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1.
Salud Colect ; 16: e2897, 2020 10 17.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608979

ABSTRACT

Taking into account the latent threat of future pandemics, the objective of this study is to analyze - particularly with respect to medications - the sustainability of the health system, healthcare coverage, budgetary efficiency, and connections with the pharmaceutical patent system. In this context, the pharmaceutical patent system acts as a determining factor, given that promoting its existence stimulates the production of research, but in turn its existence stands in the way of rapid advancements, primarily due to the development of protective legislation concerning patents, which has largely accommodated the industry. Given that the pharmaceutical industry has managed to extend the duration of patents and avoid the incorporation of generics, our analysis focuses on the influence of pharmaceutical patents; this influence has led to reflection on the possibility of combining efforts by forging alliances between numerous companies and the public sector in order to face the challenges posed by new diseases caused by viruses that give rise to epidemics and pandemics.


Ante la amenaza latente de futuras pandemias, este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar ­desde el eje de los medicamentos­ la sostenibilidad del sistema sanitario, la cobertura, la eficiencia del gasto y su vinculación al sistema de patentes farmacéuticas. En este marco, el sistema de patentes farmacéuticas adquiere un papel determinante, dado que fomentar su existencia estimula la producción de investigación pero, a su vez, su existencia no suscita un rápido avance, debido al desarrollo legislativo protector que han tenido las patentes y que ha dado lugar a un acomodamiento de la industria. Como la industria farmacéutica ha conseguido extender la duración de patentes y evitar la incorporación de genéricos, se analiza la influencia de las patentes farmacéuticas que ha dado lugar a reflexionar acerca de la posibilidad de consorciar esfuerzos realizando alianzas entre varias empresas y el sector público para afrontar los retos que plantean nuevas enfermedades producidas por virus que dan lugar a epidemias y pandemias.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Drug Costs , Drug Industry/organization & administration , Health Policy , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Patents as Topic , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/economics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drugs, Generic , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , Program Evaluation , Virus Diseases/economics , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261497, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581739

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of yellow fever in the Americas and the devastating 1918 influenza pandemic, biologists and clinicians have been drawn to human infecting viruses to understand their mechanisms of infection better and develop effective therapeutics against them. However, the complex molecular and cellular processes that these viruses use to infect and multiply in human cells have been a source of great concern for the scientific community since the discovery of the first human infecting virus. Viral disease outbreaks, such as the recent COVID-19 pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus, have claimed millions of lives and caused significant economic damage worldwide. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of host-virus interaction and the molecular machinery involved in the pathogenesis of some common human viruses. We also performed a phylogenetic analysis of viral proteins involved in host-virus interaction to understand the changes in the sequence organization of these proteins during evolution for various strains of viruses to gain insights into the viral origin's evolutionary perspectives.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions , Phylogeny , Viral Proteins/genetics , Virus Diseases/virology , HIV Envelope Protein gp160/genetics , Humans
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580697

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have afflicted human health and despite great advancements in scientific knowledge and technologies, continue to affect our society today. The current coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has put a spotlight on the need to review the evidence on the impact of nutritional strategies to maintain a healthy immune system, particularly in instances where there are limited therapeutic treatments. Selenium, an essential trace element in humans, has a long history of lowering the occurrence and severity of viral infections. Much of the benefits derived from selenium are due to its incorporation into selenocysteine, an important component of proteins known as selenoproteins. Viral infections are associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species and may result in oxidative stress. Studies suggest that selenium deficiency alters immune response and viral infection by increasing oxidative stress and the rate of mutations in the viral genome, leading to an increase in pathogenicity and damage to the host. This review examines viral infections, including the novel SARS-CoV-2, in the context of selenium, in order to inform potential nutritional strategies to maintain a healthy immune system.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Selenium/immunology , Selenium/pharmacology , Virus Diseases/diet therapy , Virus Diseases/immunology , Animals , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Selenium/deficiency , Selenoproteins/physiology
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 596166, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574497

