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1.
Virology ; 568: 13-22, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639193

ABSTRACT

Heightened inflammatory response is a prominent feature of severe COVID-19 disease. We report that the SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a viroporin activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, the most promiscuous of known inflammasomes. Ectopically expressed ORF3a triggers IL-1ß expression via NFκB, thus priming the inflammasome. ORF3a also activates the NLRP3 inflammasome but not NLRP1 or NLRC4, resulting in maturation of IL-1ß and cleavage/activation of Gasdermin. Notably, ORF3a activates the NLRP3 inflammasome via both ASC-dependent and -independent modes. This inflammasome activation requires efflux of potassium ions and oligomerization between the kinase NEK7 and NLRP3. Importantly, infection of epithelial cells with SARS-CoV-2 similarly activates the NLRP3 inflammasome. With the NLRP3 inhibitor MCC950 and select FDA-approved oral drugs able to block ORF3a-mediated inflammasome activation, as well as key ORF3a amino acid residues needed for virus release and inflammasome activation conserved in the new variants of SARS-CoV-2 isolates across continents, ORF3a and NLRP3 present prime targets for intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Death , Cell Line , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Models, Biological , Open Reading Frames , Potassium/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Viroporin Proteins/chemistry , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1005, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635617

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a public health emergency, and research on the development of various types of vaccines is rapidly progressing at an unprecedented development speed internationally. Some vaccines have already been approved for emergency use and are being supplied to people around the world, but there are still many ongoing efforts to create new vaccines. Virus-like particles (VLPs) enable the construction of promising platforms in the field of vaccine development. Here, we demonstrate that non-infectious SARS-CoV-2 VLPs can be successfully assembled by co-expressing three important viral proteins membrane (M), envelop (E) and nucleocapsid (N) in plants. Plant-derived VLPs were purified by sedimentation through a sucrose cushion. The shape and size of plant-derived VLPs are similar to native SARS-CoV-2 VLPs without spike. Although the assembled VLPs do not have S protein spikes, they could be developed as formulations that can improve the immunogenicity of vaccines including S antigens, and further could be used as platforms that can carry S antigens of concern for various mutations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus M Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/immunology , Viroporin Proteins/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Coronavirus M Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus M Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Tobacco/immunology , Tobacco/metabolism , Tobacco/virology , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/genetics , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism
3.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572656

ABSTRACT

In the past year and a half, SARS-CoV-2 has caused 240 million confirmed cases and 5 million deaths worldwide. Autophagy is a conserved process that either promotes or inhibits viral infections. Although coronaviruses are known to utilize the transport of autophagy-dependent vesicles for the viral life cycle, the underlying autophagy-inducing mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Using several autophagy-deficient cell lines and autophagy inhibitors, we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a was able to induce incomplete autophagy in a FIP200/Beclin-1-dependent manner. Moreover, ORF3a was involved in the induction of the UPR (unfolded protein response), while the IRE1 and ATF6 pathways, but not the PERK pathway, were responsible for mediating the ORF3a-induced autophagy. These results identify the role of the UPR pathway in the ORF3a-induced classical autophagy process, which may provide us with a better understanding of SARS-CoV-2 and suggest new therapeutic modalities in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Unfolded Protein Response , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Autophagy/genetics , Autophagy-Related Proteins/genetics , Beclin-1/genetics , Cell Line , Humans , Signal Transduction
4.
CRISPR J ; 4(6): 854-871, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545880

ABSTRACT

The lack of efficient tools to label multiple endogenous targets in cell lines without staining or fixation has limited our ability to track physiological and pathological changes in cells over time via live-cell studies. Here, we outline the FAST-HDR vector system to be used in combination with CRISPR-Cas9 to allow visual live-cell studies of up to three endogenous proteins within the same cell line. Our approach utilizes a novel set of advanced donor plasmids for homology-directed repair and a streamlined workflow optimized for microscopy-based cell screening to create genetically modified cell lines that do not require staining or fixation to accommodate microscopy-based studies. We validated this new methodology by developing two advanced cell lines with three fluorescent-labeled endogenous proteins that support high-content imaging without using antibodies or exogenous staining. We applied this technology to study seven severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19) viral proteins to understand better their effects on autophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, and cell growth. Using these two cell lines, we were able to identify the protein ORF3a successfully as a potent inhibitor of autophagy, inducer of mitochondrial relocalization, and a growth inhibitor, which highlights the effectiveness of live-cell studies using this technology.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , COVID-19 , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Gene Targeting , Mitochondrial Dynamics , SARS-CoV-2 , Viroporin Proteins , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , HCT116 Cells , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Microscopy , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13464, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500743

