) for severe disease (mechanical ventilation and/or 28-day mortality) and 3.9 (95% CI 1.5-10.1, P = 0.006) for 28-day mortality. Proteomic analyses revealed prominent proteomic pathways associated with SARS-CoV-2 viremia, including upregulation of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors (ACE2, CTSL, FURIN), heightened markers of tissue damage to the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and endothelium/vasculature, and alterations in coagulation pathways.CONCLUSIONThese results highlight the cascade of vascular and tissue damage associated with SARS-CoV-2 plasma viremia that underlies its ability to predict COVID-19 disease outcomes.FUNDINGMark and Lisa Schwartz; the National Institutes of Health (U19AI082630); the American Lung Association; the Executive Committee on Research at Massachusetts General Hospital; the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative; Arthur, Sandra, and Sarah Irving for the David P. Ryan, MD, Endowed Chair in Cancer Research; an EMBO Long-Term Fellowship (ALTF 486-2018); a Cancer Research Institute/Bristol Myers Squibb Fellowship (CRI2993); the Harvard Catalyst/Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center (National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, NIH awards UL1TR001102 and UL1TR002541-01); and by the Harvard University Center for AIDS Research (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 5P30AI060354).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viremia/blood , Viremia/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Cohort Studies , Female , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Prognosis , Proteome/metabolism , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Internalization
5.
J Autoimmun ; 123: 102703, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322182

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Durability of the humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 has yet to be defined. We longitudinally evaluated during a 12-month period the antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2, and analysed predictors of antibody titres decline and seroreversion. METHODS: Prospective study conducted in a cohort of patients hospitalized for microbiologically-confirmed COVID-19. Blood and nasopharyngeal samples were sequentially obtained during hospital stay and at 1, 2, 6 and 12 months after patients' discharge for measuring anti-spike (S) and anti-nucleocapsid (N) IgG antibody levels and SARS-CoV-2 RNA, respectively. RESULTS: 80 non-vaccinated patients were analysed. At month 12 after discharge, 73 (91.2%) patients exhibited detectable S-IgG and 35 (43.8%) N-IgG antibody titres. A gradual wane was observed in S-IgG and N-IgG antibody titres. Linear regression showed that S-IgG decline was positively associated with peak antibody titres (coefficient [95% CI] 0.059 [0.05-0.067], p < 0.001), inversely with WHO severity score (coefficient [95% CI] -0.042 [-0.079/-0.004], p = 0.033), and there was a trivial positive association with age (coefficient [95% CI] 0.002 [0-0.005], p = 0.10); N-IgG decline was positively associated with peak antibody titres (coefficient [95% CI] 0.091 [0.078-0.105], p < 0.001). Logistic regression showed that seroreversion for S-IgG was inversely associated with peak S-IgG (OR 0.19; 95% CI, 0.04-0.45; p = 0.004); seroreversion for N-IgG was inversely associated with peak N-IgG (OR 0.71; 95% 0.53-0.90; p = 0.009) and positively with cycle threshold of RT-PCR (OR 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00-1.33; p = 0.062). CONCLUSION: Anti-spike IgG antibodies remain detectable one year after hospitalization for COVID-19. Higher peak antibody titres and disease severity were associated with increased durability of detectable antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viremia/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Convalescence , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors , Viremia/blood
6.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254167, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295525

ABSTRACT

Dexamethasone provides benefits in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), although data regarding immunological profiles and viral clearance are limited. This study aimed to evaluate for differences in biomarkers among patients with severe COVID-19 who did and did not receive dexamethasone. We measured plasma biomarkers of lung epithelial/endothelial injury and inflammation in 31 patients with severe COVID-19 and in 13 controls. Changes in biomarkers and clinical parameters were compared during the 7-day period among COVID-19 patients, and also according to dexamethasone use. Thirty-two patients with severe COVID-19 who received mechanical ventilation (n = 6), high-flow nasal cannula (n = 11), and supplemental oxygen (n = 15) were analyzed. Relative to controls, patients with severe COVID-19 had significantly higher concentrations of biomarkers related to glycocalyx shedding (endocan and syndecan-1), endothelial injury (von Willebrand factor), and inflammation (soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products [sRAGE] and interleukin-6). The 7-day decreases in biomarkers of endothelial injury (angiopoietin-2 [Ang-2] and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1]) and sRAGE, but not in the biomarker of lung epithelial injury (surfactant protein D), were correlated with decreases in C-reactive protein and radiologic score at day 7. Twenty patients (63%) received dexamethasone, and the dexamethasone and non-dexamethasone groups differed in terms of disease severity. However, dexamethasone was associated marginally with increased SpO2/FiO2 and significantly with decreases in C-reactive protein and radiologic score after adjusting for baseline imbalances. Furthermore, the dexamethasone group exhibited a significant decrease in the concentrations of Ang-2, ICAM-1, soluble form of the Tie2 receptor (a biomarker of glycocalyx shedding), and sRAGE. Both groups exhibited a clinically insignificant increase in the cycle threshold value. Severe COVID-19 may be characterized by more severe endothelial injury and inflammation, and less severe lung epithelial injury. There is a possibility that dexamethasone improved severe COVID-19 and related endothelial injury without delaying viral clearance.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Inflammation/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Viremia/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Lung Injury/blood , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/etiology , Male , Oxygen/blood , Pilot Projects , Viral Load , Viremia/blood
7.
J Clin Invest ; 131(13)2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290978