ABSTRACT

Viral infections continue to cause considerable morbidity and mortality around the world. Recent rises in these infections are likely due to complex and multifactorial external drivers, including climate change, the increased mobility of people and goods and rapid demographic change to name but a few. In parallel with these external factors, we are gaining a better understanding of the internal factors associated with viral immunity. Increasingly the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome has been shown to be a significant player in the host immune system, acting as a key regulator of immunity and host defense mechanisms. An increasing body of evidence indicates that disruption of the homeostasis between the GI microbiome and the host immune system can adversely impact viral immunity. This review aims to shed light on our understanding of how host-microbiota interactions shape the immune system, including early life factors, antibiotic exposure, immunosenescence, diet and inflammatory diseases. We also discuss the evidence base for how host commensal organisms and microbiome therapeutics can impact the prevention and/or treatment of viral infections, such as viral gastroenteritis, viral hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human papilloma virus (HPV), viral upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), influenza and SARS CoV-2. The interplay between the gastrointestinal microbiome, invasive viruses and host physiology is complex and yet to be fully characterized, but increasingly the evidence shows that the microbiome can have an impact on viral disease outcomes. While the current evidence base is informative, further well designed human clinical trials will be needed to fully understand the array of immunological mechanisms underlying this intricate relationship.


Subject(s)
Dysbiosis/virology , Microbiota/immunology , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/microbiology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Dysbiosis/immunology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/immunology
5.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574265

ABSTRACT

Modulation of the antiviral innate immune response has been proposed as a putative cellular target for the development of novel pan-viral therapeutic strategies. The Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway is especially relevant due to its essential role in the regulation of local and systemic inflammation in response to viral infections, being, therefore, a putative therapeutic target. Here, we review the extraordinary diversity of strategies that viruses have evolved to interfere with JAK-STAT signaling, stressing the relevance of this pathway as a putative antiviral target. Moreover, due to the recent remarkable progress on the development of novel JAK inhibitors (JAKi), the current knowledge on its efficacy against distinct viral infections is also discussed. JAKi have a proven efficacy against a broad spectrum of disorders and exhibit safety profiles comparable to biologics, therefore representing good candidates for drug repurposing strategies, including viral infections.


Subject(s)
Janus Kinases/metabolism , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Viruses/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/immunology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/drug effects
6.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 348, 2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555350

ABSTRACT

Viral infections are the most common among diseases that globally require around 60 percent of medical care. However, in the heat of the pandemic, there was a lack of medical equipment and inpatient facilities to provide all patients with viral infections. The detection of viral infections is possible in three general ways such as (i) direct virus detection, which is performed immediately 1-3 days after the infection, (ii) determination of antibodies against some virus proteins mainly observed during/after virus incubation period, (iii) detection of virus-induced disease when specific tissue changes in the organism. This review surveys some global pandemics from 1889 to 2020, virus types, which induced these pandemics, and symptoms of some viral diseases. Non-analytical methods such as radiology and microscopy also are overviewed. This review overlooks molecular analysis methods such as nucleic acid amplification, antibody-antigen complex determination, CRISPR-Cas system-based viral genome determination methods. Methods widely used in the certificated diagnostic laboratory for SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A, B, C, HIV, and other viruses during a viral pandemic are outlined. A comprehensive overview of molecular analytical methods has shown that the assay's sensitivity, accuracy, and suitability for virus detection depends on the choice of the number of regions in the viral open reading frame (ORF) genome sequence and the validity of the selected analytical method.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Viruses/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/immunology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics , Viruses/immunology
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 801: 149719, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545408

ABSTRACT

Fruits, vegetables, spices, and herbs are a potential source of phenolic acids and polyphenols. These compounds are known as natural by-products or secondary metabolites of plants, which are present in the daily diet and provide important benefits to the human body such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-allergic, antihypertensive and antiviral properties, among others. Plentiful evidence has been provided on the great potential of polyphenols against different viruses that cause widespread health problems. As a result, this review focuses on the potential antiviral properties of some polyphenols and their action mechanism against various types of viruses such as coronaviruses, influenza, herpes simplex, dengue fever, and rotavirus, among others. Also, it is important to highlight the relationship between antiviral and antioxidant activities that can contribute to the protection of cells and tissues of the human body. The wide variety of action mechanisms of antiviral agents, such as polyphenols, against viral infections could be applied as a treatment or prevention strategy; but at the same time, antiviral polyphenols could be used to produce natural antiviral drugs. A recent example of an antiviral polyphenol application deals with the use of hesperidin extracted from Citrus sinensis. The action mechanism of hesperidin relies on its binding to the key entry or spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Finally, the extraction, purification and recovery of polyphenols with potential antiviral activity, which are essential for virus replication and infection without side-effects, have been critically reviewed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Antioxidants , Antiviral Agents , Humans , Polyphenols , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
9.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542801