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that emerged in human populations recently. Severely ill COVID-19 patients exhibit the elevation of proinflammatory cytokines, and such an unbalanced production of proinflammatory cytokines is linked to acute respiratory distress syndrome with high mortality in COVID-19 patients. Our study provides evidence that the ORF3a, M, ORF7a, and N proteins of SARS-CoV-2 were NF-κB activators. The viral sequence from infected zoo lions belonged to clade V, and a single mutation of G251V is found for ORF3a gene compared to all other clades. No significant functional difference was found for clade V ORF3a, indicating the NF-κB activation is conserved among COVID-19 variants. Of the four viral proteins, the ORF7a protein induced the NF-κB dictated proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFNß. The ORF7a protein also induced IL-3, IL-4, IL-7, IL-23. Of 15 different chemokines examined in the study, CCL11, CCL17, CCL19, CCL20, CCL21, CCL22, CCL25, CCL26, CCL27, and CXCL9 were significantly upregulated by ORF7. These cytokines and chemokines were frequently elevated in severely ill COVID-19 patients. Our data provide an insight into how SARS-CoV-2 modulates NF-κB signaling and inflammatory cytokine expressions. The ORF7a protein may be a desirable target for strategic developments to minimize uncontrolled inflammation in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Cytokines/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/genetics , HeLa Cells , Humans , Point Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Alignment , Severity of Illness Index , Up-Regulation , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/chemistry , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism
6.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488757

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for the research community to develop a better understanding of viruses, in particular their modes of infection and replicative lifecycles, to aid in the development of novel vaccines and much needed anti-viral therapeutics. Several viruses express proteins capable of forming pores in host cellular membranes, termed "Viroporins". They are a family of small hydrophobic proteins, with at least one amphipathic domain, which characteristically form oligomeric structures with central hydrophilic domains. Consequently, they can facilitate the transport of ions through the hydrophilic core. Viroporins localise to host membranes such as the endoplasmic reticulum and regulate ion homeostasis creating a favourable environment for viral infection. Viroporins also contribute to viral immune evasion via several mechanisms. Given that viroporins are often essential for virion assembly and egress, and as their structural features tend to be evolutionarily conserved, they are attractive targets for anti-viral therapeutics. This review discusses the current knowledge of several viroporins, namely Influenza A virus (IAV) M2, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 Viral protein U (Vpu), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) p7, Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-16 E5, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) Open Reading Frame (ORF)3a and Polyomavirus agnoprotein. We highlight the intricate but broad immunomodulatory effects of these viroporins and discuss the current antiviral therapies that target them; continually highlighting the need for future investigations to focus on novel therapeutics in the treatment of existing and future emergent viruses.


Subject(s)
Immunomodulation , Ion Channels/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Viruses/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Autophagy , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Human Immunodeficiency Virus Proteins/chemistry , Human Immunodeficiency Virus Proteins/metabolism , Immune Evasion , Inflammasomes/immunology , Oncogene Proteins, Viral/chemistry , Oncogene Proteins, Viral/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/chemistry , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism , Viral Structural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Structural Proteins/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/chemistry , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/drug effects , Viruses/immunology , Viruses/pathogenicity
7.
Dev Cell ; 56(23): 3250-3263.e5, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458566

ABSTRACT

Viral entry and egress are important determinants of virus infectivity and pathogenicity. ß-coronaviruses, including the COVID-19 virus SARS-CoV-2 and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), exploit the lysosomal exocytosis pathway for egress. Here, we show that SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a, but not SARS-CoV ORF3a, promotes lysosomal exocytosis. SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a facilitates lysosomal targeting of the BORC-ARL8b complex, which mediates trafficking of lysosomes to the vicinity of the plasma membrane, and exocytosis-related SNARE proteins. The Ca2+ channel TRPML3 is required for SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a-mediated lysosomal exocytosis. Expression of SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a greatly elevates extracellular viral release in cells infected with the coronavirus MHV-A59, which itself lacks ORF3a. In SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a, Ser171 and Trp193 are critical for promoting lysosomal exocytosis and blocking autophagy. When these residues are introduced into SARS-CoV ORF3a, it acquires the ability to promote lysosomal exocytosis and inhibit autophagy. Our results reveal a mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 interacts with host factors to promote its extracellular egress.


