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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690219

ABSTRACT

The development of prophylactic agents against the SARS-CoV-2 virus is a public health priority in the search for new surrogate markers of active virus replication. Early detection markers are needed to follow disease progression and foresee patient negativization. Subgenomic RNA transcripts (with a focus on sgN) were evaluated in oro/nasopharyngeal swabs from COVID-19-affected patients with an analysis of 315 positive samples using qPCR technology. Cut-off Cq values for sgN (Cq < 33.15) and sgE (Cq < 34.06) showed correlations to high viral loads. The specific loss of sgN in home-isolated and hospitalized COVID-19-positive patients indicated negativization of patient condition, 3-7 days from the first swab, respectively. A new detection kit for sgN, gene E, gene ORF1ab, and gene RNAse P was developed recently. In addition, in vitro studies have shown that 2'-O-methyl antisense RNA (related to the sgN sequence) can impair SARS-CoV-2 N protein synthesis, viral replication, and syncytia formation in human cells (i.e., HEK-293T cells overexpressing ACE2) upon infection with VOC Alpha (B.1.1.7)-SARS-CoV-2 variant, defining the use that this procedure might have for future therapeutic actions against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/physiology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/analysis , Giant Cells/drug effects , Giant Cells/virology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Limit of Detection , Nasopharynx/virology , Phosphoproteins/analysis , Phosphoproteins/genetics , RNA, Antisense/pharmacology , RNA, Viral , Ribonuclease P/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Social Isolation , Viral Load , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication/drug effects
2.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 717: 109124, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653889

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS- CoV-2) with an estimated fatality rate of less than 1%. The SARS-CoV-2 accessory proteins ORF3a, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF7b, ORF8, and ORF10 possess putative functions to manipulate host immune mechanisms. These involve interferons, which appear as a consensus function, immune signaling receptor NLRP3 (NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3) inflammasome, and inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) and are critical in COVID-19 pathology. Outspread variations of each of the six accessory proteins were observed across six continents of all complete SARS-CoV-2 proteomes based on the data reported before November 2020. A decreasing order of percentage of unique variations in the accessory proteins was determined as ORF3a > ORF8 > ORF7a > ORF6 > ORF10 > ORF7b across all continents. The highest and lowest unique variations of ORF3a were observed in South America and Oceania, respectively. These findings suggest that the wide variations in accessory proteins seem to affect the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Genetic Variation , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1005, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635617

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a public health emergency, and research on the development of various types of vaccines is rapidly progressing at an unprecedented development speed internationally. Some vaccines have already been approved for emergency use and are being supplied to people around the world, but there are still many ongoing efforts to create new vaccines. Virus-like particles (VLPs) enable the construction of promising platforms in the field of vaccine development. Here, we demonstrate that non-infectious SARS-CoV-2 VLPs can be successfully assembled by co-expressing three important viral proteins membrane (M), envelop (E) and nucleocapsid (N) in plants. Plant-derived VLPs were purified by sedimentation through a sucrose cushion. The shape and size of plant-derived VLPs are similar to native SARS-CoV-2 VLPs without spike. Although the assembled VLPs do not have S protein spikes, they could be developed as formulations that can improve the immunogenicity of vaccines including S antigens, and further could be used as platforms that can carry S antigens of concern for various mutations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus M Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/immunology , Viroporin Proteins/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Coronavirus M Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus M Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Tobacco/immunology , Tobacco/metabolism , Tobacco/virology , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/genetics , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism
4.
Virology ; 568: 13-22, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639193

