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1.
Ann Saudi Med ; 43(3): 143-153, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237979

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) applied to limit the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic also affect the circulation and seasonal characteristics of other respiratory viruses. OBJECTIVES: Assess the impact of NPIs on the spread and seasonal characteristics of non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viruses and examine viral respiratory co-infections. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort SETTING: Single center in Turkey. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Syndromic multiplex viral polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) panel results of patients admitted to the Ankara Bilkent City Hospital with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection between April 1, 2020 and October 30, 2022 were evaluated. Two study periods before and after 1 July 2021, when the restrictions were discontinued, were statistically analyzed and compared to determine the effect of NPIs on circulating respiratory viruses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of respiratory viruses as determined by syndromic mPCR panel. SAMPLE SIZE: 11300 patient samples were evaluated. RESULTS: At least one respiratory tract virus was detected in 6250 (55.3%) patients. Of these, at least one respiratory virus was detected in 5% in the first period (between April 1, 2020 and June 30, 2021, when NPIs were applied), and in 95% in the second period (between July 1, 2021 and October 30, 2022, when NPIs were relaxed). After the removal of NPIs, there was a statistically significant increase in hRV/EV, RSV-A/B, Flu A/H3, hBoV, hMPV, PIV-1, PIV-4, hCoV-OC43, PIV-2 and hCoV-NL63 (P<.05). In the 2020-2021 season, when strict NPIs were applied, all respiratory viruses evaluated did not have the usual seasonal peak and there were no seasonal influenza epidemics during this period. CONCLUSIONS: NPIs resulted in a dramatic decrease in the prevalence of respiratory viruses and notable disruption of seasonal characteristics. LIMITATIONS: Single-center study and retrospective. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Turkey/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control
2.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 66(6): 599-616, 2023 Jun.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244056

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and the increasing occurrence of monkeypox (mpox) diseases outside Africa have illustrated the vulnerability of populations to zoonotic pathogens. In addition, other viral zoonotic pathogens have gained importance in recent years.This review article addresses six notifiable viral zoonotic pathogens as examples to highlight the need for the One Health approach in order to understand the epidemiology of the diseases and to derive recommendations for action by the public health service. The importance of environmental factors, reservoirs, and vectors is emphasized, the diseases in livestock and wildlife are analyzed, and the occurrence and frequency of diseases in the population are described. The pathogens selected here differ in their reservoirs and the role of vectors for transmission, the impact of infections on farm animals, and the disease patterns observed in humans. In addition to zoonotic pathogens that have been known in Germany for a long time or were introduced recently, pathogens whose zoonotic potential has only lately been shown are also considered.For the pathogens discussed here, there are still large knowledge gaps regarding the transmission routes. Future One Health-based studies must contribute to the further elucidation of their transmission routes and the development of prevention measures. The holistic approach does not necessarily include a focus on viral pathogens/diseases, but also includes the question of the interaction of viral, bacterial, and other pathogens, including antibiotic resistance and host microbiomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , One Health , Virus Diseases , Animals , Humans , Zoonoses/microbiology , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Pandemics , Germany , COVID-19/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(6): e2316190, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243977

ABSTRACT

Importance: Children's role in spreading virus during the COVID-19 pandemic is yet to be elucidated, and measuring household transmission traditionally requires contact tracing. Objective: To discern children's role in household viral transmission during the pandemic when enveloped viruses were at historic lows and the predominance of viral illnesses were attributed to COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study of a voluntary US cohort tracked data from participatory surveillance using commercially available thermometers with a companion smartphone app from October 2019 to October 2022. Eligible participants were individuals with temperature measurements in households with multiple members between October 2019 and October 2022 who opted into data sharing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of household transmissions with a pediatric index case and changes in transmissions during school breaks were assessed using app and thermometer data. Results: A total of 862 577 individuals from 320 073 households with multiple participants (462 000 female [53.6%] and 463 368 adults [53.7%]) were included. The number of febrile episodes forecast new COVID-19 cases. Within-household transmission was inferred in 54 506 (15.4%) febrile episodes and increased from the fourth pandemic period, March to July 2021 (3263 of 32 294 [10.1%]) to the Omicron BA.1/BA.2 wave (16 516 of 94 316 [17.5%]; P < .001). Among 38 787 transmissions in 166 170 households with adults and children, a median (IQR) 70.4% (61.4%-77.6%) had a pediatric index case; proportions fluctuated weekly from 36.9% to 84.6%. A pediatric index case was 0.6 to 0.8 times less frequent during typical school breaks. The winter break decrease was from 68.4% (95% CI, 57.1%-77.8%) to 41.7% (95% CI, 34.3%-49.5%) at the end of 2020 (P < .001). At the beginning of 2022, it dropped from 80.3% (95% CI, 75.1%-84.6%) to 54.5% (95% CI, 51.3%-57.7%) (P < .001). During summer breaks, rates dropped from 81.4% (95% CI, 74.0%-87.1%) to 62.5% (95% CI, 56.3%-68.3%) by August 2021 (P = .02) and from 83.8% (95% CI, 79.2%-87.5) to 62.8% (95% CI, 57.1%-68.1%) by July 2022 (P < .001). These patterns persisted over 2 school years. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study using participatory surveillance to measure within-household transmission at a national scale, we discerned an important role for children in the spread of viral infection within households during the COVID-19 pandemic, heightened when schools were in session, supporting a role for school attendance in COVID-19 spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Adult , Child , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Thermometers , Cohort Studies , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
4.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241513

