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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2935, 2022 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864739

ABSTRACT

Serine Incorporator 5 (SERINC5), a cellular multipass transmembrane protein that is involved in sphingolipid and phosphatydilserine biogenesis, potently restricts a number of retroviruses, including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). SERINC5 is incorporated in the budding virions leading to the inhibition of virus infectivity. In turn, retroviruses, including HIV, encode factors that counteract the antiviral effect of SERINC5. While SERINC5 has been well studied in retroviruses, little is known about its role in other viral families. Due to the paucity of information regarding host factors targeting Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), we evaluated the effect of SERINC proteins on SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we show SERINC5 inhibits SARS-CoV-2 entry by blocking virus-cell fusion, and SARS-CoV-2 ORF7a counteracts the antiviral effect of SERINC5 by blocking the incorporation of over expressed SERINC5 in budding virions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Membrane Proteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Virion/physiology
2.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715774

ABSTRACT

Virus-like particles resemble infectious virus particles in size, shape, and molecular composition; however, they fail to productively infect host cells. Historically, the presence of virus-like particles has been inferred from total particle counts by microscopy, and infectious particle counts or plaque-forming-units (PFUs) by plaque assay; the resulting ratio of particles-to-PFUs is often greater than one, easily 10 or 100, indicating that most particles are non-infectious. Despite their inability to hijack cells for their reproduction, virus-like particles and the defective genomes they carry can exhibit a broad range of behaviors: interference with normal virus growth during co-infections, cell killing, and activation or inhibition of innate immune signaling. In addition, some virus-like particles become productive as their multiplicities of infection increase, a sign of cooperation between particles. Here, we review established and emerging methods to count virus-like particles and characterize their biological functions. We take a critical look at evidence for defective interfering virus genomes in natural and clinical isolates, and we review their potential as antiviral therapeutics. In short, we highlight an urgent need to better understand how virus-like genomes and particles interact with intact functional viruses during co-infection of their hosts, and their impacts on the transmission, severity, and persistence of virus-associated diseases.


Subject(s)
Defective Viruses/physiology , Virion/physiology , Animals , Colony-Forming Units Assay , Genome, Viral , Humans , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Viral Plaque Assay , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Replication
3.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715763

ABSTRACT

Epithelial cells are apico-basolateral polarized cells that line all tubular organs and are often targets for infectious agents. This review focuses on the release of human RNA virus particles from both sides of polarized human cells grown on transwells. Most viruses that infect the mucosa leave their host cells mainly via the apical side while basolateral release is linked to virus propagation within the host. Viruses do this by hijacking the cellular factors involved in polarization and trafficking. Thus, understanding epithelial polarization is essential for a clear understanding of virus pathophysiology.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/virology , RNA Viruses/physiology , Virus Release , Cell Polarity , Humans , Virion/physiology , Virus Assembly , Virus Replication
5.
Science ; 374(6571): 1099-1106, 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467657

ABSTRACT

Molecular virology tools are critical for basic studies of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and for developing new therapeutics. Experimental systems that do not rely on viruses capable of spread are needed for potential use in lower-containment settings. In this work, we use a yeast-based reverse genetics system to develop spike-deleted SARS-CoV-2 self-replicating RNAs. These noninfectious self-replicating RNAs, or replicons, can be trans-complemented with viral glycoproteins to generate replicon delivery particles for single-cycle delivery into a range of cell types. This SARS-CoV-2 replicon system represents a convenient and versatile platform for antiviral drug screening, neutralization assays, host factor validation, and viral variant characterization.


Subject(s)
RNA, Viral/genetics , Replicon/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Humans , Interferons/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mutation , Plasmids , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Replicon/genetics , Reverse Genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virion/genetics , Virion/physiology , Virus Replication
6.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253489, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388925