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDSARS-CoV-2 plasma viremia has been associated with severe disease and death in COVID-19 in small-scale cohort studies. The mechanisms behind this association remain elusive.METHODSWe evaluated the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 viremia, disease outcome, and inflammatory and proteomic profiles in a cohort of COVID-19 emergency department participants. SARS-CoV-2 viral load was measured using a quantitative reverse transcription PCR-based platform. Proteomic data were generated with Proximity Extension Assay using the Olink platform.RESULTSThis study included 300 participants with nucleic acid test-confirmed COVID-19. Plasma SARS-CoV-2 viremia levels at the time of presentation predicted adverse disease outcomes, with an adjusted OR of 10.6 (95% CI 4.4-25.5, P < 0.001) for severe disease (mechanical ventilation and/or 28-day mortality) and 3.9 (95% CI 1.5-10.1, P = 0.006) for 28-day mortality. Proteomic analyses revealed prominent proteomic pathways associated with SARS-CoV-2 viremia, including upregulation of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors (ACE2, CTSL, FURIN), heightened markers of tissue damage to the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and endothelium/vasculature, and alterations in coagulation pathways.CONCLUSIONThese results highlight the cascade of vascular and tissue damage associated with SARS-CoV-2 plasma viremia that underlies its ability to predict COVID-19 disease outcomes.FUNDINGMark and Lisa Schwartz; the National Institutes of Health (U19AI082630); the American Lung Association; the Executive Committee on Research at Massachusetts General Hospital; the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative; Arthur, Sandra, and Sarah Irving for the David P. Ryan, MD, Endowed Chair in Cancer Research; an EMBO Long-Term Fellowship (ALTF 486-2018); a Cancer Research Institute/Bristol Myers Squibb Fellowship (CRI2993); the Harvard Catalyst/Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center (National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, NIH awards UL1TR001102 and UL1TR002541-01); and by the Harvard University Center for AIDS Research (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 5P30AI060354).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viremia/blood , Viremia/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Cohort Studies , Female , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Prognosis , Proteome/metabolism , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Internalization
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 691879, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282387

ABSTRACT

Increasing human Adenovirus (HAdV) infections complicated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) even fatal outcome were reported in immunocompetent adolescent and adult patients. Here, we characterized the cytokine/chemokine expression profiles of immunocompetent patients complicated with ARDS during HAdV infection and identified biomarkers for disease severity/progression. Forty-eight cytokines/chemokines in the plasma samples from 19 HAdV-infected immunocompetent adolescent and adult patients (ten complicated with ARDS) were measured and analyzed in combination with clinical indices. Immunocompetent patients with ARDS caused by severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (panH1N1) or bacteria were included for comparative analyses. Similar indices of disease course/progression were found in immunocompetent patients with ARDS caused by HAdV, SARS-CoV-2 or panH1N infections, whereas the HAdV-infected group showed a higher prevalence of viremia, as well as increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK). Expression levels of 33 cytokines/chemokines were increased significantly in HAdV-infected patients with ARDS compared with that in healthy controls, and many of them were also significantly higher than those in SARS-CoV-2-infected and panH1N1-infected patients. Expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1ß, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG), IL-6, macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), IL-10, IL-1α and IL-2Ra was significantly higher in HAdV-infected patients with ARDS than that in those without ARDS, and negatively associated with the ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2). Analyses of the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) showed that expression of IL-10, M-CSF, MIG, HGF, IL-1ß, IFN-γ and IL-2Ra could predict the progression of HAdV infection, with the highest area under the curve (AUC) of 0.944 obtained for IL-10. Of note, the AUC value for the combination of IL-10, IFN-γ, and M-CSF reached 1. In conclusion, the "cytokine storm" occurred during HAdV infection in immunocompetent patients, and expression of IL-10, M-CSF, MIG, HGF, IL-1ß, IFN-γ and IL-2Ra was closely associated with disease severity and could predict disease progression.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human/blood , Cytokines/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Adenovirus Infections, Human/complications , Adenovirus Infections, Human/pathology , Adenoviruses, Human , Adolescent , Adult , Bacteria , Bacterial Infections/blood , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/blood , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/pathology , Male , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Viremia/blood , Viremia/complications , Viremia/pathology , Young Adult
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13134, 2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281735

