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1.
J Virol ; 96(2): e0106021, 2022 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759286

ABSTRACT

Rhinoviruses (RVs) cause recurrent infections of the nasal and pulmonary tracts, life-threatening conditions in chronic respiratory illness patients, predisposition of children to asthmatic exacerbation, and large economic cost. RVs are difficult to treat. They rapidly evolve resistance and are genetically diverse. Here, we provide insight into RV drug resistance mechanisms against chemical compounds neutralizing low pH in endolysosomes. Serial passaging of RV-A16 in the presence of the vacuolar proton ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) or the endolysosomotropic agent ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) promoted the emergence of resistant virus populations. We found two reproducible point mutations in viral proteins 1 and 3 (VP1 and VP3), A2526G (serine 66 to asparagine [S66N]), and G2274U (cysteine 220 to phenylalanine [C220F]), respectively. Both mutations conferred cross-resistance to BafA1, NH4Cl, and the protonophore niclosamide, as identified by massive parallel sequencing and reverse genetics, but not the double mutation, which we could not rescue. Both VP1-S66 and VP3-C220 locate at the interprotomeric face, and their mutations increase the sensitivity of virions to low pH, elevated temperature, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 receptor. These results indicate that the ability of RV to uncoat at low endosomal pH confers virion resistance to extracellular stress. The data endorse endosomal acidification inhibitors as a viable strategy against RVs, especially if inhibitors are directly applied to the airways. IMPORTANCE Rhinoviruses (RVs) are the predominant agents causing the common cold. Anti-RV drugs and vaccines are not available, largely due to rapid evolutionary adaptation of RVs giving rise to resistant mutants and an immense diversity of antigens in more than 160 different RV types. In this study, we obtained insight into the cell biology of RVs by harnessing the ability of RVs to evolve resistance against host-targeting small chemical compounds neutralizing endosomal pH, an important cue for uncoating of normal RVs. We show that RVs grown in cells treated with inhibitors of endolysosomal acidification evolved capsid mutations yielding reduced virion stability against elevated temperature, low pH, and incubation with recombinant soluble receptor fragments. This fitness cost makes it unlikely that RV mutants adapted to neutral pH become prevalent in nature. The data support the concept of host-directed drug development against respiratory viruses in general, notably at low risk of gain-of-function mutations.


Subject(s)
Capsid/chemistry , Mutation/drug effects , Rhinovirus/physiology , Virus Uncoating/physiology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Capsid/drug effects , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Endosomes/chemistry , Endosomes/drug effects , Endosomes/metabolism , HeLa Cells , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Protein Conformation , Rhinovirus/chemistry , Rhinovirus/drug effects , Rhinovirus/genetics , Virion/chemistry , Virion/genetics , Virion/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Uncoating/drug effects , Virus Uncoating/genetics
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 868, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684025

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection is a major global public health concern with incompletely understood pathogenesis. The SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein comprises a highly conserved free fatty acid binding pocket (FABP) with unknown function and evolutionary selection advantage1,2. Deciphering FABP impact on COVID-19 progression is challenged by the heterogenous nature and large molecular variability of live virus. Here we create synthetic minimal virions (MiniVs) of wild-type and mutant SARS-CoV-2 with precise molecular composition and programmable complexity by bottom-up assembly. MiniV-based systematic assessment of S free fatty acid (FFA) binding reveals that FABP functions as an allosteric regulatory site enabling adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 immunogenicity to inflammation states via binding of pro-inflammatory FFAs. This is achieved by regulation of the S open-to-close equilibrium and the exposure of both, the receptor binding domain (RBD) and the SARS-CoV-2 RGD motif that is responsible for integrin co-receptor engagement. We find that the FDA-approved drugs vitamin K and dexamethasone modulate S-based cell binding in an FABP-like manner. In inflammatory FFA environments, neutralizing immunoglobulins from human convalescent COVID-19 donors lose neutralization activity. Empowered by our MiniV technology, we suggest a conserved mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 dynamically couples its immunogenicity to the host immune response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Fatty Acids/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Virion/immunology , A549 Cells , Allosteric Site/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Cryoelectron Microscopy/methods , Electron Microscope Tomography/methods , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/immunology , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Microscopy, Confocal/methods , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virion/metabolism , Virion/ultrastructure
3.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643582