ABSTRACT

To face the COVID-19 outbreak, a wide range of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) aimed at limiting the spread of the virus in communities, such as mask-wearing, hand hygiene, social distancing, travel restrictions, and school closures, were introduced in most countries. Thereafter, a significant reduction of new asymptomatic and symptomatic COVID-19 cases occurred, although there were differences between countries according to the type and duration of the NPIs. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has been accompanied by significant variations in the global incidence of diseases due to the most common non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viruses and some bacteria. In this narrative review, the epidemiology of the most common non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory infections during the COVID-19 pandemic is detailed. Moreover, factors that could have had a role in modifying the traditional circulation of respiratory pathogens are discussed. A literature analysis shows that NPIs were the most important cause of the general reduction in the incidence of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infection in the first year of the pandemic, although the different sensitivity of each virus to NPIs, the type and duration of measures used, as well as the interference among viruses may have played a role in modulating viral circulation. Reasons for the increase in the incidences of Streptococcus pneumoniae and group A Streptococcus infections seem strictly linked to immunity debt and the role played by NPIs in reducing viral infections and limiting bacterial superimposed infections. These results highlight the importance of NPIs during pandemics, the need to monitor the circulation of infectious agents that cause diseases similar to those caused by pandemic agents, and the need to make efforts to improve coverage with available vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology
5.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 42(6): 443-448, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234768

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Childcare attendance is a common risk factor for acute respiratory illness (ARI) in young children. Our goal was to better understand the specific respiratory viruses that predominate in childcare, which may support the development of tailored illness prevention and intervention strategies in childcare settings. METHODS: Using data from a prospective household cohort of ARI surveillance, we assessed specimen from 1418 ARIs reported by 359 childcare-aged children over 6 study seasons (2012/2013 through 2017/2018). Respiratory swabs were tested by polymerase chain reaction for 9 respiratory viruses. A mixed-effect logistic regression model was used to compare odds of various viral detection outcomes. The Shannon's Diversity index was used to compare the richness (ie, number of species) and diversity (ie, relative species abundance) associated with respiratory viruses detected in both groups. RESULTS: At least 1 virus was detected in 75.5% of childcare-associated ARIs and in 80.1% of homecare ARIs. Compared with illnesses among homecare children, childcare illnesses were associated with significantly higher odds of detected adenovirus (odds ratio = 1.86, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-3.28) and human metapneumovirus (odds ratio = 1.76, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-3.0). The pool of viruses associated with childcare ARI was found to be significantly richer and more diverse than that of viruses associated with homecare ARI ( P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Children attending childcare experience a higher risk of adenovirus and human metapneumovirus infection and are regularly exposed to a rich and diverse pool of respiratory viruses in childcare environments. Our results underscore the necessity of thorough and multifaceted viral prevention strategies in childcare settings.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Child , Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Aged , Prospective Studies , Child Care , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Adenoviridae
6.
Microb Biotechnol ; 16(7): 1397-1411, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313257

