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1.
J Clin Virol ; 152: 105166, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 viral load and kinetics assessed in serial blood samples from hospitalised COVID-19 patients by RT-PCR are poorly understood. METHODS: We conducted an observational, prospective case series study in hospitalised COVID-19 patients. Clinical outcome data (Intensive Care Unit admission and mortality) were collected from all patients until discharge. Viremia was determined longitudinally during hospitalisation, in plasma and serum samples collected sequentially, using two commercial and standardised RT-PCR techniques approved for use in diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. Viral load (copies/mL and log10) was determined with quantitative TaqPath™COVID-19 test. Persistent viremia (PV) was defined as two or more consecutive quantifiable viral loads detected in blood samples (plasma/serum) during hospitalisation. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 viremia was studied in 57 hospitalised COVID-19 patients. PV was detected in 16 (28%) patients. All of them, except for one who rapidly progressed to death, cleared viremia during hospitalisation. Poor clinical outcome occurred in 62.5% of patients with PV, while none of the negative patients or those with sporadic viremia presented this outcome (p < 0.0001). Viral load was significantly higher in patients with PV than in those with Sporadic Viremia (p < 0.05). Patients presented PV for a short period of time: median time from admission was 5 days (Range = 2-12) and 4.5 days (Range = 2-8) for plasma and serum samples, respectively. Similar results were obtained with all RT-PCR assays for both types of samples. CONCLUSIONS: Detection of persistent SARS-CoV-2 viremia, by real time RT-PCR, expressed as viral load over time, could allow identifying hospitalised COVID-19 patients at risk of poor clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Kinetics , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Load , Viremia/diagnosis
2.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582998

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Soluble ST2 (sST2) reflects inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and myocardial fibrosis, is produced in the lungs and is an established biomarker in heart failure. We sought to determine the role of sST2 in COVID-19 by assessing pathophysiological correlates and its association to in-hospital outcomes. METHODS: We enrolled 123 consecutive, hospitalised patients with COVID-19 in the prospective, observational COVID-19 MECH study. Biobank samples were collected at baseline, day 3 and day 9. The key exposure variable was sST2, and the outcome was ICU treatment with mechanical ventilation or in-hospital death. RESULTS: Concentrations of sST2 at baseline was median 48 (IQR 37-67) ng/mL, and 74% had elevated concentrations (>37.9 ng/mL). Higher baseline sST2 concentrations were associated with older age, male sex, white race, smoking, diabetes, hypertension and chronic kidney disease. Baseline sST2 also associated with the presence of SARS-CoV-2 viraemia, lower oxygen saturation, higher respiratory rate and increasing concentrations of biomarkers reflecting inflammation, thrombosis and cardiovascular disease. During the hospitalisation, 8 (7%) patients died and 27 (22%) survivors received intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. Baseline sST2 concentrations demonstrated a graded association with disease severity (median, IQR): medical ward 43 (36-59) ng/mL; ICU 67 (39-104) ng/mL and non-survivors 107 (72-116) ng/mL (p<0.001 for all comparisons). These associations persisted at day 3 and day 9 . CONCLUSIONS: sST2 concentrations associate with SARS-CoV-2 viraemia, hypoxaemia and concentrations of inflammatory and cardiovascular biomarkers. There was a robust association between baseline sST2 and disease severity that was independent of, and superior to, established risk factors. sST2 reflects key pathophysiology and may be a promising biomarker in COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04314232.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypoxia , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viremia , Aged , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Correlation of Data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/etiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Norway/epidemiology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking/epidemiology , Viremia/diagnosis , Viremia/etiology
3.
Transfusion ; 60(9): 2038-2046, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263879