ABSTRACT

Pathogenic enveloped viruses are covered with a glycan shield that provides a dual function: the glycan structures contribute to virus protection as well as host cell recognition. The three classical types of N-glycans, in particular complex glycans, high-mannose glycans, and hybrid glycans, together with some O-glycans, participate in the glycan shield of the Ebola virus, influenza virus, human cytomegalovirus, herpes virus, human immunodeficiency virus, Lassa virus, and MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, which are responsible for respiratory syndromes. The glycans are linked to glycoproteins that occur as metastable prefusion glycoproteins on the surface of infectious virions such as gp120 of HIV, hemagglutinin of influenza, or spike proteins of beta-coronaviruses. Plant lectins with different carbohydrate-binding specificities and, especially, mannose-specific lectins from the Vicieae tribe, such as pea lectin and lentil lectin, can be used as glycan probes for targeting the glycan shield because of their specific interaction with the α1,6-fucosylated core Man3GlcNAc2, which predominantly occurs in complex and hybrid glycans. Other plant lectins with Neu5Ac specificity or GalNAc/T/Tn specificity can also serve as potential glycan probes for the often sialylated complex glycans and truncated O-glycans, respectively, which are abundantly distributed in the glycan shield of enveloped viruses. The biomedical and therapeutical potential of plant lectins as antiviral drugs is discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Fabaceae/metabolism , Plant Lectins/metabolism , Polysaccharides/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Envelope/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mannose/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virion/metabolism , Virus Internalization
4.
J Virol ; 96(6): e0189721, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631836

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) glycoprotein mediates viral entry and membrane fusion. Its cleavage at S1/S2 and S2' sites during the biosynthesis in virus producer cells and viral entry are critical for viral infection and transmission. In contrast, the biological significance of the junction region between both cleavage sites for S protein synthesis and function is less understood. By analyzing the conservation and structure of S protein, we found that intrachain contacts formed by the conserved tyrosine (Y) residue 756 (Y756) with three α-helices contribute to the spike's conformational stability. When Y756 is mutated to an amino acid residue that can provide hydrogen bonds, S protein could be expressed as a cleaved form, but not vice versa. Also, the L753 mutation linked to the Y756 hydrogen bond prevents the S protein from being cleaved. Y756 and L753 mutations alter S protein subcellular localization. Importantly, Y756 and L753 mutations are demonstrated to reduce the infectivity of the SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses by interfering with the incorporation of S protein into pseudovirus particles and causing the pseudoviruses to lose their sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, both mutations affect the assembly and production of SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles in cell culture. Together, our findings reveal for the first time a critical role for the conserved L753-LQ-Y756 motif between S1/S2 and S2' cleavage sites in S protein synthesis and processing as well as virus assembly and infection. IMPORTANCE The continuous emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants such as the delta or lambda lineage caused the continuation of the COVID-19 epidemic and challenged the effectiveness of the existing vaccines. Logically, the spike (S) protein mutation has attracted much concern. However, the key amino acids in S protein for its structure and function are still not very clear. In this study, we discovered for the first time that the conserved residues Y756 and L753 at the junction between the S1/S2 and S2' sites are very important, like the S2' cleavage site R815, for the synthesis and processing of S protein such as protease cleavage, and that the mutations severely interfered with the incorporation of S protein into pseudotyped virus particles and SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles. Consequently, we delineate the novel potential target for the design of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs in the future, especially in the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virion/metabolism , Virus Internalization
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22288, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517638