ABSTRACT

Heightened inflammatory response is a prominent feature of severe COVID-19 disease. We report that the SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a viroporin activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, the most promiscuous of known inflammasomes. Ectopically expressed ORF3a triggers IL-1ß expression via NFκB, thus priming the inflammasome. ORF3a also activates the NLRP3 inflammasome but not NLRP1 or NLRC4, resulting in maturation of IL-1ß and cleavage/activation of Gasdermin. Notably, ORF3a activates the NLRP3 inflammasome via both ASC-dependent and -independent modes. This inflammasome activation requires efflux of potassium ions and oligomerization between the kinase NEK7 and NLRP3. Importantly, infection of epithelial cells with SARS-CoV-2 similarly activates the NLRP3 inflammasome. With the NLRP3 inhibitor MCC950 and select FDA-approved oral drugs able to block ORF3a-mediated inflammasome activation, as well as key ORF3a amino acid residues needed for virus release and inflammasome activation conserved in the new variants of SARS-CoV-2 isolates across continents, ORF3a and NLRP3 present prime targets for intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Death , Cell Line , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Models, Biological , Open Reading Frames , Potassium/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Viroporin Proteins/chemistry , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism
5.
CRISPR J ; 4(6): 854-871, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545880

ABSTRACT

The lack of efficient tools to label multiple endogenous targets in cell lines without staining or fixation has limited our ability to track physiological and pathological changes in cells over time via live-cell studies. Here, we outline the FAST-HDR vector system to be used in combination with CRISPR-Cas9 to allow visual live-cell studies of up to three endogenous proteins within the same cell line. Our approach utilizes a novel set of advanced donor plasmids for homology-directed repair and a streamlined workflow optimized for microscopy-based cell screening to create genetically modified cell lines that do not require staining or fixation to accommodate microscopy-based studies. We validated this new methodology by developing two advanced cell lines with three fluorescent-labeled endogenous proteins that support high-content imaging without using antibodies or exogenous staining. We applied this technology to study seven severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19) viral proteins to understand better their effects on autophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, and cell growth. Using these two cell lines, we were able to identify the protein ORF3a successfully as a potent inhibitor of autophagy, inducer of mitochondrial relocalization, and a growth inhibitor, which highlights the effectiveness of live-cell studies using this technology.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , COVID-19 , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Gene Targeting , Mitochondrial Dynamics , SARS-CoV-2 , Viroporin Proteins , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , HCT116 Cells , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Microscopy , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13464, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500743

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that emerged in human populations recently. Severely ill COVID-19 patients exhibit the elevation of proinflammatory cytokines, and such an unbalanced production of proinflammatory cytokines is linked to acute respiratory distress syndrome with high mortality in COVID-19 patients. Our study provides evidence that the ORF3a, M, ORF7a, and N proteins of SARS-CoV-2 were NF-κB activators. The viral sequence from infected zoo lions belonged to clade V, and a single mutation of G251V is found for ORF3a gene compared to all other clades. No significant functional difference was found for clade V ORF3a, indicating the NF-κB activation is conserved among COVID-19 variants. Of the four viral proteins, the ORF7a protein induced the NF-κB dictated proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFNß. The ORF7a protein also induced IL-3, IL-4, IL-7, IL-23. Of 15 different chemokines examined in the study, CCL11, CCL17, CCL19, CCL20, CCL21, CCL22, CCL25, CCL26, CCL27, and CXCL9 were significantly upregulated by ORF7. These cytokines and chemokines were frequently elevated in severely ill COVID-19 patients. Our data provide an insight into how SARS-CoV-2 modulates NF-κB signaling and inflammatory cytokine expressions. The ORF7a protein may be a desirable target for strategic developments to minimize uncontrolled inflammation in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Cytokines/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/genetics , HeLa Cells , Humans , Point Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Alignment , Severity of Illness Index , Up-Regulation , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/chemistry , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism
7.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471002

ABSTRACT

West Java Health Laboratory (WJHL) is one of the many institutions in Indonesia that have sequenced SARS-CoV-2 genome. Although having submitted a large number of sequences since September 2020, however, these submitted data lack advanced analyses. Therefore, in this study, we analyze the variant distribution, hotspot mutation, and its impact on protein structure and function of SARS-CoV-2 from the collected samples from WJHL. As many as one hundred sixty-three SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences submitted by West Java Health Laboratory (WJHL), with collection dates between September 2020 and June 2021, were retrieved from GISAID. Subsequently, the frequency and distribution of non-synonymous mutations across different cities and regencies from these samples were analyzed. The effect of the most prevalent mutations from dominant variants on the stability of their corresponding proteins was examined. The samples mostly consisted of people of working-age, and were distributed between female and male equally. All of the sample sequences showed varying levels of diversity, especially samples from West Bandung which carried the highest diversity. Dominant variants are the VOC B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant, B.1.466.2 variant, and B.1.470 variant. The genomic regions with the highest number of mutations are the spike, NSP3, nucleocapsid, NSP12, and ORF3a protein. Mutation analysis showed that mutations in structural protein might increase the stability of the protein. Oppositely, mutations in non-structural protein might lead to a decrease in protein stability. However, further research to study the impact of mutations on the function of SARS-CoV-2 proteins are required.