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA could be detected in the blood of infected cases. From February 9, all blood establishments in Hubei province, China, implemented nucleic acid testing (NAT) for SARS-CoV-2 RNA among blood donors to ensure blood safety. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Nucleic acid test screening individually (ID) or by minipool (MP) testing was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Inactivated culture supernatant of SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero cells was quantified by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) and series diluted with negative plasma to evaluate the assay's performance. RESULTS: The limit of detection of the kit for MP testing was 62.94 and 33.14 copies/mL for N and ORF1ab region, respectively. ID testing could achieve 3.87 and 4.85 copies/mL for two regions using 1600 µL of plasma. Coefficients of variations of two different concentrations of reference samples were all less than 5% in MP testing. As of April 30, 2020, a total of 98,342 blood donations including 87,095 whole blood donations and 11,247 platelet donations were tested by ID or MP testing, and no RNAemia was found. In addition, Hubei province suffered precipitously decreased blood supply, especially in February: 86% reduction compared with the same period of 2019. CONCLUSION: Nucleic acid test screening of SARS-CoV-2 on blood donations is suitable in blood establishments using the commercial real-time PCR detection kit based on available instruments. The negative result indicated that SARS-CoV-2 appears to be no direct threat to blood safety but raises some serious issues for general blood supply.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viremia/diagnosis , Animals , Blood Banks , Blood Donors/supply & distribution , COVID-19/diagnosis , China/epidemiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Limit of Detection , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Virus Cultivation
4.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 198, 2021 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individuals with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) on dialysis are vulnerable to contracting COVID-19 infection, with mortality as high as 31 % in this group. Population demographics in the UAE are dissimilar to many other countries and data on antibody responses to COVID-19 is also limited. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients who developed COVID-19, the impact of the screening strategy, and to assess the antibody response to a subset of dialysis patients. METHODS: We retrospectively examined the outcomes of COVID19 infection in all our haemodialysis patients, who were tested regularly for COVID 19, whether symptomatic or asymptomatic. In addition, IgG antibody serology was also performed to assess response to COVID-19 in a subset of patients. RESULTS: 152 (13 %) of 1180 dialysis patients developed COVID-19 during the study period from 1st of March to the 1st of July 2020. Of these 81 % were male, average age of 52​ years and 95 % were on in-centre haemodialysis. Family and community contact was most likely source of infection in most patients. Fever (49 %) and cough (48 %) were the most common presenting symptoms, when present. Comorbidities in infected individuals included hypertension (93 %), diabetes (49 %), ischaemic heart disease (30 %). The majority (68 %) developed mild disease, whilst 13 % required critical care. Combinations of drugs including hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, camostat, tocilizumab and steroids were used based on local guidelines. The median time to viral clearance defined by two negative PCR tests was 15 days [IQR 6-25]. Overall mortality in our cohort was 9.2 %, but ICU mortality was 65 %. COVID-19 IgG antibody serology was performed in a subset (n = 87) but 26 % of PCR positive patients (n = 23) did not develop a significant antibody response. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reports a lower mortality in this patient group compared with many published series. Asymptomatic PCR positivity was present in 40 %. Rapid isolation of positive patients may have contributed to the relative lack of spread of COVID-19 within our dialysis units. The lack of antibody response in a few patients is concerning.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Contact Tracing , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Isolation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Rate , Symptom Assessment , Treatment Outcome , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Viremia/diagnosis
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5452-5457, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220448

ABSTRACT

Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA is generally detected in nasopharyngeal swabs, viral RNA can be found in other samples including blood. Recently, associations between SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia and disease severity and mortality have been reported in adults, while no reports are available in pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the mortality, severity, clinical, and laboratory findings of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in blood in 96 pediatric patients with confirmed COVID-19. Among all patients, 6 (6%) had SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia. Out of the six patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia, four (67%) had a severe form of the disease, and two out of the 6 patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia passed away (33%). Our results show that the symptoms more commonly found in the cases of COVID-19 in the study (fever, cough, tachypnea, and vomiting), were found at a higher percentage in the patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia. Creatine phosphokinase and magnesium tests showed significant differences between the positive and negative SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia groups. Among all laboratory tests, magnesium and creatine phosphokinase could better predict SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia with area under the curve  levels of 0.808 and 0.748, respectively. In conclusion, 67% of individuals with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia showed a severe COVID-19 and one-third of the patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia passed away. Our findings suggest that magnesium and creatine phosphokinase might be considered as markers to estimate the SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Creatine Kinase/blood , Magnesium/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viremia/pathology , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/mortality , Cough/pathology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/mortality , Fever/pathology , Fever/virology , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Iran , Male , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Tachypnea/diagnosis , Tachypnea/mortality , Tachypnea/pathology , Tachypnea/virology , Viremia/diagnosis , Viremia/mortality , Viremia/virology
6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(9): e019756, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088348

