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2.
J Clin Virol ; 164: 105492, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319271

ABSTRACT

Historically, the diagnosis of viral infections has been accomplished using a combination of laboratory-based methods, including culture, serology, antigen-based tests, and molecular (e.g., real-time PCR) assays. Although these methods provide an accurate way to detect viral pathogens, testing in a centralized laboratory may delay results, which could impact patient diagnosis and management. Point-of-care tests, including antigen- and molecular-based assays, have been developed to assist with the timely diagnosis of several viral infections, such as influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and COVID-19. Despite the ability of point-of-care tests to provide rapid results (i.e., <30 min), there are issues to consider prior to their routine use, including test performance and specific regulatory requirements. This review will provide a summary of the regulatory landscape of point-of-care tests for viral infections in the United States, and address important considerations such as site certification, training and inspection readiness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Virus Diseases , Humans , United States , COVID-19/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Point-of-Care Testing , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Point-of-Care Systems
4.
Anaesthesia ; 78(5): 626-635, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310011

ABSTRACT

Viral infections form a substantial part of the intensive care workload, even before the recent and ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The growing availability of molecular diagnostics for viral infections has led to increased recognition of these pathogens. This additional information, however, provides new challenges for interpretation and management. As the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has amply demonstrated, the emergence and global spread of novel viruses are likely to provide continued challenges for critical care physicians into the future. This article will provide an overview of viral infections relevant to the critical care physician, discussing the diagnosis and management of respiratory viral infections, blood borne and enteric viruses. We will also discuss herpesviridae complications, commonly seen due to reactivation of latent infections. Further, we explore some rarer and emerging viruses, including recognition of viral haemorrhagic fevers, and briefly discuss post-viral syndromes which may present to the intensive care unit. Finally, we will discuss infection control and its importance in preventing nosocomial viral transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/therapy , Critical Care
6.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 10(1)2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303652

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Childcare centre is considered a high-risk setting for transmission of respiratory viruses. Further evidence is needed to understand the risk of transmission in childcare centres. To this end, we established the DISeases TrANsmission in ChildcarE (DISTANCE) study to understand the interaction among contact patterns, detection of respiratory viruses from environment samples and transmission of viral infections in childcare centres. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The DISTANCE study is a prospective cohort study in multiple childcare centres of Jiangsu Province, China. Study subjects will be childcare attendees and teaching staff of different grades. A range of information will be collected from the study subjects and participating childcare centres, including attendance, contact behaviours (collected by onsite observers), respiratory viral infection (weekly respiratory throat swabs tested by multiplex PCR), presence of respiratory viruses on touch surfaces of childcare centres and weekly follow-up survey on respiratory symptoms and healthcare seeking among subjects tested positive for any respiratory viruses. Detection patterns of respiratory viruses from study subjects and environment samples, contact patterns, and transmission risk will be analysed by developing statistical and mathematical models as appropriate. The study has been initiated in September 2022 in 1 childcare centre in Wuxi City, with a total of 104 children and 12 teaching staff included in the cohort; data collection and follow-up is ongoing. One more childcare centre in Nanjing City (anticipated to include 100 children and 10 teaching staff) will start recruitment in 2023. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has received ethics approval from Nanjing Medical University Ethics Committee (No. 2022-936) and ethics approval from Wuxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention Ethics Committee (No. 2022-011). We plan to disseminate the study findings mainly through publications in peer-reviewed journals and presentations in academic conferences. Aggregated research data will be shared freely to researchers.


Subject(s)
Virus Diseases , Viruses , Child , Humans , Child Care , Prospective Studies , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Child Day Care Centers , Multicenter Studies as Topic
7.
BMJ Open ; 13(4): e067878, 2023 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302319