ABSTRACT

Numerous repositioned drugs have been sought to decrease the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is known that among its physicochemical properties, Ursodeoxycholic Acid (UDCA) has a reduction in surface tension and cholesterol solubilization, it has also been used to treat cholesterol gallstones and viral hepatitis. In this study, molecular docking was performed with the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein and UDCA. In order to confirm this interaction, we used Molecular Dynamics (MD) in "SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein-UDCA". Using another system, we also simulated MD with six UDCA residues around the Spike protein at random, naming this "SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein-6UDCA". Finally, we evaluated the possible interaction between UDCA and different types of membranes, considering the possible membrane conformation of SARS-CoV-2, this was named "SARS-CoV-2 membrane-UDCA". In the "SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein-UDCA", we found that UDCA exhibits affinity towards the central region of the Spike protein structure of - 386.35 kcal/mol, in a region with 3 alpha helices, which comprises residues from K986 to C1032 of each monomer. MD confirmed that UDCA remains attached and occasionally forms hydrogen bonds with residues R995 and T998. In the presence of UDCA, we observed that the distances between residues atoms OG1 and CG2 of T998 in the monomers A, B, and C in the prefusion state do not change and remain at 5.93 ± 0.62 and 7.78 ± 0.51 Å, respectively, compared to the post-fusion state. Next, in "SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein-6UDCA", the three UDCA showed affinity towards different regions of the Spike protein, but only one of them remained bound to the region between the region's heptad repeat 1 and heptad repeat 2 (HR1 and HR2) for 375 ps of the trajectory. The RMSD of monomer C was the smallest of the three monomers with a value of 2.89 ± 0.32, likewise, the smallest RMSF was also of the monomer C (2.25 ± 056). In addition, in the simulation of "SARS-CoV-2 membrane-UDCA", UDCA had a higher affinity toward the virion-like membrane; where three of the four residues remained attached once they were close (5 Å, to the centre of mass) to the membrane by 30 ns. However, only one of them remained attached to the plasma-like membrane and this was in a cluster of cholesterol molecules. We have shown that UDCA interacts in two distinct regions of Spike protein sequences. In addition, UDCA tends to stay bound to the membrane, which could potentially reduce the internalization of SARS-CoV-2 in the host cell.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Drug Repositioning/methods , Lipid Bilayers/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Phospholipids/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Membrane Fusion , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/chemistry , Virion/metabolism
6.
J Virol ; 95(12)2021 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501541

ABSTRACT

Long disregarded as junk DNA or genomic dark matter, endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have turned out to represent important components of the antiviral immune response. These remnants of once-infectious retroviruses not only regulate cellular immune activation, but may even directly target invading viral pathogens. In this Gem, we summarize mechanisms by which retroviral fossils protect us from viral infections. One focus will be on recent advances in the role of ERVs as regulators of antiviral gene expression.


Subject(s)
Endogenous Retroviruses/physiology , Retroelements , Virus Diseases/immunology , Animals , Endogenous Retroviruses/genetics , Enhancer Elements, Genetic , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Promoter Regions, Genetic , RNA, Double-Stranded/genetics , RNA, Double-Stranded/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virion/metabolism , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/virology
7.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485180

ABSTRACT

Nascent HIV-1 particles incorporate the viral envelope glycoprotein and multiple host transmembrane proteins during assembly at the plasma membrane. At least some of these host transmembrane proteins on the surface of virions are reported as pro-viral factors that enhance virus attachment to target cells or facilitate trans-infection of CD4+ T cells via interactions with non-T cells. In addition to the pro-viral factors, anti-viral transmembrane proteins are incorporated into progeny virions. These virion-incorporated transmembrane proteins inhibit HIV-1 entry at the point of attachment and fusion. In infected polarized CD4+ T cells, HIV-1 Gag localizes to a rear-end protrusion known as the uropod. Regardless of cell polarization, Gag colocalizes with and promotes the virion incorporation of a subset of uropod-directed host transmembrane proteins, including CD162, CD43, and CD44. Until recently, the functions of these virion-incorporated proteins had not been clear. Here, we review the recent findings about the roles played by virion-incorporated CD162, CD43, and CD44 in HIV-1 spread to CD4+ T cells.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/metabolism , Hyaluronan Receptors/metabolism , Leukosialin/metabolism , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Cell Membrane/metabolism , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/metabolism , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hyaluronan Receptors/genetics , Leukosialin/genetics , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Virion/metabolism , Virus Assembly , Virus Attachment , gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/metabolism
8.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253489, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388925

ABSTRACT

In the pursuit of suitable and effective solutions to SARS-CoV-2 infection, we investigated the efficacy of several phenolic compounds in controlling key cellular mechanisms involved in its infectivity. The way the SARS-CoV-2 virus infects the cell is a complex process and comprises four main stages: attachment to the cognate receptor, cellular entry, replication and cellular egress. Since, this is a multi-part process, it creates many opportunities to develop effective interventions. Targeting binding of the virus to the host receptor in order to prevent its entry has been of particular interest. Here, we provide experimental evidence that, among 56 tested polyphenols, including plant extracts, brazilin, theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, and curcumin displayed the highest binding with the receptor-binding domain of spike protein, inhibiting viral attachment to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor, and thus cellular entry of pseudo-typed SARS-CoV-2 virions. Both, theaflavin-3,3'-digallate at 25 µg/ml and curcumin above 10 µg/ml concentration, showed binding with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor reducing at the same time its activity in both cell-free and cell-based assays. Our study also demonstrates that brazilin and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, and to a still greater extent, curcumin, decrease the activity of transmembrane serine protease 2 both in cell-free and cell-based assays. Similar pattern was observed with cathepsin L, although only theaflavin-3,3'-digallate showed a modest diminution of cathepsin L expression at protein level. Finally, each of these three compounds moderately increased endosomal/lysosomal pH. In conclusion, this study demonstrates pleiotropic anti-SARS-CoV-2 efficacy of specific polyphenols and their prospects for further scientific and clinical investigations.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Polyphenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , A549 Cells , Benzopyrans/pharmacology , Biflavonoids/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Catechin/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Curcumin/pharmacology , Humans , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virion/drug effects , Virion/metabolism , Virion/physiology , Virus Attachment/drug effects
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367852