Subject(s)
Genome, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Disease Hotspot , Female , Humans , Indonesia , Male , Molecular Docking Simulation , Mutation/genetics , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Protein Stability , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing
8.
Dev Cell ; 56(23): 3250-3263.e5, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458566

ABSTRACT

Viral entry and egress are important determinants of virus infectivity and pathogenicity. ß-coronaviruses, including the COVID-19 virus SARS-CoV-2 and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), exploit the lysosomal exocytosis pathway for egress. Here, we show that SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a, but not SARS-CoV ORF3a, promotes lysosomal exocytosis. SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a facilitates lysosomal targeting of the BORC-ARL8b complex, which mediates trafficking of lysosomes to the vicinity of the plasma membrane, and exocytosis-related SNARE proteins. The Ca2+ channel TRPML3 is required for SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a-mediated lysosomal exocytosis. Expression of SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a greatly elevates extracellular viral release in cells infected with the coronavirus MHV-A59, which itself lacks ORF3a. In SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a, Ser171 and Trp193 are critical for promoting lysosomal exocytosis and blocking autophagy. When these residues are introduced into SARS-CoV ORF3a, it acquires the ability to promote lysosomal exocytosis and inhibit autophagy. Our results reveal a mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 interacts with host factors to promote its extracellular egress.


Subject(s)
ADP-Ribosylation Factors/metabolism , Autophagy , Exocytosis , Lysosomes/physiology , Transient Receptor Potential Channels/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism , Virus Release , ADP-Ribosylation Factors/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/virology , HeLa Cells , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Transient Receptor Potential Channels/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/genetics
9.
Proteins ; 89(12): 1987-1996, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449944

ABSTRACT

Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction (CASP) is an organization aimed at advancing the state of the art in computing protein structure from sequence. In the spring of 2020, CASP launched a community project to compute the structures of the most structurally challenging proteins coded for in the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Forty-seven research groups submitted over 3000 three-dimensional models and 700 sets of accuracy estimates on 10 proteins. The resulting models were released to the public. CASP community members also worked together to provide estimates of local and global accuracy and identify structure-based domain boundaries for some proteins. Subsequently, two of these structures (ORF3a and ORF8) have been solved experimentally, allowing assessment of both model quality and the accuracy estimates. Models from the AlphaFold2 group were found to have good agreement with the experimental structures, with main chain GDT_TS accuracy scores ranging from 63 (a correct topology) to 87 (competitive with experiment).


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Proteins/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Models, Molecular , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/chemistry , Viroporin Proteins/genetics
10.
Mol Syst Biol ; 17(9): e10079, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406892

ABSTRACT

We modeled 3D structures of all SARS-CoV-2 proteins, generating 2,060 models that span 69% of the viral proteome and provide details not available elsewhere. We found that ˜6% of the proteome mimicked human proteins, while ˜7% was implicated in hijacking mechanisms that reverse post-translational modifications, block host translation, and disable host defenses; a further ˜29% self-assembled into heteromeric states that provided insight into how the viral replication and translation complex forms. To make these 3D models more accessible, we devised a structural coverage map, a novel visualization method to show what is-and is not-known about the 3D structure of the viral proteome. We integrated the coverage map into an accompanying online resource (https://aquaria.ws/covid) that can be used to find and explore models corresponding to the 79 structural states identified in this work. The resulting Aquaria-COVID resource helps scientists use emerging structural data to understand the mechanisms underlying coronavirus infection and draws attention to the 31% of the viral proteome that remains structurally unknown or dark.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral/chemistry , Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral/genetics , Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology/methods , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins/chemistry , Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Molecular Mimicry , Neuropilin-1/chemistry , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Interaction Mapping/methods , Protein Multimerization , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/chemistry , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17878, 2021 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402125