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To systematically review and evaluate diagnostic models used to predict viral acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in children. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Embase were searched from 1 January 1975 to 3 February 2022. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included diagnostic models predicting viral ARIs in children (<18 years) who sought medical attention from a healthcare setting and were written in English. Prediction model studies specific to SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Study screening, data extraction and quality assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. Study characteristics, including population, methods and results, were extracted and evaluated for bias and applicability using the Checklist for Critical Appraisal and Data Extraction for Systematic Reviews of Prediction Modelling Studies and PROBAST (Prediction model Risk Of Bias Assessment Tool). RESULTS: Of 7049 unique studies screened, 196 underwent full text review and 18 were included. The most common outcome was viral-specific influenza (n=7; 58%). Internal validation was performed in 8 studies (44%), 10 studies (56%) reported discrimination measures, 4 studies (22%) reported calibration measures and none performed external validation. According to PROBAST, a high risk of bias was identified in the analytic aspects in all studies. However, the existing studies had minimal bias concerns related to the study populations, inclusion and modelling of predictors, and outcome ascertainment. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic prediction can aid clinicians in aetiological diagnoses of viral ARIs. External validation should be performed on rigorously internally validated models with populations intended for model application. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022308917.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Child , Humans , Bias , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Prognosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/diagnosis
8.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(3): e0404422, 2023 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306459

ABSTRACT

Early detection of microbial pathogens causing respiratory tract infection plays a crucial role in clinical management. The BioCode Respiratory Pathogen Panel (BioCode RPP) utilizes reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) in combination with barcoded magnetic beads to amplify, detect, and identify respiratory pathogens. This panel qualitatively detects and identifies 14 viruses, including influenza virus A with H1 pdm09, H1, and H3 subtyping; influenza B; respiratory syncytial virus (RSV); human metapneumovirus; parainfluenza virus 1; parainfluenza virus 2; parainfluenza virus 3; parainfluenza virus 4; coronavirus (229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1); adenovirus; and human rhinovirus/enterovirus, and 3 bacteria, including Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis. Reproducibility, which was assessed with contrived specimens containing 12 targets at 3 clinical sites, with 2 operators at each site for 5 days, was 99.4% for Flu A H3 and Flu B, 98.9% for RSV, and 100% for the remaining 9 targets assayed. A multicenter clinical trial evaluated the performance of the BioCode RPP with 2,647 nasopharyngeal swab specimens from 5 geographically distinct sites and revealed comparable performance between the BioCode RPP and FilmArray Respiratory Panel (FA-RP). Specifically, the positive percent agreements (PPAs) for various pathogens ranged between 80.8% and 100% compared with the FA-RP (1.7 and 2.0). Negative percent agreement ranged from 98.4% to 100% for BioCode RPP. The BioCode RPP also offers scalable automated testing capability of up to 96 specimens in a single run with total sample-to-result time under 5 h. The invalid rate of the BioCode RPP on initial testing was 1.0% (26/2,649). IMPORTANCE Early detection of microbial pathogens causing respiratory tract infection plays a crucial role in clinical management. The BioCode Respiratory Pathogen Panel (BioCode RPP) is a high-throughput test that utilizes RT-PCR in combination with barcoded magnetic beads to amplify, detect, and identify 17 respiratory pathogens, including 14 viruses and 3 bacteria. This study summarizes data generated from a multicenter clinical trial evaluating the performance of the BioCode RPP on 2,647 nasopharyngeal swab specimens from five geographically distinct sites.


Subject(s)
Paramyxoviridae Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Humans , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Reproducibility of Results , Viruses/genetics , Bacteria , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Nasopharynx
9.
BMC Pulm Med ; 23(1): 111, 2023 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300637

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic airway inflammation caused by respiratory virus infection has been demonstrated in basic research; however, clinical investigations are lacking. To clarify the extent to which respiratory virus infection induces airway eosinophilic inflammation, we reviewed the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and respiratory virus testing performed at our hospital. METHODS: Among the BAL procedures performed at the University of the Ryukyu Hospital from August 2012 to September 2016, we collected cases of acute respiratory disease in which multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to search for respiratory viruses. The effect of respiratory virus detection on BAL eosinophil fraction was analyzed using statistical analysis. A case study was conducted on respiratory virus detection, which showed an elevated BAL eosinophil fraction. RESULTS: A total of 95 cases were included in this study, of which 17 were PCR-positive. The most common respiratory virus detected was parainfluenza virus (eight cases). The PCR-positive group showed a higher BAL eosinophil fraction than the PCR-negative group (p = 0.030), and more cases had a BAL eosinophil fraction > 3% (p = 0.017). Multivariate analysis revealed that being PCR-positive was significantly associated with BAL eosinophil fraction > 1% and > 3%. There were nine PCR-positive cases with a BAL eosinophil fraction > 1%, of which two cases with parainfluenza virus infection had a marked elevation of BAL eosinophil fraction and were diagnosed with eosinophilic pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Cases of viral infection of the lower respiratory tract showed an elevated BAL eosinophil fraction. The increase in eosinophil fraction due to respiratory virus infection was generally mild, whereas some cases showed marked elevation and were diagnosed with eosinophilic pneumonia. Respiratory virus infection is not a rare cause of elevated BAL eosinophil fraction and should be listed as a differential disease in the practice of eosinophilic pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Eosinophilia , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Humans , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Eosinophils , Inflammation , Pulmonary Eosinophilia/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Virus Diseases/diagnosis
10.
Microb Pathog ; 179: 106088, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248536