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has overloaded national health services worldwide. Thus, early identification of patients at risk of poor outcomes is critical. Our objective was to analyse SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in serum as a severity biomarker in COVID-19. Retrospective observational study including 193 patients admitted for COVID-19. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in serum (viremia) was performed with samples collected at 48-72 h of admission by two techniques from Roche and Thermo Fischer Scientific (TFS). Main outcome variables were mortality and need for ICU admission during hospitalization for COVID-19. Viremia was detected in 50-60% of patients depending on technique. The correlation of Ct in serum between both techniques was good (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.612; p < 0.001). Patients with viremia were older (p = 0.006), had poorer baseline oxygenation (PaO2/FiO2; p < 0.001), more severe lymphopenia (p < 0.001) and higher LDH (p < 0.001), IL-6 (p = 0.021), C-reactive protein (CRP; p = 0.022) and procalcitonin (p = 0.002) serum levels. We defined "relevant viremia" when detection Ct was < 34 with Roche and < 31 for TFS. These thresholds had 95% sensitivity and 35% specificity. Relevant viremia predicted death during hospitalization (OR 9.2 [3.8-22.6] for Roche, OR 10.3 [3.6-29.3] for TFS; p < 0.001). Cox regression models, adjusted by age, sex and Charlson index, identified increased LDH serum levels and relevant viremia (HR = 9.87 [4.13-23.57] for TFS viremia and HR = 7.09 [3.3-14.82] for Roche viremia) as the best markers to predict mortality. Viremia assessment at admission is the most useful biomarker for predicting mortality in COVID-19 patients. Viremia is highly reproducible with two different techniques (TFS and Roche), has a good consistency with other severity biomarkers for COVID-19 and better predictive accuracy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viremia/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Critical Care , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spain , Viremia/virology
10.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 28(1): 55-59, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the SARS-CoV-2 virus is transmitted mainly through the respiratory tract, possible transmission by transfusion from asymptomatic carriers should be explored. As yet there are no reports of transfusion transmission of COVID-19. Haemovigilance findings within a three-month surveillance period during the new coronavirus pandemic are presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Due to great demand and shortage, blood sessions in outpatient facilities were organized during the high prevalence period of COVID-19, alongside a national plan to monitor the evolving public health situation by random molecular screening of high-risk groups of the population. Haemovigilance protocols were implemented as well as surveillance for any COVID-19 case reported post-transfusion. A 14-day quarantine and follow-up molecular and antibody testing of any COVID-19 positive case was obligatory. RESULTS: Post-donation, post-transfusion information and molecular testing of swab samples collected from three asymptomatic donors at risk for COVID-19, revealed the case of an immunosupressed patient who had been transfused with whole blood derived platelets from a donor subsequently diagnosed with COVID-19. The recipient exhibited no symptoms of the disease. Molecular and antibody testing results were negative. CONCLUSION: Haemovigilance provided information supporting the absence of transfusion transmission of COVID-19, thus strengthening the hypothesis that, even if it cannot yet be definitively ruled out, COVID-19 is not transmitted through blood transfusion. As of early June 2020, a perfect test does not exist, therefore haemovigilance along with the implementation of strict proactive measures is crucial to identify eluding asymptomatic individuals and ensure blood safety during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Blood Component Transfusion/adverse effects , Blood Donors , Blood Safety , COVID-19/transmission , Donor Selection/standards , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viremia/transmission , Adult , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Contact Tracing , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Police , Viremia/blood , Viremia/diagnosis
11.
J Mol Diagn ; 23(1): 10-18, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988428

