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1.
Salud Colect ; 16: e2897, 2020 10 17.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608979

ABSTRACT

Taking into account the latent threat of future pandemics, the objective of this study is to analyze - particularly with respect to medications - the sustainability of the health system, healthcare coverage, budgetary efficiency, and connections with the pharmaceutical patent system. In this context, the pharmaceutical patent system acts as a determining factor, given that promoting its existence stimulates the production of research, but in turn its existence stands in the way of rapid advancements, primarily due to the development of protective legislation concerning patents, which has largely accommodated the industry. Given that the pharmaceutical industry has managed to extend the duration of patents and avoid the incorporation of generics, our analysis focuses on the influence of pharmaceutical patents; this influence has led to reflection on the possibility of combining efforts by forging alliances between numerous companies and the public sector in order to face the challenges posed by new diseases caused by viruses that give rise to epidemics and pandemics.


Ante la amenaza latente de futuras pandemias, este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar ­desde el eje de los medicamentos­ la sostenibilidad del sistema sanitario, la cobertura, la eficiencia del gasto y su vinculación al sistema de patentes farmacéuticas. En este marco, el sistema de patentes farmacéuticas adquiere un papel determinante, dado que fomentar su existencia estimula la producción de investigación pero, a su vez, su existencia no suscita un rápido avance, debido al desarrollo legislativo protector que han tenido las patentes y que ha dado lugar a un acomodamiento de la industria. Como la industria farmacéutica ha conseguido extender la duración de patentes y evitar la incorporación de genéricos, se analiza la influencia de las patentes farmacéuticas que ha dado lugar a reflexionar acerca de la posibilidad de consorciar esfuerzos realizando alianzas entre varias empresas y el sector público para afrontar los retos que plantean nuevas enfermedades producidas por virus que dan lugar a epidemias y pandemias.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Drug Costs , Drug Industry/organization & administration , Health Policy , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Patents as Topic , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/economics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drugs, Generic , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , Program Evaluation , Virus Diseases/economics , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
2.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574265

ABSTRACT

Modulation of the antiviral innate immune response has been proposed as a putative cellular target for the development of novel pan-viral therapeutic strategies. The Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway is especially relevant due to its essential role in the regulation of local and systemic inflammation in response to viral infections, being, therefore, a putative therapeutic target. Here, we review the extraordinary diversity of strategies that viruses have evolved to interfere with JAK-STAT signaling, stressing the relevance of this pathway as a putative antiviral target. Moreover, due to the recent remarkable progress on the development of novel JAK inhibitors (JAKi), the current knowledge on its efficacy against distinct viral infections is also discussed. JAKi have a proven efficacy against a broad spectrum of disorders and exhibit safety profiles comparable to biologics, therefore representing good candidates for drug repurposing strategies, including viral infections.


Subject(s)
Janus Kinases/metabolism , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Viruses/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/immunology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/drug effects
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 801: 149719, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545408

ABSTRACT

Fruits, vegetables, spices, and herbs are a potential source of phenolic acids and polyphenols. These compounds are known as natural by-products or secondary metabolites of plants, which are present in the daily diet and provide important benefits to the human body such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-allergic, antihypertensive and antiviral properties, among others. Plentiful evidence has been provided on the great potential of polyphenols against different viruses that cause widespread health problems. As a result, this review focuses on the potential antiviral properties of some polyphenols and their action mechanism against various types of viruses such as coronaviruses, influenza, herpes simplex, dengue fever, and rotavirus, among others. Also, it is important to highlight the relationship between antiviral and antioxidant activities that can contribute to the protection of cells and tissues of the human body. The wide variety of action mechanisms of antiviral agents, such as polyphenols, against viral infections could be applied as a treatment or prevention strategy; but at the same time, antiviral polyphenols could be used to produce natural antiviral drugs. A recent example of an antiviral polyphenol application deals with the use of hesperidin extracted from Citrus sinensis. The action mechanism of hesperidin relies on its binding to the key entry or spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Finally, the extraction, purification and recovery of polyphenols with potential antiviral activity, which are essential for virus replication and infection without side-effects, have been critically reviewed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Antioxidants , Antiviral Agents , Humans , Polyphenols , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488614