ABSTRACT

This Lilliput explores the current epidemiological and virological arguments for a zoonotic origin of the COVID-19 pandemic. While the role of bats, pangolins and racoon dogs as viral reservoirs has not yet been proven, a spill-over of a coronavirus infection from animals into humans at the Huanan food market in Wuhan has a much greater plausibility than alternative hypotheses such as a laboratory virus escape, deliberate genetic engineering or introduction by cold chain food products. This Lilliput highlights the dynamic nature of the animal-human interface for viral cross-infections from humans into feral white tail deer or farmed minks (reverse zoonosis). Surveillance of viral infections at the animal-human interface is an urgent task since live animal markets are not the only risks for future viral spill-overs. Climate change will induce animal migration which leads to viral exchanges between animal species that have not met in the past. Environmental change and deforestation will also increase contact between animals and humans. Developing an early warning system for emerging viral infections becomes thus a societal necessity not only for human but also for animal and environmental health (One Health concept). Microbiologists have developed tools ranging from virome analysis in key suspects such as viral reservoirs (bats, wild game animals, bushmeat) and in humans exposed to wild animals, to wastewater analysis to detect known and unknown viruses circulating in the human population and sentinel studies in animal-exposed patients with fever. Criteria need to be developed to assess the virulence and transmissibility of zoonotic viruses. An early virus warning system is costly and will need political lobbying. The accelerating number of viral infections with pandemic potential over the last decades should provide the public pressure to extend pandemic preparedness for the inclusion of early viral alert systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Deer , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Dogs , Humans , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/veterinary , Animals, Wild
7.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 44: 100378, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307128

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the virological profile of URI among children under 5 years of age. Since, it is very difficult to distinguish between various viral etiologies solely on the basis of symptoms, this study was attempted to generate evidence that majority of URI are caused due to viral illness and no antibiotics should be prescribed in the management of the same. METHODS: This observational study was conducted over a period of one year (June 2021-May 2022) in a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi. A total of 180 children between the age of 0-5 years with symptoms of URI were included. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken and processed for detection of viruses using multiplex RT PCR. RESULTS: Presence of viruses were detected in 136 (75.6%) samples. A single virus was identified in 113 samples, whereas 21 were found to harbour two viruses and 2 were carrying three viruses. The most common virus isolated was Human Rhinovirus (HRV- 55.8%) followed by Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV- 23.5%). In samples showing coinfection with two viruses, most common was Human Corona Virus (HCoV)- NL63, 229E, OC43, HKU1. None of the patients were given antibiotics. None of the patients required any hospital admission for severe respiratory illness. CONCLUSIONS: Viruses are a major cause of URI in children under five years of age, with the most prevalent organisms being HRV and RSV. Antibiotic prescriptions in URI are not warranted.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Child , Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Infant, Newborn , Cross-Sectional Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , India/epidemiology
8.
Eur J Immunol ; 53(6): e2250164, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296074

ABSTRACT

The type I IFN (IFN-I) system is essential to limit severe viral disease in humans. Thus, IFN-I deficiencies are associated with serious life-threatening infections. Remarkably, some rare individuals with chronic autoimmune diseases develop neutralizing autoantibodies (autoAbs) against IFN-Is thereby compromising their own innate antiviral defenses. Furthermore, the prevalence of anti-IFN-I autoAbs in apparently healthy individuals increases with age, such that ∼4% of those over 70 years old are affected. Here, I review the literature on factors that may predispose individuals to develop anti-IFN-I autoAbs, such as reduced self-tolerance caused by defects in the genes AIRE, NFKB2, and FOXP3 (among others), or by generally impaired thymus function, including thymic involution in the elderly. In addition, I discuss the hypothesis that predisposed individuals develop anti-IFN-I autoAbs following "autoimmunization" with IFN-Is generated during some acute viral infections, systemic inflammatory events, or chronic IFN-I exposure. Finally, I highlight the enhanced susceptibility that individuals with anti-IFN-I autoAbs appear to have towards viral diseases such as severe COVID-19, influenza, or herpes (e.g., varicella-zoster virus, herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus), as well as adverse reactions to live-attenuated vaccines. Understanding the mechanisms underlying development and consequences of anti-IFN-I autoAbs will be key to implementing effective prophylactic and therapeutic measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Virus Diseases , Humans , Aged , Autoantibodies , Prevalence , Disease Susceptibility , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Interferons
9.
Subcell Biochem ; 103: 149-183, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303994