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 infection continues to ravage the world, the advent of an efficient as well as the economization of the existing RT-PCR based detection assay essentially can become a blessing in these testing times and significantly help in the management of the pandemic. This study demonstrated an innovative and rapid corroboration of COVID-19 test based on innovative multiplex PCR. An assessment of optimal PCR conditions to simultaneously amplify the SARS-CoV-2 genes E, S and RdRp has been made by fast-conventional and HRM coupled multiplex real-time PCR using the same sets of primers. All variables of practical value were studied by amplifying known target-sequences from ten-fold dilutions of archived positive samples of COVID-19 disease. The multiplexing with newly designed E, S and RdRp primers have shown an efficient amplification of the target region of SARS-CoV-2. A distinct amplification was observed in 37 min using thermal cycler while it took 96 min in HRM coupled real time detection using SYBR green over a wide range of template concentrations. Our findings revealed decent concordance with other commercially available detection kits. This fast HRM coupled multiplex real-time PCR with SYBR green approach offers rapid and sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 in a cost-effective manner apart from the added advantage of primer compatibility for use in conventional multiplex PCR. The highly reproducible novel approach can propel extended applicability for developing sustainable commercial product besides providing relief to a resource limited setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/economics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/economics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/genetics
12.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 57(2): 106272, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385674

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Genomic alterations in a viral genome can lead to either better or worse outcome and identifying these mutations is of utmost importance. Here, we correlated protein-level mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 virus to clinical outcome. METHODS: Mutations in viral sequences from the GISAID virus repository were evaluated by using "hCoV-19/Wuhan/WIV04/2019" as the reference. Patient outcomes were classified as mild disease, hospitalization and severe disease (death or documented treatment in an intensive-care unit). Chi-square test was applied to examine the association between each mutation and patient outcome. False discovery rate was computed to correct for multiple hypothesis testing and results passing FDR cutoff of 5% were accepted as significant. RESULTS: Mutations were mapped to amino acid changes for 3,733 non-silent mutations. Mutations correlated to mild outcome were located in the ORF8, NSP6, ORF3a, NSP4, and in the nucleocapsid phosphoprotein N. Mutations associated with inferior outcome were located in the surface (S) glycoprotein, in the RNA dependent RNA polymerase, in ORF3a, NSP3, ORF6 and N. Mutations leading to severe outcome with low prevalence were found in the ORF3A and in NSP7 proteins. Four out of 22 of the most significant mutations mapped onto a 10 amino acid long phosphorylated stretch of N indicating that in spite of obvious sampling restrictions the approach can find functionally relevant sites in the viral genome. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that mutations in the viral genes may have a direct correlation to clinical outcome. Our results help to quickly identify SARS-CoV-2 infections harboring mutations related to severe outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/etiology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mutation Rate , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/genetics
14.
Virus Res ; 300: 198441, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221063

ABSTRACT

One of the most important proteins for COVID-19 pathogenesis in SARS-CoV-2 is the ORF3a which is the largest accessory protein among others coded by the SARS-CoV-2 genome. The major roles of the protein include virulence, infectivity, ion channel activity, morphogenesis, and virus release. The coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 is mutating rapidly, therefore, critical study of mutations in ORF3a is certainly important from the pathogenic perspective. Here, a sum of 175 non-synonymous mutations in the ORF3a of SARS-CoV-2 were identified from 7194 complete genomes of SARS-CoV-2 available from NCBI database. Effects of these mutations on structural stability, and functions of ORF3a were also studied. Broadly, three different classes of mutations, such as neutral, disease, and mixed (neutral and disease) types of mutations were observed. Consecutive phenomena of mutations in ORF3a protein were studied based on the timeline of detection of the mutations. Considering the amino acid compositions of the ORF3a protein, twenty clusters were detected using the K-means clustering method. The present findings on 175 novel mutations of ORF3a proteins will extend our knowledge on ORF3a, a vital accessory protein in SARS-CoV-2, to enlighten the pathogenicity of this life-threatening virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viroporin Proteins , Virulence Factors , Databases, Genetic , Genes, Viral , Genetic Variation , Humans , Mutation, Missense , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Structure-Activity Relationship , Viroporin Proteins/chemistry , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Virulence Factors/chemistry , Virulence Factors/genetics
15.
FEBS J ; 288(17): 5148-5162, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189682