ABSTRACT

Human Ezrin Peptides (HEPs) are inhibitors of expression of IL-6 and other inflammatory cytokines, amplifiers of adaptive B cell and T cell immunity and enhancers of tissue repair. The mutation stable C-terminus of HIV gp120, mimics 69% of the "Hep-receptor", a zipped α-helical structure in the middle of the α domain of human ezrin protein. Synthetic peptides homologous to the Hep-receptor of ezrin of five to fourteen amino acids, activate anti-viral immunity against a wide range of viruses (HIV, HCV, herpes, HPV, influenza and other human respiratory viruses). Human Ezrin Peptide One (HEP1) TEKKRRETVEREKE (brand name Gepon, registered for human use in Russia from 2001) is a successful treatment for opportunistic infections in HIV-infected patients. That treats HEP1and prevents mucosal candidiasis, herpes zoster outbreaks and infection-induced chronic diarrhea. There are clinical publications in Russian on the successful treatments of chronic recurrent vaginal candidiasis, acute and chronic enterocolitis and dysbacteriosis, which are accompanied by normalization of the mucosal microbiome, and the decline or disappearance of inflammation. HEP1 is also an effective treatment and prevention for recurrent inflammation and ulceration in the stomach, duodenum and colon. HEP1 and RepG3 GEKKRRETVEREGG (a derivative of HEP1) have been used successfully as an inhaled spray peptide solution to treat a small number of human volunteers with mild-to-moderate COVID, resulting from SARS-CoV-2 infection, based on earlier successes in treating acute viral respiratory disease with inflammatory complications. Ezrin peptides seem to correct a dysregulation of innate immune responses to SARS-CoV-2. They are also adjuvants of B cell adaptive immunity and increase antibody titres, resulting in protection from lethal virus infection of mice. In a clinical study in Moscow, orally administered HEP1 was shown to enhance antibody-titres produced in response to hepatitis-B vaccination. These very preliminary but promising results with ezrin peptide treatment of COVID must be replicated in large-scale randomised placebo controlled clinical studies, to be verified.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytoskeletal Proteins/pharmacology , Cytoskeletal Proteins/therapeutic use , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Mice , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463715

ABSTRACT

G-quadruplexes (G4s) are noncanonical nucleic acid structures involved in the regulation of key cellular processes, such as transcription and replication. Since their discovery, G4s have been mainly investigated for their role in cancer and as targets in anticancer therapy. More recently, exploration of the presence and role of G4s in viral genomes has led to the discovery of G4-regulated key viral pathways. In this context, employment of selective G4 ligands has helped to understand the complexity of G4-mediated mechanisms in the viral life cycle, and highlighted the possibility to target viral G4s as an emerging antiviral approach. Research in this field is growing at a fast pace, providing increasing evidence of the antiviral activity of old and new G4 ligands. This review aims to provide a punctual update on the literature on G4 ligands exploited in virology. Different classes of G4 binders are described, with emphasis on possible antiviral applications in emerging diseases, such as the current COVID-19 pandemic. Strengths and weaknesses of G4 targeting in viruses are discussed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , G-Quadruplexes , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , DNA, Viral/chemistry , DNA, Viral/metabolism , Humans , Ligands , MicroRNAs/antagonists & inhibitors , MicroRNAs/metabolism , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/pathology
7.
Acta Med Acad ; 49(2): 130-143, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414828

ABSTRACT

In this review, we discuss the latest developments in research pertaining to virus-induced asthma exacerbations and consider recent advances in treatment options. Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways that continues to impose a substantial clinical burden worldwide. Asthma exacerbations, characterised by an acute deterioration in respiratory symptoms and airflow obstruction, are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These episodes are most commonly triggered by respiratory virus infections. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of virus-induced exacerbations have been the focus of extensive biomedical research. Developing a robust understanding of the interplay between respiratory viruses and the host immune response will be critical for developing more efficacious, targeted therapies for exacerbations. CONCLUSION: There has been significant recent progress in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying virus-induced airway inflammation in asthma and these advances will underpin the development of future clinical therapies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Adenovirus Infections, Human/drug therapy , Adenovirus Infections, Human/immunology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/physiopathology , Administration, Inhalation , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Paramyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Paramyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/physiopathology , Picornaviridae Infections/drug therapy , Picornaviridae Infections/immunology , Picornaviridae Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology
8.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441885