ABSTRACT

Nestled within the Rocky Mountain National Forest, 114 scientists and students gathered at Colorado State University's Mountain Campus for this year's 21st annual Rocky Mountain National Virology Association meeting. This 3-day retreat consisted of 31 talks and 30 poster presentations discussing advances in research pertaining to viral and prion diseases. The keynote address provided a timely discussion on zoonotic coronaviruses, lessons learned, and the path forward towards predicting, preparing, and preventing future viral disease outbreaks. Other invited speakers discussed advances in SARS-CoV-2 surveillance, molecular interactions involved in flavivirus genome assembly, evaluation of ethnomedicines for their efficacy against infectious diseases, multi-omic analyses to define risk factors associated with long COVID, the role that interferon lambda plays in control of viral pathogenesis, cell-fusion-dependent pathogenesis of varicella zoster virus, and advances in the development of a vaccine platform against prion diseases. On behalf of the Rocky Mountain Virology Association, this report summarizes select presentations.


Subject(s)
Virology , Animals , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prion Diseases/diagnosis , Prion Diseases/prevention & control , Prions/immunology , Prions/isolation & purification , Prions/pathogenicity , Vaccines , Virology/organization & administration , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/immunology , Viruses/isolation & purification , Viruses/pathogenicity
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6798-6802, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530182

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have been on the rise for the past decades. The impact of the viruses worsened amidst the pandemic burdening the already overwhelmed health care system in African countries. This article sheds light on how the coronavirus together with the already existing viral infections, some of which re-emerged, impacted the continent. The strategies in place such as immunization, education, will have to be strengthened in all African countries to reduce the burden. Furthermore, governments can further collaborate with other countries in creating guidelines to reduce co-infection of the diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection/immunology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology
11.
J Vis Exp ; (177)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528915

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To date, SARS-CoV-2 has been responsible for over 242 million infections and more than 4.9 million deaths worldwide. Similar to other viruses, studying SARS-CoV-2 requires the use of experimental methods to detect the presence of virus in infected cells and/or in animal models. To overcome this limitation, we generated replication-competent recombinant (r)SARS-CoV-2 that expresses bioluminescent (nanoluciferase, Nluc) or fluorescent (Venus) proteins. These reporter-expressing rSARS-CoV-2 allow tracking viral infections in vitro and in vivo based on the expression of Nluc and Venus reporter genes. Here the study describes the use of rSARS-CoV-2/Nluc and rSARS-CoV-2/Venus to detect and track SARS-CoV-2 infection in the previously described K18 human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) transgenic mouse model of infection using in vivo imaging systems (IVIS). This rSARS-CoV-2/Nluc and rSARS-CoV-2/Venus show rSARS-CoV-2/WT-like pathogenicity and viral replication in vivo. Importantly, Nluc and Venus expression allow us to directly track viral infections in vivo and ex vivo, in infected mice. These rSARS-CoV-2/Nluc and rSARS-CoV-2/Venus represent an excellent option to study the biology of SARS-CoV-2 in vivo, to understand viral infection and associated COVID-19 disease, and to identify effective prophylactic and/or therapeutic treatments to combat SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Humans , Melphalan , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2 , gamma-Globulins
12.
J Thorac Imaging ; 36(5): W70-W88, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526237