ABSTRACT

Small linear motifs targeting protein interacting domains called PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1 (PDZ) have been identified at the C terminus of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) proteins E, 3a, and N. Using a high-throughput approach of affinity-profiling against the full human PDZome, we identified sixteen human PDZ binders of SARS-CoV-2 proteins E, 3A, and N showing significant interactions with dissociation constants values ranging from 3 to 82 µm. Six of them (TJP1, PTPN13, HTRA1, PARD3, MLLT4, LNX2) are also recognized by SARS-CoV while three (NHERF1, MAST2, RADIL) are specific to SARS-CoV-2 E protein. Most of these SARS-CoV-2 protein partners are involved in cellular junctions/polarity and could be also linked to evasion mechanisms of the immune responses during viral infection. Among the binders of the SARS-CoV-2 proteins E, 3a, or N, seven significantly affect viral replication under knock down gene expression in infected cells. This PDZ profiling identifying human proteins potentially targeted by SARS-CoV-2 can help to understand the multifactorial severity of COVID19 and to conceive effective anti-coronaviral agents for therapeutic purposes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , PDZ Domains/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Carrier Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Humans , Myosins/genetics , Protein Binding/genetics , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/genetics , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 13/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication/genetics , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein/genetics
16.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154526

ABSTRACT

The etiological agent of the COVID-19 pandemic is SARS-CoV-2. As a member of the Coronaviridae, the enveloped pathogen has several membrane proteins, of which two, E and 3a, were suggested to function as ion channels. In an effort to increase our treatment options, alongside providing new research tools, we have sought to inhibit the 3a channel by targeted drug repurposing. To that end, using three bacteria-based assays, we screened a library of 2839 approved-for-human-use drugs and identified the following potential channel-blockers: Capreomycin, Pentamidine, Spectinomycin, Kasugamycin, Plerixafor, Flumatinib, Litronesib, Darapladib, Floxuridine and Fludarabine. The stage is now set for examining the activity of these compounds in detailed electrophysiological studies and their impact on the whole virus with appropriate biosafety measures.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Repositioning , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Envelope Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/genetics
17.
Cytokine ; 142: 155496, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152317

ABSTRACT

Efforts to understand host factors critical for COVID-19 pathogenesis have identified high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) to be crucial for regulating susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 disease severity is correlated with heightened inflammatory responses, and HMGB1 is an important extracellular mediator in inflammation processes.In this study, we evaluated the effect of HMGB1 inhibitor Glycyrrhizin on the cellular perturbations in lung cells expressing SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. Pyroptosis in lung cells transfected with SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD and Orf3a, was accompanied by elevation of IL-1ß and extracellular HMGB1 levels. Glycyrrhizin mitigated viral proteins-induced lung cell pyroptosis and activation of macrophages. Heightened release of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-8, as well as ferritin from macrophages cultured in conditioned media from lung cells expressing SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD and Orf3a was attenuated by glycyrrhizin. Importantly, Glycyrrhizin inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells without exhibiting cytotoxicity at high doses. The dual ability of Glycyrrhizin to concomitantly halt virus replication and dampen proinflammatory mediators might constitute a viable therapeutic option in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects , A549 Cells , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , HMGB1 Protein/genetics , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , U937 Cells , Viroporin Proteins/genetics
18.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 40: 101980, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Marseille, France, the COVID-19 incidence evolved unusually with several successive epidemic phases. The second outbreak started in July, was associated with North Africa, and involved travelers and an outbreak on passenger ships. This suggested the involvement of a new viral variant. METHODS: We sequenced the genomes from 916 SARS-CoV-2 strains from COVID-19 patients in our institute. The patients' demographic and clinical features were compared according to the infecting viral variant. RESULTS: From June 26th to August 14th, we identified a new viral variant (Marseille-1). Based on genome sequences (n = 89) or specific qPCR (n = 53), 142 patients infected with this variant were detected. It is characterized by a combination of 10 mutations located in the nsp2, nsp3, nsp12, S, ORF3a, ORF8 and N/ORF14 genes. We identified Senegal and Gambia, where the virus had been transferred from China and Europe in February-April as the sources of the Marseille-1 variant, which then most likely reached Marseille through Maghreb when French borders reopened. In France, this variant apparently remained almost limited to Marseille. In addition, it was significantly associated with a milder disease compared to clade 20A ancestor strains, in univariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 can genetically diversify rapidly, its variants can diffuse internationally and cause successive outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Aged , Amino Acid Substitution , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Female , France/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Phylogeny , Travel , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/genetics
19.
J Proteome Res ; 20(3): 1591-1601, 2021 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069086