ABSTRACT

Significant efforts and initiatives were already made in the health care systems, however in the last few years; our world is facing emergences of viral infections which potentially leading to considerable challenges in terms of higher morbidity, mortality, increased and considerable financial loads on the affected populations. Over ten major epidemics or pandemics have been recorded in the twenty-first century, the ongoing coronavirus pandemic being one of them. Viruses being distinct obligate pathogens largely dependent on living beings are considered as one of the prominent causes of death globally. Although effective vaccines and antivirals have led to the eradication of imperative viral pathogens, the emergences of new viral infections as well as novel drug-resistant strains have necessitated the implementation of ingenious and efficient therapeutic approaches to treat viral outbreaks in the future. Nature being a constant source of tremendous therapeutical resources has inspired us to develop multi-target antiviral drugs, overcoming the challenges and limitations faced by pharmaceutical industry. Recent breakthroughs in the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of viral reproduction have laid the groundwork for potential treatment approaches including antiviral gene therapy relying on the application of precisely engineered nucleic acids for disabling pathogen replication. The development of RNA interference and advancements in genome manipulating tools have proven to be especially significant in this regard. In this review, we discussed mode of actions and pathophysiological events associated with the viral infections; followed by distributions, and advancement made towards the detection strategies for timely diagnosis. In the later section, current approaches to cope up the viral pathogens and their key limitations have also been elaborated. Lastly, we also explored some novel and potential targets to treat such infections, where attentions were made on next generation gene editing technologies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Humans , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Viruses/genetics , Gene Editing
11.
BMC Nephrol ; 24(1): 36, 2023 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: More attention has been put on the relationship between pediatric glomerular disease and respiratory tract virus infection. Children with glomerular illness, however, are uncommonly found to have biopsy-proven pathological evidence of viral infection. The purpose of this study is to determine whether and what kind of respiratory viruses are found in renal biopsy from glomerular disorders. METHODS: We used a multiplex PCR to identify a wide range of respiratory tract viruses in the renal biopsy samples (n = 45) from children with glomerular disorders and a specific PCR to verify their expression. RESULTS: These case series included 45 of 47 renal biopsy specimens, with 37.8% of male and 62.2% of female patients. Indications for a kidney biopsy were present in all of the individuals. In 80% of the samples, respiratory syncytial virus was discovered. Following that, the RSV subtypes in several pediatric renal disorders were found. There were 16 RSVA positives, 5 RSVB positives, and 15 RSVA/B positives, accounting for 44.4%, 13.9%, and 41.7%, respectively. Nephrotic syndrome samples made up 62.5% of RSVA positive specimens. The RSVA/B-positive was detected in all pathological histological types. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with glomerular disease exhibit respiratory tract viral expression in the renal tissues, especially respiratory syncytial virus. This research offers new information on the detection of respiratory tract viruses in renal tissue, which may facilitate the identification and treatment of pediatric glomerular diseases.


Subject(s)
Kidney Diseases , Pneumonia , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Child , Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Retrospective Studies , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , China/epidemiology , Respiratory System , Biopsy
12.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0277401, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154285