ABSTRACT

In the pursuit of suitable and effective solutions to SARS-CoV-2 infection, we investigated the efficacy of several phenolic compounds in controlling key cellular mechanisms involved in its infectivity. The way the SARS-CoV-2 virus infects the cell is a complex process and comprises four main stages: attachment to the cognate receptor, cellular entry, replication and cellular egress. Since, this is a multi-part process, it creates many opportunities to develop effective interventions. Targeting binding of the virus to the host receptor in order to prevent its entry has been of particular interest. Here, we provide experimental evidence that, among 56 tested polyphenols, including plant extracts, brazilin, theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, and curcumin displayed the highest binding with the receptor-binding domain of spike protein, inhibiting viral attachment to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor, and thus cellular entry of pseudo-typed SARS-CoV-2 virions. Both, theaflavin-3,3'-digallate at 25 µg/ml and curcumin above 10 µg/ml concentration, showed binding with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor reducing at the same time its activity in both cell-free and cell-based assays. Our study also demonstrates that brazilin and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, and to a still greater extent, curcumin, decrease the activity of transmembrane serine protease 2 both in cell-free and cell-based assays. Similar pattern was observed with cathepsin L, although only theaflavin-3,3'-digallate showed a modest diminution of cathepsin L expression at protein level. Finally, each of these three compounds moderately increased endosomal/lysosomal pH. In conclusion, this study demonstrates pleiotropic anti-SARS-CoV-2 efficacy of specific polyphenols and their prospects for further scientific and clinical investigations.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Polyphenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , A549 Cells , Benzopyrans/pharmacology , Biflavonoids/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Catechin/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Curcumin/pharmacology , Humans , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virion/drug effects , Virion/metabolism , Virion/physiology , Virus Attachment/drug effects
7.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348607

ABSTRACT

The mechanisms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) egress, similar to those of other coronaviruses, remain poorly understood. The virus buds in intracellular compartments and is therefore thought to be released by the biosynthetic secretory pathway. However, several studies have recently challenged this hypothesis. It has been suggested that coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, use lysosomes for egress. In addition, a focused ion-beam scanning electron microscope (FIB/SEM) study suggested the existence of exit tunnels linking cellular compartments rich in viral particles to the extracellular space resembling those observed for the human immunodeficiency (HIV) in macrophages. Here, we analysed serial sections of Vero cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We found that SARS-CoV-2 was more likely to exit the cell in small secretory vesicles. Virus trafficking within the cells involves small vesicles, with each generally containing a single virus particle. These vesicles then fuse with the plasma membrane to release the virus into the extracellular space. This work sheds new light on the late stages of the SARS-CoV-2 infectious cycle of potential value for guiding the development of new antiviral strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Secretory Vesicles/ultrastructure , Virus Replication , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Vero Cells , Virion/physiology
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(25)2021 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258619

ABSTRACT

Quantitatively describing the time course of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection within an infected individual is important for understanding the current global pandemic and possible ways to combat it. Here we integrate the best current knowledge about the typical viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in bodily fluids and host tissues to estimate the total number and mass of SARS-CoV-2 virions in an infected person. We estimate that each infected person carries 109 to 1011 virions during peak infection, with a total mass in the range of 1 µg to 100 µg, which curiously implies that all SARS-CoV-2 virions currently circulating within human hosts have a collective mass of only 0.1 kg to 10 kg. We combine our estimates with the available literature on host immune response and viral mutation rates to demonstrate how antibodies markedly outnumber the spike proteins, and the genetic diversity of virions in an infected host covers all possible single nucleotide substitutions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load , Virion/physiology , Humans , Serologic Tests
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11885, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258601

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped virus responsible for the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, single viruses were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) operating directly in a level 3 biosafety (BSL3) facility, which appeared as a fast and powerful method to assess at the nanoscale level and in 3D infectious virus morphology in its native conformation, or upon inactivation treatments. AFM imaging reveals structurally intact infectious and inactivated SARS-CoV-2 upon low concentration of formaldehyde treatment. This protocol combining AFM and plaque assays allows the preparation of intact inactivated SARS-CoV-2 particles for safe use of samples out of level 3 laboratory to accelerate researches against the COVID-19 pandemic. Overall, we illustrate how adapted BSL3-AFM is a remarkable toolbox for rapid and direct virus analysis based on nanoscale morphology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Microscopy, Atomic Force , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Virion/ultrastructure , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Virion/physiology , Virus Inactivation
10.
J Chem Phys ; 154(19): 195104, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240809

ABSTRACT

Biological processes at the cellular level are stochastic in nature, and the immune response system is no different. Therefore, models that attempt to explain this system need to also incorporate noise or fluctuations that can account for the observed variability. In this work, a stochastic model of the immune response system is presented in terms of the dynamics of T cells and virus particles. Making use of the Green's function and the Wilemski-Fixman approximation, this model is then solved to obtain the analytical expression for the joint probability density function of these variables in the early and late stages of infection. This is then also used to calculate the average level of virus particles in the system. Upon comparing the theoretically predicted average virus levels to those of COVID-19 patients, it is hypothesized that the long-lived dynamics that are characteristics of such viral infections are due to the long range correlations in the temporal fluctuations of the virions. This model, therefore, provides an insight into the effects of noise on viral dynamics.