ABSTRACT

Older people are more prone to viral infections, and often have worse outcomes. This was well demonstrated during the COVID-19 pandemic, where a disproportionate number of deaths occurred in the oldest and frailest people. The assessment of the older person with a viral infection is complicated by the high prevalence of multiple comorbidities and sensory or cognitive impairment. They often present with common geriatric syndromes such as falls or delirium, rather than the more typical features of a viral illness in younger people. Comprehensive geriatric assessment by a specialist multidisciplinary team is the gold standard of management, as viral illness is unlikely to present in isolation of other healthcare needs. We discuss the presentation, diagnosis, prevention, and management of common viral infections-respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, norovirus, influenza, hepatitis, herpes, and dengue viruses-with special consideration of infections in the older patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Virus Diseases , Humans , Aged , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology
10.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 10(1)2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303652

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Childcare centre is considered a high-risk setting for transmission of respiratory viruses. Further evidence is needed to understand the risk of transmission in childcare centres. To this end, we established the DISeases TrANsmission in ChildcarE (DISTANCE) study to understand the interaction among contact patterns, detection of respiratory viruses from environment samples and transmission of viral infections in childcare centres. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The DISTANCE study is a prospective cohort study in multiple childcare centres of Jiangsu Province, China. Study subjects will be childcare attendees and teaching staff of different grades. A range of information will be collected from the study subjects and participating childcare centres, including attendance, contact behaviours (collected by onsite observers), respiratory viral infection (weekly respiratory throat swabs tested by multiplex PCR), presence of respiratory viruses on touch surfaces of childcare centres and weekly follow-up survey on respiratory symptoms and healthcare seeking among subjects tested positive for any respiratory viruses. Detection patterns of respiratory viruses from study subjects and environment samples, contact patterns, and transmission risk will be analysed by developing statistical and mathematical models as appropriate. The study has been initiated in September 2022 in 1 childcare centre in Wuxi City, with a total of 104 children and 12 teaching staff included in the cohort; data collection and follow-up is ongoing. One more childcare centre in Nanjing City (anticipated to include 100 children and 10 teaching staff) will start recruitment in 2023. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has received ethics approval from Nanjing Medical University Ethics Committee (No. 2022-936) and ethics approval from Wuxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention Ethics Committee (No. 2022-011). We plan to disseminate the study findings mainly through publications in peer-reviewed journals and presentations in academic conferences. Aggregated research data will be shared freely to researchers.


Subject(s)
Virus Diseases , Viruses , Child , Humans , Child Care , Prospective Studies , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Child Day Care Centers , Multicenter Studies as Topic
11.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 17(3): e13131, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRIs) are one one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among people of all ages worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The purpose of this study was to determine epidemiological characteristics of respiratory viruses in acute respiratory infection (ARI) patients during the COVID-19 pandemic in Yaoundé, Cameroon. METHODS: Patients were monitored for respiratory symptoms as part of the surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other respiratory viral infections. Patients of all ages with respiratory symptoms less than 5 days were considered. Sociodemographic and clinical data as well as nasopharyngeal samples was collected from patients. Nasopharyngeal samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2, influenza, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction methods. Virus distribution and demographic data were analyzed with R version 2.15.1. RESULTS: From July 2020 to October 2021, 1120 patients were included. The overall viral detection rate was 32.5%, including 9.5% for RSV, 12.6% for influenza virus and 12.8% for SARS-CoV-2. Co-infections were detected in 6.9% of positive cases. While RSV and influenza virus showed seasonal trends, SARS-CoV-2 was detected throughout the study period. CONCLUSION: We found that during COVID-19 pandemic, respiratory viruses play an important role in etiology of influenza-like illness in Cameroon, and this observation was true for patients of all ages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Humans , Infant, Newborn , COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Coinfection/epidemiology , Cameroon/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology
12.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(4): 514-527, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278793

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE OF THE WORK: The article reviews the main problems of the epidemiology of infectious diseases in Poland in 2020. It summarizes relevant findings from the national infectious disease surveillance system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data contained in this article come from the reports collected by the State Sanitary Inspection on cases of notifiable infectious diseases notified by clinicians and/or laboratories. These are supplemented by mortality data published by the Statistics Poland. RESULTS AND THEIR DISCUSSION: The epidemiology of infectious diseases was highly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. There were 1,306,983 cases notified in 2020 and 41,451 deaths attributed to COVID-19 (according to Statistics Poland). The reported incidence of other infections decreased by 10-98%. We noted especially high decreases in the incidence of viral gastrointestinal infections (by over 70%). The incidence of influenza and influenza-like infections decreased by 34% and tuberculosis by 36% as compared to 2019. However, important decreases were also noted for other diseases under surveillance, which could point to disruption of diagnosis services and reporting due to lockdowns and high workload on the public health services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Influenza, Human , Virus Diseases , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Incidence , Age Distribution , Disease Outbreaks , Registries , Urban Population
13.
Annu Rev Anim Biosci ; 11: 33-55, 2023 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284296