Subject(s)
ADP-Ribosylation Factors/metabolism , Autophagy , Exocytosis , Lysosomes/physiology , Transient Receptor Potential Channels/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism , Virus Release , ADP-Ribosylation Factors/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/virology , HeLa Cells , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Transient Receptor Potential Channels/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/genetics
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19481, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447330

ABSTRACT

The pandemic infectious disease (Covid-19) caused by the coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) is spreading rapidly around the world. Covid-19 does an irreparable harm to the health and life of people. It also has a negative financial impact on the economies of most countries of the world. In this regard, the issue of creating drugs aimed at combating this disease is especially acute. In this work, molecular docking was used to study the docking of 23 compounds with QRF3a SARS-CoV2. The performed in silico modeling made it possible to identify leading compounds capable of exerting a potential inhibitory and virucidal effect. The leading compounds include chlorin (a drug used in PDT), iron(III)protoporphyrin (endogenous porphyrin), and tetraanthraquinone porphyrazine (an exogenous substance). Having taken into consideration the localization of ligands in the QRF3a SARS-CoV2, we have made an assumption about their influence on the pathogenesis of Covid-19. The interaction of chlorin, iron(III)protoporphyrin and protoporphyrin with the viral protein ORF3a were studied by fluorescence and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The obtained experimental results confirm the data of molecular docking. The results showed that a viral protein binds to endogenous porphyrins and chlorins, moreover, chlorin is a competitive ligand for endogenous porphyrins. Chlorin should be considered as a promising drug for repurposing.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Heterocyclic Compounds/chemistry , Macrocyclic Compounds/chemistry , Macrocyclic Compounds/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/chemistry , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Heterocyclic Compounds/metabolism , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Porphyrins/chemistry , Porphyrins/metabolism , Protoporphyrins/chemistry , Protoporphyrins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viroporin Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors
9.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438747

ABSTRACT

Recently, two cases of complete remission of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and follicular lymphoma (FL) after SARS-CoV-2 infection were reported. However, the precise molecular mechanism of this rare event is yet to be understood. Here, we hypothesize a potential anti-tumor immune response of SARS-CoV-2 and based on a computational approach show that: (i) SARS-CoV-2 Spike-RBD may bind to the extracellular domains of CD15, CD27, CD45, and CD152 receptors of cHL or FL and may directly inhibit cell proliferation. (ii) Alternately, upon internalization after binding to these CD molecules, the SARS-CoV-2 membrane (M) protein and ORF3a may bind to gamma-tubulin complex component 3 (GCP3) at its tubulin gamma-1 chain (TUBG1) binding site. (iii) The M protein may also interact with TUBG1, blocking its binding to GCP3. (iv) Both the M and ORF3a proteins may render the GCP2-GCP3 lateral binding where the M protein possibly interacts with GCP2 at its GCP3 binding site and the ORF3a protein to GCP3 at its GCP2 interacting residues. (v) Interactions of the M and ORF3a proteins with these gamma-tubulin ring complex components potentially block the initial process of microtubule nucleation, leading to cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. (vi) The Spike-RBD may also interact with and block PD-1 signaling similar to pembrolizumab and nivolumab- like monoclonal antibodies and may induce B-cell apoptosis and remission. (vii) Finally, the TRADD interacting "PVQLSY" motif of Epstein-Barr virus LMP-1, that is responsible for NF-kB mediated oncogenesis, potentially interacts with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, NSP7, NSP10, and spike (S) proteins, and may inhibit the LMP-1 mediated cell proliferation. Taken together, our results suggest a possible therapeutic potential of SARS-CoV-2 in lymphoproliferative disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Lymphoma/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/complications , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Glycoproteins/ultrastructure , Humans , Immunity/immunology , Lymphoma/therapy , Lymphoma/virology , Models, Theoretical , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/ultrastructure
10.
Mol Syst Biol ; 17(9): e10079, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406892