Subject(s)
Immunity , Models, Immunological , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Virion/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stochastic Processes
11.
Cells ; 10(4)2021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178118

ABSTRACT

Research on infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) is currently restricted to BSL-3 laboratories. SARS-CoV2 virus-like particles (VLPs) offer a BSL-1, replication-incompetent system that can be used to evaluate virus assembly and virus-cell entry processes in tractable cell culture conditions. Here, we describe a SARS-CoV2 VLP system that utilizes nanoluciferase (Nluc) fragment complementation to track assembly and entry. We utilized the system in two ways. Firstly, we investigated the requirements for VLP assembly. VLPs were produced by concomitant synthesis of three viral membrane proteins, spike (S), envelope (E), and matrix (M), along with the cytoplasmic nucleocapsid (N). We discovered that VLP production and secretion were highly dependent on N proteins. N proteins from related betacoronaviruses variably substituted for the homologous SARS-CoV2 N, and chimeric betacoronavirus N proteins effectively supported VLP production if they contained SARS-CoV2 N carboxy-terminal domains (CTD). This established the CTDs as critical features of virus particle assembly. Secondly, we utilized the system by investigating virus-cell entry. VLPs were produced with Nluc peptide fragments appended to E, M, or N proteins, with each subsequently inoculated into target cells expressing complementary Nluc fragments. Complementation into functional Nluc was used to assess virus-cell entry. We discovered that each of the VLPs were effective at monitoring virus-cell entry, to various extents, in ways that depended on host cell susceptibility factors. Overall, we have developed and utilized a VLP system that has proven useful in identifying SARS-CoV2 assembly and entry features.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virion/physiology , Virus Assembly , Virus Internalization , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
12.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154536

ABSTRACT

The risk posed by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus -2 (SARS-CoV-2) dictates that live-virus research is conducted in a biosafety level 3 (BSL3) facility. Working with SARS-CoV-2 at lower biosafety levels can expedite research yet requires the virus to be fully inactivated. In this study, we validated and compared two protocols for inactivating SARS-CoV-2: heat treatment and ultraviolet irradiation. The two methods were optimized to render the virus completely incapable of infection while limiting the destructive effects of inactivation. We observed that 15 min of incubation at 65 °C completely inactivates high titer viral stocks. Complete inactivation was also achieved with minimal amounts of UV power (70,000 µJ/cm2), which is 100-fold less power than comparable studies. Once validated, the two methods were then compared for viral RNA quantification, virion purification, and antibody detection assays. We observed that UV irradiation resulted in a 2-log reduction of detectable genomes compared to heat inactivation. Protein yield following virion enrichment was equivalent for all inactivation conditions, but the quality of resulting viral proteins and virions were differentially impacted depending on inactivation method and time. Here, we outline the strengths and weaknesses of each method so that investigators might choose the one which best meets their research goals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Disinfection/methods , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Virion/radiation effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , Disinfection/instrumentation , Hot Temperature , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Ultraviolet Rays , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virion/chemistry , Virion/genetics , Virion/physiology
13.
Nano Lett ; 21(6): 2675-2680, 2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039625

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic, displays a corona-shaped layer of spikes which play a fundamental role in the infection process. Recent structural data suggest that the spikes possess orientational freedom and the ribonucleoproteins segregate into basketlike structures. How these structural features regulate the dynamic and mechanical behavior of the native virion are yet unknown. By imaging and mechanically manipulating individual, native SARS-CoV-2 virions with atomic force microscopy, here, we show that their surface displays a dynamic brush owing to the flexibility and rapid motion of the spikes. The virions are highly compliant and able to recover from drastic mechanical perturbations. Their global structure is remarkably temperature resistant, but the virion surface becomes progressively denuded of spikes upon thermal exposure. The dynamics and the mechanics of SARS-CoV-2 are likely to affect its stability and interactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Virion/chemistry , Virion/physiology , Biomechanical Phenomena , Hot Temperature , Humans , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Models, Molecular , Nanostructures/chemistry , Nanostructures/ultrastructure , Nanotechnology , Pandemics , Protein Conformation , Protein Stability , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Single Molecule Imaging , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Thermodynamics , Virion/ultrastructure
14.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000348

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic. The 3' untranslated region (UTR) of this ß-CoV contains essential cis-acting RNA elements for the viral genome transcription and replication. These elements include an equilibrium between an extended bulged stem-loop (BSL) and a pseudoknot. The existence of such an equilibrium is supported by reverse genetic studies and phylogenetic covariation analysis and is further proposed as a molecular switch essential for the control of the viral RNA polymerase binding. Here, we report the SARS-CoV-2 3' UTR structures in cells that transcribe the viral UTRs harbored in a minigene plasmid and isolated infectious virions using a chemical probing technique, namely dimethyl sulfate (DMS)-mutational profiling with sequencing (MaPseq). Interestingly, the putative pseudoknotted conformation was not observed, indicating that its abundance in our systems is low in the absence of the viral nonstructural proteins (nsps). Similarly, our results also suggest that another functional cis-acting element, the three-helix junction, cannot stably form. The overall architectures of the viral 3' UTRs in the infectious virions and the minigene-transfected cells are almost identical.