ABSTRACT

Zoonoses are diseases and infections naturally transmitted between humans and vertebrate animals. Over the years, zoonoses have become increasingly significant threats to global health. They form the dominant group of diseases among the emerging infectious diseases (EID) and currently account for 73% of EID. Approximately 25% of zoonoses originate in domestic animals. The etiological agents of zoonoses include different pathogens, with viruses accounting for approximately 30% of all zoonotic infections. Zoonotic diseases can be transmitted directly or indirectly, by contact, via aerosols, through a vector, or vertically in utero. Zoonotic diseases are found in every continent except Antarctica. Numerous factors associated with the pathogen, human activities, and the environment play significant roles in the transmission and emergence of zoonotic diseases. Effective response and control of zoonotic diseases call for multiple-sector involvement and collaboration according to the One Health concept.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Virus Diseases , Animals , Humans , Animals, Domestic , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Zoonoses , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/veterinary , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/veterinary
14.
Viruses ; 15(3)2023 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283019

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are the consequence of a breach in immune tolerance, leading to the inability to sufficiently differentiate between self and non-self. Immune reactions that are targeted towards self-antigens can ultimately lead to the destruction of the host's cells and the development of autoimmune diseases. Although autoimmune disorders are comparatively rare, the worldwide incidence and prevalence is increasing, and they have major adverse implications for mortality and morbidity. Genetic and environmental factors are thought to be the major factors contributing to the development of autoimmunity. Viral infections are one of the environmental triggers that can lead to autoimmunity. Current research suggests that several mechanisms, such as molecular mimicry, epitope spreading, and bystander activation, can cause viral-induced autoimmunity. Here we describe the latest insights into the pathomechanisms of viral-induced autoimmune diseases and discuss recent findings on COVID-19 infections and the development of AIDs.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/complications , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Autoimmunity , Autoantigens
15.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 44(2): 196-208, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252878

ABSTRACT

The threat of respiratory virus infection to human health and well-being has been clearly highlighted by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. For people with cystic fibrosis (CF), the clinical significance of viral infections long predated the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. This article reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of respiratory virus infection in the context of CF as well as the current understanding of interactions between viruses and other microorganisms in the CF lung. The incidence of respiratory virus infection in CF varies by age with young children typically experiencing more frequent episodes than adolescents and adults. At all ages, respiratory viruses are very common in CF and are associated with pulmonary exacerbations. Respiratory viruses are identified at up to 69% of exacerbations, while viruses are also frequently detected during clinical stability. The full impact of COVID-19 in CF is yet to be established. Early studies found that rates of COVID-19 were lower in CF cohorts than in the general population. The reasons for this are unclear but may be related to the effects of shielding, infection control practices, maintenance CF therapies, or the inflammatory milieu in the CF lung. Observational studies have consistently identified that prior solid organ transplantation is a key risk factor for poor outcomes from COVID-19 in CF. Several key priorities for future research are highlighted. First, the impact of highly effective CFTR modulator therapy on the epidemiology and pathophysiology of viral infections in CF requires investigation. Second, the impact of respiratory viruses on the development and dynamics of the CF lung microbiota is poorly understood and viral infection may have important interactions with bacteria and fungi in the airway. Finally, bacteriophages represent a key focus of future investigation both for their role in transmission of antimicrobial resistance and as a promising treatment modality for multiresistant pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Child , Adult , Humans , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Cystic Fibrosis/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Lung
16.
Lancet Microbe ; 4(5): e340-e348, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality; however, surveillance for circulating respiratory viruses is passive and biased. Wastewater-based epidemiology has been used to understand SARS-CoV-2, influenza A, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection rates at a community level but has not been used to investigate other respiratory viruses. We aimed to use wastewater-based epidemiology to understand community viral respiratory infection occurrence. METHODS: A retrospective wastewater-based epidemiology surveillance study was carried out at a large wastewater treatment plant located in California, USA. Using droplet digital RT-PCR, we measured RNA concentrations of influenza A and influenza B viruses, RSV A and RSV B, parainfluenza (1-4) viruses, rhinovirus, seasonal coronaviruses, and metapneumovirus in wastewater solids three times per week for 17 months (216 samples) between Feb 1, 2021, and June 21, 2022. Novel probe-based RT-PCR assays for non-influenza viral targets were developed and validated. We compared viral RNA concentrations to positivity rates for viral infections from clinical specimens submitted to California Sentinel Clinical Laboratories (sentinel laboratories) to assess concordance between the two datasets. FINDINGS: We detected RNA from all tested viruses in wastewater solids. Human rhinovirus (median concentration 4300 [0-9500] copies per gram dry weight) and seasonal human coronaviruses (35 000 [17 000-56 000]) were found at the highest concentrations. Concentrations of viral RNA correlated significantly and positively with positivity rates of associated viral diseases from sentinel laboratories (tau 0·32-0·57, p<0·0009); the only exceptions were influenza B and RSV A, which were rarely detected in wastewater solids. Measurements from wastewater indicated coronavirus OC43 dominated the seasonal human coronavirus infections whereas parainfluenza 3 dominated among parainfluenza infections during the study period. Concentrations of all tested viral RNA decreased noticeably after the omicron BA.1 surge suggesting a connection between changes in human behaviour during the surge and transmission of all respiratory viruses. INTERPRETATION: Wastewater-based epidemiology can be used to obtain information on circulation of respiratory viruses at a localised, community level without the need to test many individuals because a single sample of wastewater represents the entire contributing community. Results from wastewater can be available within 24 h of sample collection, generating real time information to inform public health responses, clinical decision making, and individual behaviour modifications. FUNDING: CDC Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Metapneumovirus , Nucleic Acids , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Metapneumovirus/genetics , Rhinovirus/genetics , Wastewater , Seasons , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Influenza B virus/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis
17.
Viruses ; 15(2)2023 02 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260861