ABSTRACT

Viral proteases are indispensable for successful virion maturation, thus making them a prominent drug target. Their enzyme activity is tightly spatiotemporally regulated by expression in the precursor form with little or no activity, followed by activation via autoprocessing. These cleavage events are frequently triggered upon transportation to a specific compartment inside the host cell. Typically, precursor oligomerization or the presence of a co-factor is needed for activation. A detailed understanding of these mechanisms will allow ligands with non-canonical mechanisms of action to be designed, which would specifically modulate the initial irreversible steps of viral protease autoactivation. Binding sites exclusive to the precursor, including binding sites beyond the protease domain, can be exploited. Both inhibition and up-regulation of the proteolytic activity of viral proteases can be detrimental for the virus. All these possibilities are discussed using examples of medically relevant viruses including herpesviruses, adenoviruses, retroviruses, picornaviruses, caliciviruses, togaviruses, flaviviruses, and coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Viral Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Viral Proteases/metabolism , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Adenoviruses, Human/drug effects , Adenoviruses, Human/metabolism , Flavivirus/drug effects , Flavivirus/metabolism , HIV-1/drug effects , Herpesviridae/drug effects , Herpesviridae/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteases/biosynthesis
9.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411081

ABSTRACT

Over the decades, the world has witnessed diverse virus associated pandemics. The significant inhibitory effects of marine sulfated polysaccharides against SARS-CoV-2 shows its therapeutic potential in future biomedical applications and drug development. Algal polysaccharides exhibited significant role in antimicrobial, antitumor, antioxidative, antiviral, anticoagulant, antihepatotoxic and immunomodulating activities. Owing to their health benefits, the sulfated polysaccharides from marine algae are a great deal of interest globally. Algal polysaccharides such as agar, alginate, carrageenans, porphyran, fucoidan, laminaran and ulvans are investigated for their nutraceutical potential at different stages of infection processes, structural diversity, complexity and mechanism of action. In this review, we focus on the recent antiviral studies of the marine algae-based polysaccharides and their potential towards antiviral medicines.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Aquatic Organisms/chemistry , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Seaweed/chemistry , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Alginates/chemistry , Alginates/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Glucans/chemistry , Glucans/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Structure , Pandemics , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/etiology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9998420, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398744

ABSTRACT

The global burden of viral infection, especially the current pandemics of SARS-CoV-2, HIV/AIDS, and hepatitis, is a very risky one. Additionally, HCV expresses the necessity for antiviral therapeutic elements. Venoms are known to contain an array of bioactive peptides that are commonly used in the treatment of various medical issues. Several peptides isolated from scorpion venom have recently been proven to possess an antiviral activity against several viral families. The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date overview of scorpion antiviral peptides and to discuss their modes of action and potential biomedical application against different viruses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Peptides/pharmacology , Scorpion Venoms/chemistry , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Coronavirus/drug effects , HIV-1/drug effects , Hepatitis Viruses/drug effects , Herpesvirus 1, Human/drug effects , Humans , Measles virus/drug effects , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/isolation & purification , Virus Diseases/virology
11.
Cell ; 184(6): 1604-1620, 2021 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392179

ABSTRACT

Historically, emerging viruses appear constantly and have cost millions of human lives. Currently, climate change and intense globalization have created favorable conditions for viral transmission. Therefore, effective antivirals, especially those targeting the conserved protein in multiple unrelated viruses, such as the compounds targeting RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, are urgently needed to combat more emerging and re-emerging viruses in the future. Here we reviewed the development of antivirals with common targets, including those against the same protein across viruses, or the same viral function, to provide clues for development of antivirals for future epidemics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/drug therapy , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Pandemics , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Viruses/enzymology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Humans , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Envelope Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Internalization/drug effects
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 172: 524-541, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385677

ABSTRACT

The infectious microscopic viruses invade living cells to reproduce themselves, and causes chronic infections such as HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, flu, etc. in humans which may lead to death if not treated. Different strategies have been utilized to develop new and superior antiviral drugs to counter the viral infections. The FDA approval of HIV nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, zidovudine in 1987 boosted the development of antiviral agents against different viruses. Currently, there are a number of combination drugs developed against various viral infections to arrest the activity of same or different viral macromolecules at multiple stages of its life cycle; among which majority are targeted to interfere with the replication of viral genome. Besides these, other type of antiviral molecules includes entry inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, interferons, immunomodulators, etc. The antiviral drugs can be toxic to human cells, particularly in case of administration of combination drugs, and on the other hand viruses can grow resistant to the antiviral drugs. Furthermore, emergence of new viruses like Ebola, coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2) emphasizes the need for more innovative strategies to develop better antiviral drugs to fight the existing and the emerging viral infections. Hence, we reviewed the strategic enhancements in developing antiviral drugs for the treatment of different viral infections over the years.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Approval , United States Food and Drug Administration , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , United States , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 215: 113220, 2021 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385485