ABSTRACT

We modeled 3D structures of all SARS-CoV-2 proteins, generating 2,060 models that span 69% of the viral proteome and provide details not available elsewhere. We found that ˜6% of the proteome mimicked human proteins, while ˜7% was implicated in hijacking mechanisms that reverse post-translational modifications, block host translation, and disable host defenses; a further ˜29% self-assembled into heteromeric states that provided insight into how the viral replication and translation complex forms. To make these 3D models more accessible, we devised a structural coverage map, a novel visualization method to show what is-and is not-known about the 3D structure of the viral proteome. We integrated the coverage map into an accompanying online resource (https://aquaria.ws/covid) that can be used to find and explore models corresponding to the 79 structural states identified in this work. The resulting Aquaria-COVID resource helps scientists use emerging structural data to understand the mechanisms underlying coronavirus infection and draws attention to the 31% of the viral proteome that remains structurally unknown or dark.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral/chemistry , Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral/genetics , Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology/methods , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins/chemistry , Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Molecular Mimicry , Neuropilin-1/chemistry , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Interaction Mapping/methods , Protein Multimerization , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/chemistry , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
11.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 308, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364579

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm induced by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a major pathological feature of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and a crucial determinant in COVID-19 prognosis. Understanding the mechanism underlying the SARS-CoV-2-induced cytokine storm is critical for COVID-19 control. Here, we identify that SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a and host hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) play key roles in the virus infection and pro-inflammatory responses. RNA sequencing shows that HIF-1α signaling, immune response, and metabolism pathways are dysregulated in COVID-19 patients. Clinical analyses indicate that HIF-1α production, inflammatory responses, and high mortalities occurr in elderly patients. HIF-1α and pro-inflammatory cytokines are elicited in patients and infected cells. Interestingly, SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a induces mitochondrial damage and Mito-ROS production to promote HIF-1α expression, which subsequently facilitates SARS-CoV-2 infection and cytokines production. Notably, HIF-1α also broadly promotes the infection of other viruses. Collectively, during SARS-CoV-2 infection, ORF3a induces HIF-1α, which in turn aggravates viral infection and inflammatory responses. Therefore, HIF-1α plays an important role in promoting SARS-CoV-2 infection and inducing pro-inflammatory responses to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Mitochondria/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism , A549 Cells , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Mitochondria/pathology , RNA-Seq , THP-1 Cells , Vero Cells
13.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1863(6): 183590, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188312

ABSTRACT

The envelope protein E of the SARS-CoV coronavirus is an archetype of viroporin. It is a small hydrophobic protein displaying ion channel activity that has proven highly relevant in virus-host interaction and virulence. Ion transport through E channel was shown to alter Ca2+ homeostasis in the cell and trigger inflammation processes. Here, we study transport properties of the E viroporin in mixed solutions of potassium and calcium chloride that contain a fixed total concentration (mole fraction experiments). The channel is reconstituted in planar membranes of different lipid compositions, including a lipid mixture that mimics the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) membrane where the virus localizes within the cell. We find that the E ion conductance changes non-monotonically with the total ionic concentration displaying an Anomalous Mole Fraction Effect (AMFE) only when charged lipids are present in the membrane. We also observe that E channel insertion in ERGIC-mimic membranes - including lipid with intrinsic negative curvature - enhances ion permeation at physiological concentrations of pure CaCl2 or KCl solutions, with a preferential transport of Ca2+ in mixed KCl-CaCl2 solutions. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that the presence of calcium modulates the transport properties of the E channel by interacting preferentially with charged lipids through different mechanisms including direct Coulombic interactions and possibly inducing changes in membrane morphology.