ABSTRACT

A novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and continues to be a global health challenge. To understand viral disease biology, we have carried out proteo-genomic analysis using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and mass spectrometry on nasopharyngeal swabs of COVID-19 patients to examine the clinical genome and proteome. Our study confirms the mutability of SARS-CoV-2 showing multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms. NGS analysis detected 27 mutations, of which 14 are synonymous, 11 are missense, and 2 are extragenic in nature. Phylogenetic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 isolates indicated their close relation to a Bangladesh isolate and multiple origins of isolates within the country. Our proteomic analysis, for the first time, identified 13 different SARS-CoV-2 proteins from the clinical swabs. Of the total 41 peptides captured by high-resolution mass spectrometry, 8 matched to nucleocapsid protein, 2 to ORF9b, and 1 to spike glycoprotein and ORF3a, with remaining peptides mapping to ORF1ab polyprotein. Additionally, host proteome analysis revealed several key host proteins to be uniquely expressed in COVID-19 patients. Pathway analysis of these proteins points toward modulation in immune response, especially involving neutrophil and IL-12-mediated signaling. Besides revealing the aspects of host-virus pathogenesis, our study opens new avenues to develop better diagnostic markers and therapeutic approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Genome, Viral , Genomics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Humans , Mutation , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phylogeny , Polyproteins/genetics , Proteome , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/genetics
20.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 20(1): 8, 2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067240

ABSTRACT

The Severe Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has gained research attention worldwide, given the current pandemic. Nevertheless, a previous zoonotic and highly pathogenic coronavirus, the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), is still causing concern, especially in Saudi Arabia and neighbour countries. The MERS-CoV has been reported from respiratory samples in more than 27 countries, and around 2500 cases have been reported with an approximate fatality rate of 35%. After its emergence in 2012 intermittent, sporadic cases, nosocomial infections and many community clusters of MERS continued to occur in many countries. Human-to-human transmission resulted in the large outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. The inherent genetic variability among various clads of the MERS-CoV might have probably paved the events of cross-species transmission along with changes in the inter-species and intra-species tropism. The current review is drafted using an extensive review of literature on various databases, selecting of publications irrespective of favouring or opposing, assessing the merit of study, the abstraction of data and analysing data. The genome of MERS-CoV contains around thirty thousand nucleotides having seven predicted open reading frames. Spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N) proteins are the four main structural proteins. The surface located spike protein (S) of betacoronaviruses has been established to be one of the significant factors in their zoonotic transmission through virus-receptor recognition mediation and subsequent initiation of viral infection. Three regions in Saudi Arabia (KSA), Eastern Province, Riyadh and Makkah were affected severely. The epidemic progression had been the highest in 2014 in Makkah and Riyadh and Eastern Province in 2013. With a lurking epidemic scare, there is a crucial need for effective therapeutic and immunological remedies constructed on sound molecular investigations.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus M Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/genetics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
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