ABSTRACT

In current scenario, various heterocycles have come up exhibiting crucial role in various medicinal agents which are valuable for mankind. Out of diverse range of heterocycle, quinoline scaffold have been proved to play an important role in broad range of biological activities. Several drug molecules bearing a quinoline molecule with useful anticancer, antibacterial activities etc have been marketed such as chloroquine, saquinavir etc. Owing to their broad spectrum biological role, various synthetic strategies such as Skraup reaction, Combes reaction etc. has been developed by the researchers all over the world. But still the synthetic methods are associated with various limitations as formation of side products, use of expensive metal catalysts. Thus, several efforts to develop an efficient and cost effective synthetic protocol are still carried out till date. Moreover, quinoline scaffold displays remarkable antiviral activity. Therefore, in this review we have made an attempt to describe recent synthetic protocols developed by various research groups along with giving a complete explanation about the role of quinoline derivatives as antiviral agent. Quinoline derivatives were found potent against various strains of viruses like zika virus, enterovirus, herpes virus, human immunodeficiency virus, ebola virus, hepatitis C virus, SARS virus and MERS virus etc.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Quinolines/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Viruses/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Quinolines/chemical synthesis , Quinolines/pharmacology
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 140: 111596, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385083

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids are natural phytochemicals known for their antiviral activity. The flavonoids acts at different stages of viral infection, such as viral entrance, replication and translation of proteins. Viruses cause various diseases such as SARS, Hepatitis, AIDS, Flu, Herpes, etc. These, and many more viral diseases, are prevalent in the world, and some (i.e. SARS-CoV-2) are causing global chaos. Despite much struggle, effective treatments for these viral diseases are not available. The flavonoid class of phytochemicals has a vast number of medicinally active compounds, many of which are studied for their potential antiviral activity against different DNA and RNA viruses. Here, we reviewed many flavonoids that showed antiviral activities in different testing environments such as in vitro, in vivo (mice model) and in silico. Some flavonoids had stronger inhibitory activities, showed no toxicity & the cell proliferation at the tested doses are not affected. Some of the flavonoids used in the in vivo studies also protected the tested mice prophylactically from lethal doses of virus, and effectively prevented viral infection. The glycosides of some of the flavonoids increased the solubility of some flavonoids, and therefore showed increased antiviral activity as compared to the non-glycoside form of that flavonoid. These phytochemicals are active against different disease-causing viruses, and inhibited the viruses by targeting the viral infections at multiple stages. Some of the flavonoids showed more potent antiviral activity than the market available drugs used to treat viral infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Viruses/drug effects , Animals , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Glycosides/metabolism , Humans , Virus Diseases/metabolism
15.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383920

ABSTRACT

Viral infections are responsible for several chronic and acute diseases in both humans and animals. Despite the incredible progress in human medicine, several viral diseases, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, respiratory syndromes, and hepatitis, are still associated with high morbidity and mortality rates in humans. Natural products from plants or other organisms are a rich source of structurally novel chemical compounds including antivirals. Indeed, in traditional medicine, many pathological conditions have been treated using plant-derived medicines. Thus, the identification of novel alternative antiviral agents is of critical importance. In this review, we summarize novel phytochemicals with antiviral activity against human viruses and their potential application in treating or preventing viral disease.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Drug Discovery , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/chemistry , Biological Products/therapeutic use , DNA Viruses/drug effects , DNA Viruses/physiology , Drug Development , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , RNA Viruses/drug effects , RNA Viruses/physiology , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/etiology , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
16.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 109866, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386296

ABSTRACT

Zinc Iodide and Dimethyl Sulfoxide compositions are proposed as therapeutic agents to treat and prevent chronic and acute viral infections including SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. The therapeutic combinations have a wide range of virucidal effects on DNA and RNA containing viruses. The combinations also exhibit anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, antifibrotic, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidative effects. Given the fact that Zinc Iodide has been used as an oral antiseptic agent and DMSO has been already proven as a safe pharmaceutical solvent and therapeutic agent, we hypothesize that the combination of these two agents can be applied as an effective, safe and inexpensive treatment for SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infection. The therapeutic compound can be applied as both etiological and pathogenesis therapy and used as an effective and safe antiseptic (disinfectant) for human and animals as well.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/administration & dosage , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Iodides/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Zinc Compounds/administration & dosage , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Inflammation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Solvents , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
17.
Mar Drugs ; 19(1)2020 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389434