ABSTRACT

Background COVID-19 may present with a variety of cardiovascular manifestations, and elevations of biomarkers reflecting myocardial injury and stress are prevalent. SARS-CoV-2 has been found in cardiac tissue, and myocardial dysfunction post-COVID-19 may occur. However, the association between SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma and cardiovascular biomarkers remains unknown. Methods and Results COVID MECH (COVID-19 Mechanisms) was a prospective, observational study enrolling consecutive, hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 and symptoms of COVID-19. Biobank plasma samples used to measure SARS-CoV-2 RNA and cardiovascular and inflammatory biomarkers were collected in 123 patients at baseline, and in 96 patients (78%) at day 3. Patients were aged 60±15 (mean ± SD) years, 71 (58%) were men, 68 (55%) were White, and 31 (25%) received mechanical ventilation during hospitalization. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in plasma from 48 (39%) patients at baseline. Patients with viremia were more frequently men, had more diabetes mellitus, and lower oxygen saturation. Patients with viremia had higher concentrations of interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and ferritin (all <0.001), but comparable levels of cTnT (cardiac troponin T; P=0.09), NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; P=0.27) and D-dimer (P=0.67) to patients without viremia. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was present in plasma at either baseline or day 3 in 50 (52%) patients, and these patients experienced increase from baseline to day 3 in NT-proBNP and D-dimer concentrations, while there was no change in cTnT. Conclusions SARS-CoV-2 viremia was associated with increased concentrations of inflammatory, but not cardiovascular biomarkers. NT-proBNP and D-dimer, but not cTnT, increased from baseline to day 3 in patients with viremia. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04314232.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Inflammation/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viremia , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Correlation of Data , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Norway/epidemiology , Peptide Fragments/blood , Procalcitonin/blood , Troponin T/blood , Viremia/diagnosis , Viremia/etiology , Viremia/immunology
7.
Infect Genet Evol ; 88: 104684, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065474

ABSTRACT

We document two cases of viremic and prolonged active infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) where the viral genome was conserved for two months, but infection was with little or no symptoms. The first infection persisted for 80 days and the second for 62 days. Clearance of infection occurred 40 and 41 days, respectively, after development of detectable antibodies. Both cases were identified incidentally in an investigation of reinfection in a cohort of 133,266 laboratory-confirmed infected persons.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Genome, Viral , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viremia/immunology , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Male , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Time Factors , Viremia/diagnosis , Viremia/virology
8.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 28(1): 55-59, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the SARS-CoV-2 virus is transmitted mainly through the respiratory tract, possible transmission by transfusion from asymptomatic carriers should be explored. As yet there are no reports of transfusion transmission of COVID-19. Haemovigilance findings within a three-month surveillance period during the new coronavirus pandemic are presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Due to great demand and shortage, blood sessions in outpatient facilities were organized during the high prevalence period of COVID-19, alongside a national plan to monitor the evolving public health situation by random molecular screening of high-risk groups of the population. Haemovigilance protocols were implemented as well as surveillance for any COVID-19 case reported post-transfusion. A 14-day quarantine and follow-up molecular and antibody testing of any COVID-19 positive case was obligatory. RESULTS: Post-donation, post-transfusion information and molecular testing of swab samples collected from three asymptomatic donors at risk for COVID-19, revealed the case of an immunosupressed patient who had been transfused with whole blood derived platelets from a donor subsequently diagnosed with COVID-19. The recipient exhibited no symptoms of the disease. Molecular and antibody testing results were negative. CONCLUSION: Haemovigilance provided information supporting the absence of transfusion transmission of COVID-19, thus strengthening the hypothesis that, even if it cannot yet be definitively ruled out, COVID-19 is not transmitted through blood transfusion. As of early June 2020, a perfect test does not exist, therefore haemovigilance along with the implementation of strict proactive measures is crucial to identify eluding asymptomatic individuals and ensure blood safety during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Blood Component Transfusion/adverse effects , Blood Donors , Blood Safety , COVID-19/transmission , Donor Selection/standards , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viremia/transmission , Adult , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Contact Tracing , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Police , Viremia/blood , Viremia/diagnosis
9.
Am J Med ; 134(4): 542-546, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have a high prevalence of detectable troponin and myocardial injury. In addition, a subset of patients with COVID-19 has detectable severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral loads. The objective of this study was to understand the relationship among SARS-CoV-2 viremia, detectable troponin, and myocardial injury in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 plasma viral load was measured in plasma samples drawn from patients hospitalized for COVID-19 at 2 academic medical centers. Baseline characteristics and clinically obtained high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) values were abstracted from the medical record. The main outcome was detectable hs-cTnT (≥6 ng/mL) and  myocardial injury (hs-cTnT ≥14 ng/mL; >99th percentile for assay). RESULTS: A total of 70 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included in this study, with 39% females and median age 58 ± 17 years; 21 patients (30%) were found to have detectable SARS-CoV-2 viral load and were classified in the viremia group. Patients with viremia were significantly older than those without viremia. All of the patients with viremia (100%) had detectable troponin during hospitalization compared with 59% of patients without viremia (P = 0.0003). Myocardial injury was seen in 76% of patients with viremia and 38% of those patients without viremia (P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with SARS-CoV-2 viremia have a significantly higher prevalence of detectable troponin and myocardial injury during their hospitalization compared with patients who did not. This first report of the relationship among SARS-CoV-2 viremia, detectable troponin, and myocardial injury in patients with COVID-19 points to additional mechanistic pathways that require deeper study to understand the complex interplay among these unique findings, cardiovascular outcomes, and mortality in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Myocardium/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Troponin/blood , Viremia , Age Factors , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Female , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology , Viral Load/methods , Viremia/diagnosis , Viremia/epidemiology , Viremia/etiology
10.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(2): 379-383, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-844273