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus is a commonly used strategy that mimics certain biological functions of the authentic virus by relying on biological legitimacy at the molecular level. Despite the fact that spike (S), envelope (E), and membrane (M) proteins together wrap up the SARS-CoV-2 virion, most of the reported pseudotype viruses consist of only the S protein. Here, we report that the presence of E and M increased the virion infectivity by promoting the S protein priming. The S, E, and M (SEM)-coated pseudovirion is spherical, containing crown-like spikes on the surface. Both S and SEM pseudoviruses packaged the same amounts of viral RNA, but the SEM virus bound more efficiently to cells stably expressing the viral receptor human angiotensin-converting enzyme II (hACE2) and became more infectious. Using this SEM pseudovirus, we examined the infectivity and antigenic properties of the natural SARS-CoV-2 variants. We showed that some variants have higher infectivity than the original virus and that some render the neutralizing plasma with lower potency. These studies thus revealed possible mechanisms of the dissemination advantage of these variants. Hence, the SEM pseudovirion provides a useful tool to evaluate the viral infectivity and capability of convalescent sera in neutralizing specific SARS-CoV-2 S dominant variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/ultrastructure , Cricetinae , Humans , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology , Viral Matrix Proteins/ultrastructure , Virion/genetics , Virion/immunology , Virion/metabolism , Virion/ultrastructure
10.
Nature ; 588(7838): 498-502, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343462

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virions are surrounded by a lipid bilayer from which spike (S) protein trimers protrude1. Heavily glycosylated S trimers bind to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor and mediate entry of virions into target cells2-6. S exhibits extensive conformational flexibility: it modulates exposure of its receptor-binding site and subsequently undergoes complete structural rearrangement to drive fusion of viral and cellular membranes2,7,8. The structures and conformations of soluble, overexpressed, purified S proteins have been studied in detail using cryo-electron microscopy2,7,9-12, but the structure and distribution of S on the virion surface remain unknown. Here we applied cryo-electron microscopy and tomography to image intact SARS-CoV-2 virions and determine the high-resolution structure, conformational flexibility and distribution of S trimers in situ on the virion surface. These results reveal the conformations of S on the virion, and provide a basis from which to understand interactions between S and neutralizing antibodies during infection or vaccination.


Subject(s)
Cryoelectron Microscopy , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Virion/chemistry , Virion/ultrastructure , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Models, Molecular , Pliability , Protein Conformation , Protein Multimerization , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Virion/isolation & purification , Virion/metabolism
11.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287278

ABSTRACT

Host plasma membrane protein SERINC5 is incorporated into budding retrovirus particles where it blocks subsequent entry into susceptible target cells. Three structurally unrelated proteins encoded by diverse retroviruses, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef, equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) S2, and ecotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) GlycoGag, disrupt SERINC5 antiviral activity by redirecting SERINC5 from the site of virion assembly on the plasma membrane to an internal RAB7+ endosomal compartment. Pseudotyping retroviruses with particular glycoproteins, e.g., vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G), renders the infectivity of particles resistant to inhibition by virion-associated SERINC5. To better understand viral determinants for SERINC5-sensitivity, the effect of SERINC5 was assessed using HIV-1, MLV, and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) virion cores, pseudotyped with glycoproteins from Arenavirus, Coronavirus, Filovirus, Rhabdovirus, Paramyxovirus, and Orthomyxovirus genera. SERINC5 restricted virions pseudotyped with glycoproteins from several retroviruses, an orthomyxovirus, a rhabdovirus, a paramyxovirus, and an arenavirus. Infectivity of particles pseudotyped with HIV-1, amphotropic-MLV (A-MLV), or influenza A virus (IAV) glycoproteins, was decreased by SERINC5, whether the core was provided by HIV-1, MLV, or M-PMV. In contrast, particles pseudotyped with glycoproteins from M-PMV, parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), or rabies virus (RABV) were sensitive to SERINC5, but only with particular retroviral cores. Resistance to SERINC5 did not correlate with reduced SERINC5 incorporation into particles, route of viral entry, or absolute infectivity of the pseudotyped virions. These findings indicate that some non-retroviruses may be sensitive to SERINC5 and that, in addition to the viral glycoprotein, the retroviral core influences sensitivity to SERINC5.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins , Virion/metabolism , Viruses/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , HIV-1/metabolism , Humans , Leukemia Virus, Murine/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Retroviridae/classification , Retroviridae/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Virion/genetics , Virus Internalization , Viruses/chemistry , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3917, 2021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281717