ABSTRACT

Compromised lung function is a feature of both infection driven and non-infective pathologies. Viral infections-including the current pandemic strain SARS-CoV-2-that affect lung function can cause both acute and long-term chronic damage. SARS-CoV-2 infection suppresses innate immunity and promotes an inflammatory response. Targeting these aspects of SARS-CoV-2 is important as the pandemic affects greater proportions of the population. In clinical and animal studies, fucoidans have been shown to increase innate immunity and decrease inflammation. In addition, dietary fucoidan has been shown to attenuate pulmonary damage in a model of acute viral infection. Direct inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro has been described, but is not universal. This short review summarizes the current research on fucoidan with regard to viral lung infections and lung damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Lung/drug effects , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Lung/physiology , Lung Diseases/drug therapy , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1322: 313-337, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1353664

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging viral diseases occur with regularity within the human population. The conventional 'one drug, one virus' paradigm for antivirals does not adequately allow for proper preparedness in the face of unknown future epidemics. In addition, drug developers lack the financial incentives to work on antiviral drug discovery, with most pharmaceutical companies choosing to focus on more profitable disease areas. Safe-in-man broad spectrum antiviral agents (BSAAs) can help meet the need for antiviral development by already having passed phase I clinical trials, requiring less time and money to develop, and having the capacity to work against many viruses, allowing for a speedy response when unforeseen epidemics arise. In this chapter, we discuss the benefits of repurposing existing drugs as BSAAs, describe the major steps in safe-in-man BSAA drug development from discovery through clinical trials, and list several database resources that are useful tools for antiviral drug repositioning.


Subject(s)
Virus Diseases , Viruses , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Discovery , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1322: 261-284, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1353662

ABSTRACT

Three types of chemical entities, namely, small organic molecules (organics), peptides, and biologics, are mainly used as drug candidates for the treatment of various diseases. Even though the peptide drugs are known since 1920 in association with the clinical use of insulin, only a limited number of peptides are currently used for therapeutics due to various disadvantages associated with them such as limited serum and blood stability, oral bioavailability, and permeability. Since, through chemical modifications and structure tuning, many of these limitations can be overcome, peptide-based drugs are gaining attention in pharmaceutical research. As of today, there are more than 60 peptide-based drugs approved by FDA, and over 150 peptides are in the advanced clinical studies. In this book chapter, the peptide-based lead compounds and drugs available for treating various viral diseases and their advantages and disadvantages when compared to small molecules drugs are discussed.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Virus Diseases , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Insulin , Peptides , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
20.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(36): 7328-7346, 2021 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351983

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) caused the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the World Health Organization, this pandemic continues to be a serious threat to public health due to the worldwide spread of variants and their higher rate of transmissibility. A range of measures are necessary to slow the pandemic and save lives, which include constant evaluation and the careful adjustment of public-health responses augmented by medical treatments, vaccines and protective gear. It is hypothesized that nanostructured particulates underpinned by nanoscience and quantum science yield high-performing antiviral strategies, which can be applied in preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications such as face masks, respirators, COVID test kits, vaccines, and drugs. This review is aimed at providing comprehensive and cohesive perspectives on various nanostructures that are suited to intensifying and amplifying the effectiveness of antiviral strategies. Growing scientific literature over the past eighteen months indicates that quantum dots, iron oxide, silicon oxide, polymeric and metallic nanoparticles have been employed in COVID-19 diagnostic assays, vaccines, and personal protective equipment (PPE). Quantum dots have displayed their suitability as more sensitive imaging probes in diagnostics and prognostics, and as controlled drug-release carriers that target the virus. Nanoscience and quantum science have assisted the design of advanced vaccine delivery since nanostructured materials are suited for antigen delivery, as mimics of viral structures and as adjuvants. Furthermore, the quantum science- and nanoscience-supported tailored functionalization of nanostructured materials offers insight and pathways to deal with future pandemics. This review seeks to illustrate several examples, and to explain the underpinning quantum science and nanoscience phenomena, which include wave functions, electrostatic interactions, van der Waals forces, thermal and electrodynamic fluctuations, dispersion forces, local field-enhancement effects, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This review discusses how nanostructured materials are helpful in the detection, prevention, and treatment of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, other known viral infection diseases, and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Nanostructures/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Disinfection/methods , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Reactive Oxygen Species/chemistry , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/virology
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