ABSTRACT

A 49-year-old Japanese male was managed by mechanical ventilation due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Favipiravir as an antiviral therapy, and anti-inflammatory treatment were administered. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in serum by the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method on Day 9; favipiravir treatment was continued. On Day 13, negative serum RNA was confirmed, followed by mechanical ventilation was removed. On Day 23, LAMP negative was confirmed in nasopharynx, after that the patient discharged on Day 27. We could treat successfully for severe COVID-19 pneumonia based on the LAMP method. We consider this method will be useful in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Amides/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nasopharynx/virology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Treatment Outcome , Viremia/diagnosis
11.
J Clin Virol ; 133: 104655, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813679

ABSTRACT

Correct and reliable identification of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 suspected patients is essential for diagnosis. Respiratory samples should always be tested with real-time PCR for SARS-CoV-2. In addition, blood samples have been tested, but without consistent results and therefore the added value of this sample type is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 by real-time PCR in blood samples obtained from PCR-proven COVID-19 patients and in addition to elaborate on the potential use of blood for diagnostics. In this single center study, blood samples drawn from patients at the emergency department with proven COVID-19 infection based on a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR in respiratory samples were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2. Samples from 118 patients were selected, of which 102 could be included in the study (median age was 65 (IQR 10), 65.7 % men). In six (5.9 %) of the tested samples, SARS-CoV-2 was identified by real-time PCR. In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 can be detected by real-time PCR in plasma samples from patients with proven COVID-19, but only in a minority of the patients. Plasma should therefore not be used as primary sample in an acute phase setting to identify SARS-CoV-2 infection. These findings are important to complete the knowledge on possible sample types to test to diagnose COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/blood , Emergency Service, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands , Prevalence , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viremia/diagnosis
13.
J Infect Chemother ; 26(11): 1220-1223, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-654302

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading worldwide and poses an imminent threat to public health. We encountered 2 cases of COVID-19 with progression resulting in severe respiratory failure and improvement without any specific treatment. To examine the course of infection, we performed reverse-transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction assay with serum specimens, and serum SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in both cases when body temperature increased and respiratory status deteriorated. We, then examined, retrospectively and prospectively, the clinical course during hospitalization by performing serial examinations of serum SARS-CoV-2 RNA status. The findings from our cases suggest that not only is detection of viremia useful as a predictive marker of severity, but also serial serum SARS-CoV-2 RNA results can be helpful for predicting the clinical course.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , RNA, Viral/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Viremia/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Viremia/complications , Viremia/virology
14.
Br J Haematol ; 190(2): 185-188, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-626838

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause severe pneumonia (COVID-19). There is evidence that patients with comorbidities are at higher risk of a severe disease course. The role of immunosuppression in the disease course is not clear. In the present report, we first describe two cases of persisting SARS-CoV-2 viraemia with fatal outcome in patients after rituximab therapy.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Rituximab/administration & dosage , Viremia/diagnosis , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/complications , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/drug therapy , Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell/complications , Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2
15.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(7): 483-488, 2020 Jul.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611790

ABSTRACT

On March 11, 2020, just after 2 months from the first cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China, the Director-General of the World Health Organization stated that COVID-19 has to be considered as a pandemic. Italian doctors were the first protagonists, after the Chinese ones, in the management of this disease. Clinical observations showed that, in addition to the respiratory infection, a systemic inflammatory response occurs, which leads to coagulation disorders and consequent venous thromboembolism as well as other thrombotic complications. We here review the available literature on this issue to better understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of coagulopathy useful to draw future clinical and therapeutic conclusions.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Viremia/epidemiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Risk Assessment , Survival Analysis , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Viremia/diagnosis , World Health Organization
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