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2.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(12): 1467-1468, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1663977
4.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911636

ABSTRACT

The Czech Republic, a part of the former Czechoslovakia, has been at the forefront of several research directions in virology, genetics and physiology [...].


Subject(s)
Virology , Czech Republic
5.
Curr Opin Virol ; 54: 101229, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881820
6.
BMJ ; 377: o1168, 2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840570

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Virology
7.
J Cell Biol ; 221(3)2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795409

ABSTRACT

Bo Zhong studies the regulation of the antiviral innate immunity, inflammation, and tumorigenesis by the protein ubiquitination system.


Subject(s)
Allergy and Immunology/history , Immunity, Innate , Ubiquitination , Virology/history , Animals , China , History, 21st Century , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans
8.
Nature ; 603(7903): 784-786, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773942
10.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(3): 901-910, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687372

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic evoked by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has triggered a major public health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. Understanding the pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms underlying this novel virus is crucial for both fundamental research and clinical trials in order to devise effective therapies and vaccination regimens. Basic research on SARS-CoV-2 largely depends on ex vivo models that allow viral invasion and replication. Organoid models are now emerging as a valuable tool to investigate viral biology and disease progression, serving as an efficient platform to investigate potential therapies for COVID-19. Here, we summarize various human stem cell-derived organoid types employed in SARS-CoV-2 studies. We highlight key findings from these models, including cell tropisms and molecular mechanisms in viral infection. We also describe their use in identifying potential therapeutic agents against SARS-CoV-2. As more and more advanced organoids emerge, they will facilitate the understanding of disease pathogenesis for drug development in this dreaded pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organoids , SARS-CoV-2 , Virology/methods , Humans
11.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20(1): 41, 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643157

ABSTRACT

Early detection of viral pathogens by DNA-sensors in clinical samples, contaminated foods, soil or water can dramatically improve clinical outcomes and reduce the socioeconomic impact of diseases such as COVID-19. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and its associated protein Cas12a (previously known as CRISPR-Cpf1) technology is an innovative new-generation genomic engineering tool, also known as 'genetic scissors', that has demonstrated the accuracy and has recently been effectively applied as appropriate (E-CRISPR) DNA-sensor to detect the nucleic acid of interest. The CRISPR-Cas12a from Prevotella and Francisella 1 are guided by a short CRISPR RNA (gRNA). The unique simultaneous cis- and trans- DNA cleavage after target sequence recognition at the PAM site, sticky-end (5-7 bp) employment, and ssDNA/dsDNA hybrid cleavage strategies to manipulate the attractive nature of CRISPR-Cas12a are reviewed. DNA-sensors based on the CRISPR-Cas12a technology for rapid, robust, sensitive, inexpensive, and selective detection of virus DNA without additional sample purification, amplification, fluorescent-agent- and/or quencher-labeling are relevant and becoming increasingly important in industrial and medical applications. In addition, CRISPR-Cas12a system shows great potential in the field of E-CRISPR-based bioassay research technologies. Therefore, we are highlighting insights in this research direction.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems/physiology , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Animals , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Biosensing Techniques/trends , COVID-19/virology , DNA, Viral/analysis , Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Environmental Pollutants/isolation & purification , Food Contamination/analysis , Humans , Molecular Typing/methods , Molecular Typing/trends , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/trends , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virology/methods , Virology/trends , Virus Diseases/classification , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/virology
12.
Virology ; 566: 114-121, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556999

ABSTRACT

This communication summarizes the presentations given at the 1st international conference of the World Society for Virology (WSV) held virtually during 16-18 June 2021, under the theme of tackling global viral epidemics. The purpose of this biennial meeting is to foster international collaborations and address important viral epidemics in different hosts. The first day included two sessions exclusively on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. The other two days included one plenary and three parallel sessions each. Last not least, 16 sessions covered 140 on-demand submitted talks. In total, 270 scientists from 49 countries attended the meeting, including 40 invited keynote speakers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Congresses as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Societies, Scientific , Virology
14.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542801