ABSTRACT

Infections of the cardiovascular system may present with nonspecific symptoms, and it is common for patients to undergo multiple investigations to arrive at the diagnosis. Echocardiography is central to the diagnosis of endocarditis and pericarditis. However, cardiac computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging also play an additive role in these diagnoses; in fact, magnetic resonance imaging is central to the diagnosis of myocarditis. Functional imaging (fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/CT and radiolabeled white blood cell single-photon emission computed tomography/CT) is useful in the diagnosis in prosthesis-related and disseminated infection. This pictorial review will detail the most commonly encountered cardiovascular bacterial and viral infections, including coronavirus disease-2019, in clinical practice and provide an evidence basis for the selection of each imaging modality in the investigation of native tissues and common prostheses.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Infections/diagnostic imaging , Bacterial Infections/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals , Software Design , Virus Diseases/diagnostic imaging
13.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009811, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526706
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12110, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517640

ABSTRACT

Wearing surgical masks or other similar face coverings can reduce the emission of expiratory particles produced via breathing, talking, coughing, or sneezing. Although it is well established that some fraction of the expiratory airflow leaks around the edges of the mask, it is unclear how these leakage airflows affect the overall efficiency with which masks block emission of expiratory aerosol particles. Here, we show experimentally that the aerosol particle concentrations in the leakage airflows around a surgical mask are reduced compared to no mask wearing, with the magnitude of reduction dependent on the direction of escape (out the top, the sides, or the bottom). Because the actual leakage flowrate in each direction is difficult to measure, we use a Monte Carlo approach to estimate flow-corrected particle emission rates for particles having diameters in the range 0.5-20 µm. in all orientations. From these, we derive a flow-weighted overall number-based particle removal efficiency for the mask. The overall mask efficiency, accounting both for air that passes through the mask and for leakage flows, is reduced compared to the through-mask filtration efficiency, from 93 to 70% for talking, but from only 94-90% for coughing. These results demonstrate that leakage flows due to imperfect sealing do decrease mask efficiencies for reducing emission of expiratory particles, but even with such leakage surgical masks provide substantial control.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cough , Exhalation , Filtration , Masks , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Equipment Failure , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monte Carlo Method , Particle Size , Probability , Respiration , Sneezing , Young Adult
15.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(11): e454-e460, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512785

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has brought to forefront the large morbidity, mortality, and complications that viral illnesses can cause. For athletes, viral illnesses can be disruptive toward their participation in youth sports. This article outlines the details of how the most common viral illnesses affect the youth athlete and youth sports, including COVID-19, non-COVID-19 upper respiratory infections, influenza, Epstein-Barr virus, varicella, herpes, and other dermatologic infections. In this article, we review current available guidelines and recommendations on how to handle these infections in athletes during sports as well as return-to-play recommendations. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(11):e454-e460.].


Subject(s)
Athletes , COVID-19 , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Youth Sports , Adolescent , Humans , Infection Control , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 35(16): 1376-1392, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510864

ABSTRACT

Significance: It is estimated that close to 50 million cases of sepsis result in over 11 million annual fatalities worldwide. The pathognomonic feature of sepsis is a dysregulated inflammatory response arising from viral, bacterial, or fungal infections. Immune recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns is a hallmark of the host immune defense to combat microbes and to prevent the progression to sepsis. Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) is a ubiquitous adaptor protein located at the outer mitochondrial membrane, which is activated by the cytosolic pattern recognition receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 (MDA5), following binding of viral RNA agonists. Recent Advances: Substantial progress has been made in deciphering the activation of the MAVS pathway with its interacting proteins, downstream signaling events (interferon [IFN] regulatory factors, nuclear factor kappa B), and context-dependent type I/III IFN response. Critical Issues: In the evolutionary race between pathogens and the host, viruses have developed immune evasion strategies for cleavage, degradation, or blockade of proteins in the MAVS pathway. For example, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) M protein and ORF9b protein antagonize MAVS signaling and a protective type I IFN response. Future Directions: The role of MAVS as a sensor for nonviral pathogens, host cell injury, and metabolic perturbations awaits better characterization in the future. New technical advances in multidimensional single-cell analysis and single-molecule methods will accelerate the rate of new discoveries. The ultimate goal is to manipulate MAVS activities in the form of immune-modulatory therapies to combat infections and sepsis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 35, 1376-1392.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/immunology , Sepsis/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Animals , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immune Evasion/immunology , Sepsis/virology
18.
PLoS Biol ; 19(4): e3001135, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508487