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Differentiating between acute viral and bacterial infection is challenging due to the similarity in symptom presentation. Blood tests can assist in the diagnosis, but they reflect the immediate status and fail to consider the dynamics of an inflammatory response with time since symptom onset. We applied estimated C-reactive protein (CRP) velocity (eCRPv), as derived from the admission CRP level divided by time from symptom onset, in order to better distinguish between viral and bacterial infections. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included patients admitted to the emergency department with a confirmed viral (n = 83) or bacterial (n = 181) infection. eCRPv was defined as the ratio between the absolute CRP level upon admission to time from symptom onset (in hours). Absolute CRP and eCRPv values were compared between the 3 groups. RESULTS: Bacterial patients presented with higher CRP levels (133 mg/L) upon admission compared to viral patients (23.31 mg/L) (P < 0.001). Their median value of eCRPv velocity was 4 times higher compared to the viral patients (1.1 mg/L/h compared 0.25 mg/L/h, P < 0.001). Moreover, in intermediate values of CRP (100-150 mg/L) upon admission, in which the differential diagnosis is controversial, high eCRPv is indicative of bacterial infection, eCRPv >4 mg/L/h represents only bacterial patients. CONCLUSIONS: During an acute febrile illness, the eCRPv value can be used for rapid differentiation between bacterial and viral infection, especially in patients with high CRP values. This capability can potentially expedite the provision of appropriate therapeutic management. Further research and validation may open new applications of the kinetics of inflammation for rapid diagnosis of an infectious vs. a viral source of fever.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Virus Diseases , Humans , C-Reactive Protein , Cross-Sectional Studies , Physics , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(24)2022 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163441

ABSTRACT

Viruses, including influenza viruses, MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus), SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus), HAV (Hepatitis A virus), HBV (Hepatitis B virus), HCV (Hepatitis C virus), HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), EBOV (Ebola virus), ZIKV (Zika virus), and most recently SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), are responsible for many diseases that result in hundreds of thousands of deaths yearly. The ongoing outbreak of the COVID-19 disease has raised a global concern and intensified research on the detection of viruses and virus-related diseases. Novel methods for the sensitive, rapid, and on-site detection of pathogens, such as the recent SARS-CoV-2, are critical for diagnosing and treating infectious diseases before they spread and affect human health worldwide. In this sense, electrochemical impedimetric biosensors could be applied for virus detection on a large scale. This review focuses on the recent developments in electrochemical-impedimetric biosensors for the detection of viruses.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Biosensing Techniques/methods , HIV
14.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 18, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1688773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Measuring host gene expression is a promising diagnostic strategy to discriminate bacterial and viral infections. Multiple signatures of varying size, complexity, and target populations have been described. However, there is little information to indicate how the performance of various published signatures compare to one another. METHODS: This systematic comparison of host gene expression signatures evaluated the performance of 28 signatures, validating them in 4589 subjects from 51 publicly available datasets. Thirteen COVID-specific datasets with 1416 subjects were included in a separate analysis. Individual signature performance was evaluated using the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (AUC) value. Overall signature performance was evaluated using median AUCs and accuracies. RESULTS: Signature performance varied widely, with median AUCs ranging from 0.55 to 0.96 for bacterial classification and 0.69-0.97 for viral classification. Signature size varied (1-398 genes), with smaller signatures generally performing more poorly (P < 0.04). Viral infection was easier to diagnose than bacterial infection (84% vs. 79% overall accuracy, respectively; P < .001). Host gene expression classifiers performed more poorly in some pediatric populations (3 months-1 year and 2-11 years) compared to the adult population for both bacterial infection (73% and 70% vs. 82%, respectively; P < .001) and viral infection (80% and 79% vs. 88%, respectively; P < .001). We did not observe classification differences based on illness severity as defined by ICU admission for bacterial or viral infections. The median AUC across all signatures for COVID-19 classification was 0.80 compared to 0.83 for viral classification in the same datasets. CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic comparison of 28 host gene expression signatures, we observed differences based on a signature's size and characteristics of the validation population, including age and infection type. However, populations used for signature discovery did not impact performance, underscoring the redundancy among many of these signatures. Furthermore, differential performance in specific populations may only be observable through this type of large-scale validation.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Datasets as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Transcriptome , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Adult , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/genetics , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , Child , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis, Differential , Gene Expression Profiling/statistics & numerical data , Genetic Association Studies/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Publications/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Validation Studies as Topic , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/genetics
15.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 166, 2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory virus infection is common in early childhood, and children may be symptomatic or symptom-free. Little is known regarding the association between symptomatic/asymptomatic infection and particular clinical factors such as breastfeeding as well as the consequences of such infection. METHOD: We followed an unselected cohort of term neonates to two years of age (220 infants at recruitment, 159 who remained in the study to 24 months), taking oral swabs at birth and oropharyngeal swabs at intervals subsequently (at 1.5, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months and in a subset at 3 and 4.5 months) while recording extensive metadata including the presence of respiratory symptoms and breastfeeding status. After 2 years medical notes from the general practitioner were inspected to ascertain whether doctor-diagnosed wheeze had occurred by this timepoint. Multiplex PCR was used to detect a range of respiratory viruses: influenza (A&B), parainfluenza (1-4), bocavirus, human metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, coronavirus (OC43, 229E, NL63, HKU1), adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and polyomavirus (KI, WU). Logistic regression and generalised estimating equations were used to identify associations between clinical factors and virus detection. RESULTS: Overall respiratory viral incidence increased with age. Rhinovirus was the virus most frequently detected. The detection of a respiratory virus was positively associated with respiratory symptoms, male sex, season, childcare and living with another child. We did not observe breastfeeding (whether assessed as the number of completed months of breastfeeding or current feed status) to be associated with the detection of a respiratory virus. There was no association between early viral infection and doctor-diagnosed wheeze by age 2 years. CONCLUSION: Asymptomatic and symptomatic viral infection is common in the first 2 years of life with rhinovirus infection being the most common. Whilst there was no association between early respiratory viral infection and doctor-diagnosed wheeze, we have not ruled out an association of early viral infections with later asthma, and long-term follow-up of the cohort continues.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Life Style , Male , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/diagnosis
16.
Forensic Sci Int ; 339: 111419, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015271