ABSTRACT

Nestled within the Rocky Mountain National Forest, 114 scientists and students gathered at Colorado State University's Mountain Campus for this year's 21st annual Rocky Mountain National Virology Association meeting. This 3-day retreat consisted of 31 talks and 30 poster presentations discussing advances in research pertaining to viral and prion diseases. The keynote address provided a timely discussion on zoonotic coronaviruses, lessons learned, and the path forward towards predicting, preparing, and preventing future viral disease outbreaks. Other invited speakers discussed advances in SARS-CoV-2 surveillance, molecular interactions involved in flavivirus genome assembly, evaluation of ethnomedicines for their efficacy against infectious diseases, multi-omic analyses to define risk factors associated with long COVID, the role that interferon lambda plays in control of viral pathogenesis, cell-fusion-dependent pathogenesis of varicella zoster virus, and advances in the development of a vaccine platform against prion diseases. On behalf of the Rocky Mountain Virology Association, this report summarizes select presentations.


Subject(s)
Virology , Animals , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prion Diseases/diagnosis , Prion Diseases/prevention & control , Prions/immunology , Prions/isolation & purification , Prions/pathogenicity , Vaccines , Virology/organization & administration , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/immunology , Viruses/isolation & purification , Viruses/pathogenicity
16.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009318, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388960

ABSTRACT

Species taxa are the units of taxonomy most suited to measure virus diversity, and they account for more than 70% of all virus taxa. Yet, as evidenced by the content of GenBank entries and illustrated by the recent literature on SARS-CoV-2, they are the most neglected taxa of virus research. To correct this disparity, we propose to make species taxa a first choice for communicating virus taxonomy in publications concerning viruses. We see it as a key step toward promoting research on diverse viruses, including pathogens, at this fundamental level of biology.


Subject(s)
Classification , Terminology as Topic , Viruses/classification , SARS-CoV-2 , Virology
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13592, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387484

ABSTRACT

With global demand for SARS-CoV-2 testing ever rising, shortages in commercially available viral transport media pose a serious problem for laboratories and health care providers. For reliable diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses, executed by Real-time PCR, the quality of respiratory specimens, predominantly determined by transport and storage conditions, is crucial. Therefore, our aim was to explore the reliability of minimal transport media, comprising saline or the CDC recommended Viral Transport Media (HBSS VTM), for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses (influenza A, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, rhinovirus and human metapneumovirus) compared to commercial products, such as the Universal Transport Media (UTM). We question the assumptions, that the choice of medium and temperature for storage and transport affect the accuracy of viral detection by RT-PCR. Both alternatives to the commercial transport medium (UTM), HBSS VTM or saline, allow adequate detection of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses, regardless of storage temperatures up to 28 °C and storage times up to 28 days. Our study revealed the high resilience of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses, enabling proper detection in clinical specimens even after long-time storage at high temperatures, independent of the transport medium's composition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Culture Media/chemistry , Preservation, Biological/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Specimen Handling/methods , Virology/methods , Cold Temperature , Humans , Laboratory Chemicals/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors
18.
20.
Med Health Care Philos ; 23(4): 589-602, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340476

ABSTRACT

This paper addresses global bioethical challenges entailed in emerging viral diseases, focussing on their socio-cultural dimension and seeing them as symptomatic of the current era of globalisation. Emerging viral threats exemplify the extent to which humans evolved into a global species, with a pervasive and irreversible impact on the planetary ecosystem. To effectively address these disruptive threats, an attitude of preparedness seems called for, not only on the viroscientific, but also on bioethical, regulatory and governance levels. This paper analyses the global bioethical challenges of emerging viral threats from a dialectical materialist (Marxist) perspective, focussing on three collisions: (1) the collision of expanding networks of globalisation with local husbandry practices; (2) the collision of global networks of mobility with disrupted ecosystems; and (3) the collision of viroscience as a globalised research field with existing regulatory frameworks. These collisions emerge in a force field defined by the simultaneity of the non-simultaneous. Evidence-based health policies invoke discontent as they reflect the normative logic of a globalised knowledge regime. The development of a global bioethics or macro-ethics requires us to envision these collisions not primarily as issues of benefits and risks, but first and foremost as normative tensions closely entangled with broader socio-economic and socio-cultural developments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disaster Planning/organization & administration , Internationality , Philosophy, Medical , Virology/organization & administration , Bioethical Issues , Health Policy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
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