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 carries the largest single-stranded RNA genome and is the causal pathogen of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. How the SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome is folded in the virion remains unknown. To fill the knowledge gap and facilitate structure-based drug development, we develop a virion RNA in situ conformation sequencing technology, named vRIC-seq, for probing viral RNA genome structure unbiasedly. Using vRIC-seq data, we reconstruct the tertiary structure of the SARS-CoV-2 genome and reveal a surprisingly "unentangled globule" conformation. We uncover many long-range duplexes and higher-order junctions, both of which are under purifying selections and contribute to the sequential package of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Unexpectedly, the D614G and the other two accompanying mutations may remodel duplexes into more stable forms. Lastly, the structure-guided design of potent small interfering RNAs can obliterate the SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cells. Overall, our work provides a framework for studying the genome structure, function, and dynamics of emerging deadly RNA viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , RNA, Viral/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Virion/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Genome, Viral , Humans , Nucleic Acid Conformation , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virion/chemistry , Virion/metabolism
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 641360, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247859

ABSTRACT

Human SP-D is a potent innate immune molecule whose presence at pulmonary mucosal surfaces allows its role in immune surveillance against pathogens. Higher levels of serum SP-D have been reported in the patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Studies have suggested the ability of human SP-D to recognise spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV; its interaction with HCoV-229E strain leads to viral inhibition in human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells. Previous studies have reported that a recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rfhSP-D) composed of 8 Gly-X-Y repeats, neck and CRD region, can act against a range of viral pathogens including influenza A Virus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo. In this context, this study was aimed at examining the likely protective role of rfhSP-D against SARS-CoV-2 infection. rfhSP-D showed a dose-responsive binding to S1 spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and its receptor binding domain. Importantly, rfhSP-D inhibited interaction of S1 protein with the HEK293T cells overexpressing human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2). The protective role of rfhSP-D against SARS-CoV-2 infection as an entry inhibitor was further validated by the use of pseudotyped lentiviral particles expressing SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein; ~0.5 RLU fold reduction in viral entry was seen following treatment with rfhSP-D (10 µg/ml). These results highlight the therapeutic potential of rfhSP-D in SARS-CoV-2 infection and merit pre-clinical studies in animal models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Influenza A virus/physiology , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/physiology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/physiology , Virion/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Protein Binding , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Internalization
14.
Immunology ; 163(4): 416-430, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142903

ABSTRACT

The sudden outbreak of SARS-CoV-2-infected disease (COVID-19), initiated from Wuhan, China, has rapidly grown into a global pandemic. Emerging evidence has implicated extracellular vesicles (EVs), a key intercellular communicator, in the pathogenesis and treatment of COVID-19. In the pathogenesis of COVID-19, cells that express ACE2 and CD9 can transfer these viral receptors to other cells via EVs, making recipient cells more susceptible for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Once infected, cells release EVs packaged with viral particles that further facilitate viral spreading and immune evasion, aggravating COVID-19 and its complications. In contrast, EVs derived from stem cells, especially mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, alleviate severe inflammation (cytokine storm) and repair damaged lung cells in COVID-19 by delivery of anti-inflammatory molecules. These therapeutic beneficial EVs can also be engineered into drug delivery platforms or vaccines to fight against COVID-19. Therefore, EVs from diverse sources exhibit distinct effects in regulating viral infection, immune response, and tissue damage/repair, functioning as a double-edged sword in COVID-19. Here, we summarize the recent progress in understanding the pathological roles of EVs in COVID-19. A comprehensive discussion of the therapeutic effects/potentials of EVs is also provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Extracellular Vesicles/virology , Lung/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virion/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Drug Carriers , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/transplantation , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virion/immunology
15.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138303