Subject(s)
Calcium/metabolism , SARS Virus/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Ion Transport , Membrane Lipids/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Transport , Solutions , Viroporin Proteins/chemistry
14.
Nature ; 594(7862): 246-252, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180252

ABSTRACT

The emergence and global spread of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in the urgent need for an in-depth understanding of molecular functions of viral proteins and their interactions with the host proteome. Several individual omics studies have extended our knowledge of COVID-19 pathophysiology1-10. Integration of such datasets to obtain a holistic view of virus-host interactions and to define the pathogenic properties of SARS-CoV-2 is limited by the heterogeneity of the experimental systems. Here we report a concurrent multi-omics study of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. Using state-of-the-art proteomics, we profiled the interactomes of both viruses, as well as their influence on the transcriptome, proteome, ubiquitinome and phosphoproteome of a lung-derived human cell line. Projecting these data onto the global network of cellular interactions revealed crosstalk between the perturbations taking place upon infection with SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV at different levels and enabled identification of distinct and common molecular mechanisms of these closely related coronaviruses. The TGF-ß pathway, known for its involvement in tissue fibrosis, was specifically dysregulated by SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 and autophagy was specifically dysregulated by SARS-CoV-2 ORF3. The extensive dataset (available at https://covinet.innatelab.org ) highlights many hotspots that could be targeted by existing drugs and may be used to guide rational design of virus- and host-directed therapies, which we exemplify by identifying inhibitors of kinases and matrix metalloproteases with potent antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Proteome/metabolism , Proteomics , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Autophagy/drug effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Datasets as Topic , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Phosphorylation , Protein Interaction Maps , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Proteome/chemistry , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism
15.
Protein Sci ; 30(6): 1114-1130, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1162948

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic is one of the most influential epidemics in history. Understanding the impact of coronaviruses (CoVs) on host cells is very important for disease treatment. The SARS-CoV-2 envelope (E) protein is a small structural protein involved in many aspects of the viral life cycle. The E protein promotes the packaging and reproduction of the virus, and deletion of this protein weakens or even abolishes the virulence. This review aims to establish new knowledge by combining recent advances in the study of the SARS-CoV-2 E protein and by comparing it with the SARS-CoV E protein. The E protein amino acid sequence, structure, self-assembly characteristics, viroporin mechanisms and inhibitors are summarized and analyzed herein. Although the mechanisms of the SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV E proteins are similar in many respects, specific studies on the SARS-CoV-2 E protein, for both monomers and oligomers, are still lacking. A comprehensive understanding of this protein should prompt further studies on the design and characterization of effective targeted therapeutic measures.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Humans , Models, Molecular , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sequence Alignment , Viroporin Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viroporin Proteins/chemistry , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism
16.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154526

ABSTRACT

The etiological agent of the COVID-19 pandemic is SARS-CoV-2. As a member of the Coronaviridae, the enveloped pathogen has several membrane proteins, of which two, E and 3a, were suggested to function as ion channels. In an effort to increase our treatment options, alongside providing new research tools, we have sought to inhibit the 3a channel by targeted drug repurposing. To that end, using three bacteria-based assays, we screened a library of 2839 approved-for-human-use drugs and identified the following potential channel-blockers: Capreomycin, Pentamidine, Spectinomycin, Kasugamycin, Plerixafor, Flumatinib, Litronesib, Darapladib, Floxuridine and Fludarabine. The stage is now set for examining the activity of these compounds in detailed electrophysiological studies and their impact on the whole virus with appropriate biosafety measures.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Repositioning , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Envelope Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/genetics
17.
Cytokine ; 142: 155496, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152317

ABSTRACT

Efforts to understand host factors critical for COVID-19 pathogenesis have identified high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) to be crucial for regulating susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 disease severity is correlated with heightened inflammatory responses, and HMGB1 is an important extracellular mediator in inflammation processes.In this study, we evaluated the effect of HMGB1 inhibitor Glycyrrhizin on the cellular perturbations in lung cells expressing SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. Pyroptosis in lung cells transfected with SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD and Orf3a, was accompanied by elevation of IL-1ß and extracellular HMGB1 levels. Glycyrrhizin mitigated viral proteins-induced lung cell pyroptosis and activation of macrophages. Heightened release of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-8, as well as ferritin from macrophages cultured in conditioned media from lung cells expressing SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD and Orf3a was attenuated by glycyrrhizin. Importantly, Glycyrrhizin inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells without exhibiting cytotoxicity at high doses. The dual ability of Glycyrrhizin to concomitantly halt virus replication and dampen proinflammatory mediators might constitute a viable therapeutic option in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects , A549 Cells , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , HMGB1 Protein/genetics , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , U937 Cells , Viroporin Proteins/genetics
18.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059930