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses can cause fatal systemic infections; therefore, post-mortem diagnosis is essential in forensic autopsy cases. However, little is known regarding the distribution of respiratory viruses in the body. In this study, we investigated the anatomical distribution of respiratory viruses in 48 forensic autopsy cases suspected of viral infections at our institute. Fast Track Diagnostics (FTD) Respiratory Pathogens 21 was used as a screening test for 20 respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal swabs. In cases with positive results for virus detection by the screening test, the detected viruses were quantified in body fluid and organ specimens by virus-specific real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and digital PCR. Viruses were detected in 33 cases, with the viral distribution and load differing among the cases. Since various respiratory viruses were detected from the nasopharyngeal swab and its viral load was higher than those of other body fluid specimens, the nasopharyngeal swab was suggested as a useful specimen for the post-mortem detection of respiratory viruses. Viruses were detected in almost all specimens including the serum in six cases. Considering the viral distribution in the body, pathological findings, and ante-mortem symptoms, these cases were presumed to be systemically infected, having died in the acute infection phase. In conclusion, the anatomical distribution of respiratory viruses can help indicate ante-mortem systemic conditions and the cause of death.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Autopsy , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Viruses/genetics
17.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(18): 5863-5877, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007131

ABSTRACT

This mini review focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of virus diseases using Crisper-Cas technology. The present paper describes various strategies involved in diagnosing diseases using Crispr-Cas-based assays. Additionally, CRISPR-Cas systems offer great potential as new therapeutic tools for treating viral infections including HIV, Influenza, and SARS-CoV-2. There are several major challenges to be overcome before this technology can be applied routinely in clinical settings, such as finding a suitable delivery tool, toxicity, and immunogenicity, as well as off-target effects. This review also discusses ways to deal with the challenges associated with Crisper-Cas technology. KEY POINTS: • Crisper technology is being applied to diagnose infectious and non-infectious diseases. • A new generation of CRISPR-Cas-based assays has been developed which detect pathogens within minutes, providing rapid diagnosis of diseases. • Crispr-Cas tools can be used to combat viral infections, specifically HIV, influenza, and SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Influenza, Human , Virus Diseases , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , CRISPR-Cas Systems , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
18.
J Clin Virol ; 156: 105274, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute viral respiratory infections are a major health burden in children worldwide. In recent years, rapid and sensitive multiplex nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have replaced conventional methods for routine virus detection in the clinical laboratory. OBJECTIVE/STUDY DESIGN: We compared BioFire® FilmArray® Respiratory Panel (FilmArray V1.7), Luminex NxTag® Respiratory Pathogen Panel (NxTag RPP) and Applied Biosystems TaqMan Array Card (TAC) for the detection of eight viruses in pediatric respiratory specimens. Results from the three platforms were analyzed with a single-plex real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay for each virus. RESULTS: Of the 170/210 single-plex virus-positive samples, FilmArray detected a virus in 166 (97.6%), TAC in 163 (95.8%) and NxTag RPP in 160 (94.1%) samples. The Positive Percent Agreement (PPA) of FilmArray, NxTag RPP and TAC was highest for influenza B (100%, 100% and 95.2% respectively) and lowest for seasonal coronaviruses on both FilmArray (90.2%) and NxTag RPP (81.8%), and for parainfluenza viruses 1- 4 on TAC (84%). The Negative Percent Agreement (NPA) was lowest for rhinovirus/enterovirus (92.9%, 96.7% and 97.3%) on FilmArray, NxTag RPP and TAC respectively. NPA for all three platforms was highest (100%) for both parainfluenza viruses 1- 4 and influenza A and B, and 100% for human metapneumovirus with TAC as well. CONCLUSION: All three multiplex platforms displayed high overall agreement (>90%) and high NPA (>90%), while PPA was pathogen dependent and varied among platforms; high PPA (>90%) was observed for FilmArray for all eight viruses, TAC for six viruses and NxTag RPP for 4 viruses.