ABSTRACT

Viral skin infections are some of the most common skin diseases in medical dermatology [...].


Subject(s)
Dermatology , Virus Diseases , Humans , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
18.
J Med Virol ; 95(3): e28631, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267389
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(6)2023 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267111

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant progress in the field of wastewater-based surveillance (WBS) of respiratory pathogens and highlighted its potential for a wider application in public health surveillance. This study aimed to evaluate whether monitoring of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in wastewater can provide a comprehensive picture of disease transmission at the community level. The study was conducted in Larissa (Central Greece) between October 2022 and January 2023. Forty-six wastewater samples were collected from the inlet of the wastewater treatment plant of Larissa and analyzed with a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based method. RSV and SARS-CoV-2 wastewater viral loads (genome copies/100,000 inhabitants) were analyzed against sentinel surveillance data on influenza-like illness (ILI) to identify potential associations. Univariate linear regression analysis revealed that RSV wastewater viral load (lagged by one week) and ILI notification rates in children up to 14 years old were strongly associated (std. Beta: 0.73 (95% CI: 0.31-1.14), p = 0.002, R2 = 0.308). A weaker association was found between SARS-CoV-2 viral load and ILI rates in the 15+ age group (std. Beta: 0.56 (95% CI: 0.06-1.05), p = 0.032, R2 = 0.527). The results support the incorporation of RSV monitoring into existing wastewater-based surveillance systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Virus Diseases , Humans , Child , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/genetics , Wastewater , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Greece/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(3): 511-518, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242441

ABSTRACT

Molecular biology amplification enables sensitive detection of most respiratory viruses through nasopharyngeal swabbing. We developed an innovative approach to detect viral genomes on used facial tissues. In 2 communities of children, used tissues were collected once weekly for 1 year. Pooled analysis of tissues enabled detection of successive virus circulation in 4 age groups over time and forecasted by several weeks the circulation of influenza in the general population. At the individual level, in a proof-of-concept study of 30 volunteers with influenza-like signs/symptoms, we identified common respiratory viruses. The signals for SARS-CoV-2 obtained in parallel from 15 facial tissues and swab samples were similar and often higher for the tissues (11/15). Individual analysis of tissues offers a noninvasive, sensitive, and affordable alternative to self-sampling without a medical care requirement. Pooled analyses may be used to detect virus spread in specific communities, predict seasonal epidemics, and alert the population to viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Child , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
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