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 virus in China led to a pandemic. Since both Influenza Like Illness (ILI) and COVID-19 case definitions overlap, we re-investigated the ILI cases using PCR for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in 739 nasopharyngeal swabs collected from November 2019 to March 2020. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found in 37 samples (5%) collected mostly during February 2020. It was followed by confirmation of evolutionary and spatial relationships using next generation sequencing (NGS). We observed that the overall incidence of ILI cases during 2019-2020 influenza season was considerably higher than previous years and was gradually replaced with SARS-CoV-2, which indicated a silent transmission among ambulatory patients. Sequencing of representative isolates confirmed independent introductions and silent transmission earlier than previously thought. Evolutionary and spatial analyses revealed clustering in the GH clade, characterized by three amino acid substitutions in spike gene (D614G), RdRp (P323L) and NS3 (Q57H). P323L causes conformational change near nsp8 binding site that might affect virus replication and transcription. In conclusion, assessment of the community transmission among patients with mild COVID-19 illness, particularly those without epidemiological link for acquiring the virus, is of utmost importance to guide policy makers to optimize public health interventions. The detection of SARS-CoV-2 in ILI cases shows the importance of ILI surveillance systems and warrants its further strengthening to mitigate the ongoing transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The effect of NS3 substitutions on oligomerization or membrane channel function (intra- and extracellular) needs functional validation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism , Adult , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Male , Protein Structure, Secondary , RNA, Viral , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/genetics
19.
Dev Cell ; 56(4): 427-442.e5, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978254

ABSTRACT

Autophagy acts as a cellular surveillance mechanism to combat invading pathogens. Viruses have evolved various strategies to block autophagy and even subvert it for their replication and release. Here, we demonstrated that ORF3a of the COVID-19 virus SARS-CoV-2 inhibits autophagy activity by blocking fusion of autophagosomes/amphisomes with lysosomes. The late endosome-localized ORF3a directly interacts with and sequestrates the homotypic fusion and protein sorting (HOPS) component VPS39, thereby preventing HOPS complex from interacting with the autophagosomal SNARE protein STX17. This blocks assembly of the STX17-SNAP29-VAMP8 SNARE complex, which mediates autophagosome/amphisome fusion with lysosomes. Expression of ORF3a also damages lysosomes and impairs their function. SARS-CoV-2 virus infection blocks autophagy, resulting in accumulation of autophagosomes/amphisomes, and causes late endosomal sequestration of VPS39. Surprisingly, ORF3a from the SARS virus SARS-CoV fails to interact with HOPS or block autophagy. Our study reveals a mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 evades lysosomal destruction and provides insights for developing new strategies to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Autophagosomes/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , SNARE Proteins/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism , Autophagy , Autophagy-Related Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vesicular Transport Proteins/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/genetics
20.
Curr Opin Virol ; 46: 59-64, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912121

ABSTRACT

The innate immune system has evolved mechanisms to keep the viral infection under control and repair damaged tissues. Several pathways can identify the presence of pathogenic components, such as viral nucleic acids and viral proteins. Also, the innate immune system can detect cellular and tissue perturbations caused by infections. Inflammasomes are cellular pieces of machinery that can detect a pathogen's presence and its possible impact on cellular integrity. Thereby several inflammasomes, including the NLRP3 inflammasome and the AIM2 inflammasome, contribute to antiviral innate immunity. Inflammation driven by inflammasomes promotes immune defenses and initiate repair mechanisms. However, its overactivation may trigger acute inflammatory responses that may harm the host. This pathologic activation could contribute to the hyperinflammatory response observed in patients infected with viruses, including influenza, SARS, and possibly SARS-CoV2.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate , Inflammasomes/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Viruses/immunology , Animals , Genome, Viral , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/genetics , Viruses/metabolism , Viruses/pathogenicity
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