Subject(s)
3' Untranslated Regions/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Nucleic Acid Conformation , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Base Sequence , Cell Line , Conserved Sequence , Cricetinae , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mesocricetus , Models, Molecular , Plasmids , Point Mutation , Reverse Genetics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid , Sulfuric Acid Esters , Transcription, Genetic , Virion/genetics , Virion/physiology
15.
Nature ; 592(7852): 116-121, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892040

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein substitution D614G became dominant during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic1,2. However, the effect of this variant on viral spread and vaccine efficacy remains to be defined. Here we engineered the spike D614G substitution in the USA-WA1/2020 SARS-CoV-2 strain, and found that it enhances viral replication in human lung epithelial cells and primary human airway tissues by increasing the infectivity and stability of virions. Hamsters infected with SARS-CoV-2 expressing spike(D614G) (G614 virus) produced higher infectious titres in nasal washes and the trachea, but not in the lungs, supporting clinical evidence showing that the mutation enhances viral loads in the upper respiratory tract of COVID-19 patients and may increase transmission. Sera from hamsters infected with D614 virus exhibit modestly higher neutralization titres against G614 virus than against D614 virus, suggesting that the mutation is unlikely to reduce the ability of vaccines in clinical trials to protect against COVID-19, and that therapeutic antibodies should be tested against the circulating G614 virus. Together with clinical findings, our work underscores the importance of this variant in viral spread and its implications for vaccine efficacy and antibody therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Genetic Fitness , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Lung/virology , Male , Mesocricetus/virology , Models, Biological , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Neutralization Tests , Protein Stability , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tissue Culture Techniques , Trachea/virology , Viral Load , Virion/chemistry , Virion/pathogenicity , Virion/physiology , Virus Replication/genetics
16.
J Med Virol ; 92(10): 2087-2095, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-763177

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Coronaviruses enter cells via fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane and/or via fusion of the viral envelope with endosomal membranes after virion endocytosis. The spike (S) glycoprotein is a major determinant of virus infectivity. Herein, we show that the transient expression of the SARS CoV-2 S glycoprotein in Vero cells caused extensive cell fusion (formation of syncytia) in comparison to limited cell fusion caused by the SARS S glycoprotein. Both S glycoproteins were detected intracellularly and on transfected Vero cell surfaces. These results are in agreement with published pathology observations of extensive syncytia formation in lung tissues of patients with COVID-19. These results suggest that SARS CoV-2 is able to spread from cell-to-cell much more efficiently than SARS effectively avoiding extracellular neutralizing antibodies. A systematic screening of several drugs including cardiac glycosides and kinase inhibitors and inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry revealed that only the FDA-approved HIV protease inhibitor, nelfinavir mesylate (Viracept) drastically inhibited S-n- and S-o-mediated cell fusion with complete inhibition at a 10-µM concentration. In-silico docking experiments suggested the possibility that nelfinavir may bind inside the S trimer structure, proximal to the S2 amino terminus directly inhibiting S-n- and S-o-mediated membrane fusion. Also, it is possible that nelfinavir may act to inhibit S proteolytic processing within cells. These results warrant further investigations of the potential of nelfinavir mesylate to inhibit virus spread at early times after SARS CoV-2 symptoms appear.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Membrane Fusion/drug effects , Nelfinavir/pharmacology , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Anti-HIV Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Fusion , Chlorocebus aethiops , Giant Cells/drug effects , Giant Cells/pathology , Giant Cells/virology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nelfinavir/chemistry , Plasmids/chemistry , Plasmids/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virion/drug effects , Virion/pathogenicity , Virion/physiology
17.
Adv Biosyst ; 4(7): e2000105, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-361328

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of COVID-19, it is important to address the possible scenarios of SARS-CoV-2 virulence. Although several researchers have addressed the possible mechanisms of enveloped virus transfection, for example, influenza, here, the relationship between exhaled virus laden-particles, the climate, and transfection probability is discussed by interpreting the findings of prior studies. Importantly, the higher probability of viral transfection in cold and dry public spaces such as near cold shelves of groceries is illustrated. Thus, additional protective measures in such spaces are recommended.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Virion/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Climate , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Physical Distancing , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperature , Virion/physiology , Virulence
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