ABSTRACT

An emerging class of cellular inhibitory proteins has been identified that targets viral glycoproteins. These include the membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that, among other functions, downregulate cell surface proteins involved in adaptive immunity. The RING-CH domain of MARCH proteins is thought to function by catalyzing the ubiquitination of the cytoplasmic tails (CTs) of target proteins, leading to their degradation. MARCH proteins have recently been reported to target retroviral envelope glycoproteins (Env) and vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein (VSV-G). However, the mechanism of antiviral activity remains poorly defined. Here we show that MARCH8 antagonizes the full-length forms of HIV-1 Env, VSV-G, Ebola virus glycoprotein (EboV-GP), and the spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), thereby impairing the infectivity of virions pseudotyped with these viral glycoproteins. This MARCH8-mediated targeting of viral glycoproteins requires the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of the RING-CH domain. We observe that MARCH8 protein antagonism of VSV-G is CT dependent. In contrast, MARCH8-mediated targeting of HIV-1 Env, EboV-GP, and SARS-CoV-2 S protein by MARCH8 does not require the CT, suggesting a novel mechanism of MARCH-mediated antagonism of these viral glycoproteins. Confocal microscopy data demonstrate that MARCH8 traps the viral glycoproteins in an intracellular compartment. We observe that the endogenous expression of MARCH8 in several relevant human cell types is rapidly inducible by type I interferon. These results help to inform the mechanism by which MARCH proteins exert their antiviral activity and provide insights into the role of cellular inhibitory factors in antagonizing the biogenesis, trafficking, and virion incorporation of viral glycoproteins.IMPORTANCE Viral envelope glycoproteins are an important structural component on the surfaces of enveloped viruses that direct virus binding and entry and also serve as targets for the host adaptive immune response. In this study, we investigate the mechanism of action of the MARCH family of cellular proteins that disrupt the trafficking and virion incorporation of viral glycoproteins across several virus families. This research provides novel insights into how host cell factors antagonize viral replication, perhaps opening new avenues for therapeutic intervention in the replication of a diverse group of highly pathogenic enveloped viruses.


Subject(s)
Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Cells, Cultured , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferons/pharmacology , Intracellular Space/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mutation , RNA Viruses/classification , RNA Viruses/metabolism , Species Specificity , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Virion/metabolism , Virus Replication
16.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci ; 290: 102400, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116130

ABSTRACT

We review concepts involved in describing the chemodynamic features of nanoparticles and apply the framework to gain physicochemical insights into interactions between SARS-CoV-2 virions and airborne particulate matter (PM). Our analysis is highly pertinent given that the World Health Organisation acknowledges that SARS-CoV-2 may be transmitted by respiratory droplets, and the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention recognises that airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can occur. In our theoretical treatment, the virion is assimilated to a core-shell nanoparticle, and contributions of various interaction energies to the virion-PM association (electrostatic, hydrophobic, London-van der Waals, etc.) are generically included. We review the limited available literature on the physicochemical features of the SARS-CoV-2 virion and identify knowledge gaps. Despite the lack of quantitative data, our conceptual framework qualitatively predicts that virion-PM entities are largely able to maintain equilibrium on the timescale of their diffusion towards the host cell surface. Comparison of the relevant mass transport coefficients reveals that virion biointernalization demand by alveolar host cells may be greater than the diffusive supply. Under such conditions both the free and PM-sorbed virions may contribute to the transmitted dose. This result points to the potential for PM to serve as a shuttle for delivery of virions to host cell targets. Thus, our critical review reveals that the chemodynamics of virion-PM interactions may play a crucial role in the transmission of COVID-19, and provides a sound basis for explaining reported correlations between episodes of air pollution and outbreaks of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Epithelial Cells/virology , Particulate Matter/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Virion/chemistry , Aerosols , Biomechanical Phenomena , COVID-19/virology , Diffusion , Humans , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Models, Chemical , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Static Electricity , Virion/metabolism , Virion/pathogenicity , Virus Internalization , Water/chemistry
17.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100111, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066049