Subject(s)
Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Child , Coronavirus , Humans , Influenza, Human , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Virus Diseases/diagnosis
19.
J Clin Virol ; 153: 105221, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907271

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Viral respiratory infections are common in children, and usually associated with non-specific symptoms. Respiratory panel-based testing was implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic, for the rapid differentiation between SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infections, in children attending the emergency department (ED) of the teaching hospital of Lille, northern France, between February 2021 and January 2022. METHODS: Samples were collected using nasopharyngeal swabs. Syndromic respiratory testing was performed with two rapid multiplex molecular assays: the BioFire® Respiratory Panel 2.1 - plus (RP2.1 plus) or the QIAstat-Dx Respiratory SARS-CoV-2 Panel. SARS-CoV-2 variant was screened using mutation-specific PCR-based assays and genome sequencing. RESULTS: A total of 3517 children were included in the study. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in samples from 265 children (7.5%). SARS-CoV-2 infected patients were younger than those without SARS-CoV-2 infection (median age: 6 versus 12 months, p < 0.0001). The majority of infections (61.5%) were associated with the Omicron variant. The median weekly SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate ranged from 1.76% during the Alpha variant wave to 24.5% with the emergence of the Omicron variant. Most children (70.2%) were treated as outpatients, and seventeen patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. Other respiratory viruses were more frequently detected in SARS-CoV-2 negative children than in positive ones (82.1% versus 37.4%, p < 0.0001). Human rhinovirus/enterovirus and respiratory syncytial virus were the most prevalent in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a low prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children attending pediatric ED, despite the significant increase due to Delta and Omicron variants, and an important circulation of other respiratory viruses. Severe disease was overall rare in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , France , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/diagnosis
20.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(5)2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875479

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases remain a pervasive threat to global and public health, especially in many countries and rural urban areas. The main causes of such severe diseases are the lack of appropriate analytical methods and subsequent treatment strategies due to limited access to centralized and equipped medical centers for detection. Rapid and accurate diagnosis in biomedicine and healthcare is essential for the effective treatment of pathogenic viruses as well as early detection. Plasma-engineered polymers are used worldwide for viral infections in conjunction with molecular detection of biomarkers. Plasma-engineered polymers for biomarker-based viral detection are generally inexpensive and offer great potential. For biomarker-based virus detection, plasma-based polymers appear to be potential biological probes and have been used directly with physiological components to perform highly multiplexed analyses simultaneously. The simultaneous measurement of multiple clinical parameters from the same sample volume is possible using highly multiplexed analysis to detect human viral infections, thereby reducing the time and cost required to collect each data point. This article reviews recent studies on the efficacy of plasma-engineered polymers as a detection method against human pandemic viruses. In this review study, we examine polymer biomarkers, plasma-engineered polymers, highly multiplexed analyses for viral infections, and recent applications of polymer-based biomarkers for virus detection. Finally, we provide an outlook on recent advances in the field of plasma-engineered polymers for biomarker-based virus detection and highly multiplexed analysis.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Biomarkers , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Polymers , Virus Diseases/diagnosis
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