ABSTRACT

Identifying the animal reservoirs from which zoonotic viruses will likely emerge is central to understanding the determinants of disease emergence. Accordingly, there has been an increase in studies attempting zoonotic "risk assessment." Herein, we demonstrate that the virological data on which these analyses are conducted are incomplete, biased, and rapidly changing with ongoing virus discovery. Together, these shortcomings suggest that attempts to assess zoonotic risk using available virological data are likely to be inaccurate and largely only identify those host taxa that have been studied most extensively. We suggest that virus surveillance at the human-animal interface may be more productive.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring , Virus Diseases , Zoonoses/etiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Animals , Biodiversity , Disease Reservoirs/classification , Disease Reservoirs/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Environmental Monitoring/standards , Host Specificity/genetics , Humans , Metagenomics/methods , Metagenomics/organization & administration , Metagenomics/standards , Phylogeny , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Selection Bias , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/etiology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/transmission , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics , Viruses/isolation & purification , Viruses/pathogenicity , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/virology
19.
J Virol ; 95(12)2021 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501541

ABSTRACT

Long disregarded as junk DNA or genomic dark matter, endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have turned out to represent important components of the antiviral immune response. These remnants of once-infectious retroviruses not only regulate cellular immune activation, but may even directly target invading viral pathogens. In this Gem, we summarize mechanisms by which retroviral fossils protect us from viral infections. One focus will be on recent advances in the role of ERVs as regulators of antiviral gene expression.


Subject(s)
Endogenous Retroviruses/physiology , Retroelements , Virus Diseases/immunology , Animals , Endogenous Retroviruses/genetics , Enhancer Elements, Genetic , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Promoter Regions, Genetic , RNA, Double-Stranded/genetics , RNA, Double-Stranded/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virion/metabolism , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/virology
20.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(22): e0121521, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494942

ABSTRACT

Fomites can represent a reservoir for pathogens, which may be subsequently transferred from surfaces to skin. In this study, we aim to understand how different factors (including virus type, surface type, time since last hand wash, and direction of transfer) affect virus transfer rates, defined as the fraction of virus transferred, between fingerpads and fomites. To determine this, 360 transfer events were performed with 20 volunteers using Phi6 (a surrogate for enveloped viruses), MS2 (a surrogate for nonenveloped viruses), and three clean surfaces (stainless steel, painted wood, and plastic). Considering all transfer events (all surfaces and both transfer directions combined), the mean transfer rates of Phi6 and MS2 were 0.17 and 0.26, respectively. Transfer of MS2 was significantly higher than that of Phi6 (P < 0.05). Surface type was a significant factor that affected the transfer rate of Phi6: Phi6 is more easily transferred to and from stainless steel and plastic than to and from painted wood. Direction of transfer was a significant factor affecting MS2 transfer rates: MS2 is more easily transferred from surfaces to fingerpads than from fingerpads to surfaces. Data from these virus transfer events, and subsequent transfer rate distributions, provide information that can be used to refine quantitative microbial risk assessments. This study provides a large-scale data set of transfer events with a surrogate for enveloped viruses, which extends the reach of the study to the role of fomites in the transmission of human enveloped viruses like influenza and SARS-CoV-2. IMPORTANCE This study created a large-scale data set for the transfer of enveloped viruses between skin and surfaces. The data set produced by this study provides information on modeling the distribution of enveloped and nonenveloped virus transfer rates, which can aid in the implementation of risk assessment models in the future. Additionally, enveloped and nonenveloped viruses were applied to experimental surfaces in an equivalent matrix to avoid matrix effects, so results between different viral species can be directly compared without confounding effects of different matrices. Our results indicating how virus type, surface type, time since last hand wash, and direction of transfer affect virus transfer rates can be used in decision-making processes to lower the risk of viral infection from transmission through fomites.


Subject(s)
Fingers/virology , Fomites/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Bacteriophage phi 6/physiology , Bacteriophage phi 6/ultrastructure , Fomites/classification , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Levivirus/physiology , Levivirus/ultrastructure , Viral Envelope/ultrastructure , Virus Diseases/transmission , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/ultrastructure
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