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a ß-coronavirus, is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Like for other coronaviruses, its particles are composed of four structural proteins: spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleoprotein (N) proteins. The involvement of each of these proteins and their interactions are critical for assembly and production of ß-coronavirus particles. Here, we sought to characterize the interplay of SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins during the viral assembly process. By combining biochemical and imaging assays in infected versus transfected cells, we show that E and M regulate intracellular trafficking of S as well as its intracellular processing. Indeed, the imaging data reveal that S is relocalized at endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) or Golgi compartments upon coexpression of E or M, as observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, which prevents syncytia formation. We show that a C-terminal retrieval motif in the cytoplasmic tail of S is required for its M-mediated retention in the ERGIC, whereas E induces S retention by modulating the cell secretory pathway. We also highlight that E and M induce a specific maturation of N-glycosylation of S, independently of the regulation of its localization, with a profile that is observed both in infected cells and in purified viral particles. Finally, we show that E, M, and N are required for optimal production of virus-like-particles. Altogether, these results highlight how E and M proteins may influence the properties of S proteins and promote the assembly of SARS-CoV-2 viral particles.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Virion/growth & development , Virus Assembly/physiology , Animals , Biomimetic Materials/chemistry , Biomimetic Materials/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/ultrastructure , Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , Gene Expression , Golgi Apparatus/metabolism , Golgi Apparatus/ultrastructure , Golgi Apparatus/virology , HEK293 Cells , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Hepatocytes/ultrastructure , Hepatocytes/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Virion/genetics , Virion/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Virus Release/physiology
18.
Virology ; 556: 1-8, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045103

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is one of the emerged coronaviruses posing a significant threat to the swine industry. Previous work showed the presence of a viral accessory protein NS6 in PDCoV-infected cells. In this study, we detected the expression of the NS6 protein in small intestinal tissues of PDCoV-infected piglets. In addition, SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis of sucrose gradient-purified virions showed the presence of a 13-kDa NS6 protein. Further evidences of the presence of NS6 in the PDCoV virions were obtained by immunogold staining of purified virions with anti-NS6 antiserum, and by immunoprecipitation of NS6 from purified virions. Finally, the anti-NS6 antibody was not able to neutralize PDCoV in cultured cells. These data establish for the first time that the accessory protein NS6 is expressed during infection in vivo and incorporated into PDCoV virions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Deltacoronavirus/metabolism , Swine Diseases/virology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virion/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Mice , Rabbits , Swine , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology
19.
Virology ; 556: 9-22, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-985483

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses rearrange endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes to form a reticulovesicular network (RVN) comprised predominantly of double membrane vesicles (DMVs) involved in viral replication. While portions of the RVN have been analyzed by electron tomography (ET), the full extent of the RVN is not known, nor how RVN formation affects ER morphology. Additionally the precise mechanism of DMV formation has not been observed. In this work, we examined large volumes of coronavirus-infected cells at multiple timepoints during infection using serial-section ET. We provide a comprehensive 3D analysis of the ER and RVN which gives insight into the formation mechanism of DMVs as well as the first evidence for their lysosomal degradation. We also show that the RVN breaks down late in infection, concurrent with the ER becoming the main budding compartment for new virions. This work provides a broad view of the multifaceted involvement of ER membranes in coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Viral Replication Compartments/metabolism , Animals , Cell Line , Electron Microscope Tomography , Endoplasmic Reticulum/ultrastructure , Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , Lysosomes/metabolism , Lysosomes/ultrastructure , Lysosomes/virology , Mice , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Viral Replication Compartments/ultrastructure , Virion/metabolism , Virus Assembly , Virus Replication
20.
Cell Rep ; 33(12): 108528, 2020 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978234

ABSTRACT

Soluble forms of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) have recently been shown to inhibit severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We report on an improved soluble ACE2, termed a "microbody," in which the ACE2 ectodomain is fused to Fc domain 3 of the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain. The protein is smaller than previously described ACE2-Ig Fc fusion proteins and contains an H345A mutation in the ACE2 catalytic active site that inactivates the enzyme without reducing its affinity for the SARS-CoV-2 spike. The disulfide-bonded ACE2 microbody protein inhibits entry of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein pseudotyped virus and replication of live SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and in a mouse model. Its potency is 10-fold higher than soluble ACE2, and it can act after virus bound to the cell. The microbody inhibits the entry of ß coronaviruses and virus with the variant D614G spike. The ACE2 microbody may be a valuable therapeutic for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that is active against viral variants and future coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/metabolism , Microbodies/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Disulfides/metabolism , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Mice, Transgenic , Protein Domains , Protein Multimerization , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virion/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
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