ABSTRACT

The prevalence and clinical relevance of viremia in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have not been well studied. A prospective cohort study was designed to investigate blood viral load and clearance kinetics in 52 patients (median age, 62 years; 31 [59.6%] male) and explore their association with clinical features and outcomes based on a novel one-step RT droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR). By using one-step RT-ddPCR, 92.3% (48 of 52) of this cohort was quantitatively detected with viremia. The concordance between the blood and oropharyngeal swab tests was 60.92% (53 of 87). One-step RT-ddPCR was tested with a 3.03% false-positive rate and lower 50% confidence interval of detection at 54.026 copies/mL plasma. There was no reduction in the blood viral load in all critical patients, whereas the general and severe patients exhibited a similar ability to clear the viral load. The viral loads in critical patients were significantly higher than those in their general and severe counterparts. Among the 52 study patients, 30 (58%) were discharged from the hospital. Among half of the 30 discharged patients, blood viral load remained positive, of which 76.9% (10 of 13) completely cleared their blood viral load at follow-up. Meanwhile, none of their close contacts had evidence of infection. Quantitative determination of the blood viral test is of great clinical significance in the management of patients with coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load/methods , Viremia/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oropharynx/virology , Prospective Studies , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Viremia/mortality
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5493, 2020 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894389

ABSTRACT

The relationship between SARS-CoV-2 viral load and risk of disease progression remains largely undefined in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we quantify SARS-CoV-2 viral load from participants with a diverse range of COVID-19 disease severity, including those requiring hospitalization, outpatients with mild disease, and individuals with resolved infection. We detected SARS-CoV-2 plasma RNA in 27% of hospitalized participants, and 13% of outpatients diagnosed with COVID-19. Amongst the participants hospitalized with COVID-19, we report that a higher prevalence of detectable SARS-CoV-2 plasma viral load is associated with worse respiratory disease severity, lower absolute lymphocyte counts, and increased markers of inflammation, including C-reactive protein and IL-6. SARS-CoV-2 viral loads, especially plasma viremia, are associated with increased risk of mortality. Our data show that SARS-CoV-2 viral loads may aid in the risk stratification of patients with COVID-19, and therefore its role in disease pathogenesis should be further explored.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/virology , Interleukin-6/blood , Longitudinal Studies , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load , Viremia/blood , Viremia/virology
13.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789516

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) represents a global health emergency. To improve the understanding of the systemic component of SARS-CoV-2, we investigated if viral load dynamics in plasma and respiratory samples are associated with antibody response and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found in plasma samples from 14 (44%) out of 32 patients. RNAemia was detected in 5 out of 6 fatal cases. Peak IgG values were significantly lower in mild/moderate than in severe (0.6 (interquartile range, IQR, 0.4-3.2) vs. 11.8 (IQR, 9.9-13.0), adjusted p = 0.003) or critical cases (11.29 (IQR, 8.3-12.0), adjusted p = 0.042). IgG titers were significantly associated with virus Ct (Cycle threshold) value in plasma and respiratory specimens ((ß = 0.4, 95% CI (confidence interval, 0.2; 0.5), p < 0.001 and ß = 0.5, 95% CI (0.2; 0.6), p = 0.002). A classification as severe or a critical case was additionally inversely associated with Ct values in plasma in comparison to mild/moderate cases (ß = -3.3, 95% CI (-5.8; 0.8), p = 0.024 and ß = -4.4, 95% CI (-7.2; 1.6), p = 0.007, respectively). Based on the present data, our hypothesis is that the early stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by a primary RNAemia, as a potential manifestation of a systemic infection. Additionally, the viral load in plasma seems to be associated with a worse disease outcome.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/blood , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load , Viremia/blood , Viremia/pathology , Viremia/virology
14.
Transfusion ; 60(12): 3046-3054, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717337

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel human coronavirus responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The emergence of this virus in Wuhan, China, at the end of 2019 and its worldwide spread to reach the pandemic stage has raised concerns about the possible risk that it might be transmissible by transfusion. This theoretical risk is further supported by reports of the detection of viral RNA in the blood of some infected individuals. To further address this risk, a thorough PubMed literature search was performed to systematically identify studies reporting data on the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in blood or its components. Complementary searches were done to identify articles reporting data on the in vitro infectivity of blood components. At least 23 articles presenting data on the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in blood, plasma, or serum were identified. Of these, three studies reported on blood donors with COVID-19 infection identified after donation, and no cases of transfusion transmission were identified. A few studies mentioned results of in vitro infectivity assays of blood components in permissive cell lines, none of which were able to detect infectious virus in blood or its components. Complementary searches have identified reports demonstrating that the correlation between the presence of viral RNA in a biologic sample and infectivity requires a minimal RNA load, which is rarely, if ever, observed in blood components. Overall, the available evidence suggests that the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by transfusion remains theoretical.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , Blood Transfusion , COVID-19/transmission , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Transfusion Reaction/epidemiology , Viremia/transmission , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cell Line , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load , Viremia/blood , Viremia/epidemiology , Virus Cultivation
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