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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009811, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526706
2.
J Virol ; 95(12)2021 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501541

ABSTRACT

Long disregarded as junk DNA or genomic dark matter, endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have turned out to represent important components of the antiviral immune response. These remnants of once-infectious retroviruses not only regulate cellular immune activation, but may even directly target invading viral pathogens. In this Gem, we summarize mechanisms by which retroviral fossils protect us from viral infections. One focus will be on recent advances in the role of ERVs as regulators of antiviral gene expression.


Subject(s)
Endogenous Retroviruses/physiology , Retroelements , Virus Diseases/immunology , Animals , Endogenous Retroviruses/genetics , Enhancer Elements, Genetic , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Promoter Regions, Genetic , RNA, Double-Stranded/genetics , RNA, Double-Stranded/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virion/metabolism , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/virology
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487420

ABSTRACT

Tetraspanins are transmembrane glycoproteins that have been shown increasing interest as host factors in infectious diseases. In particular, they were implicated in the pathogenesis of both non-enveloped (human papillomavirus (HPV)) and enveloped (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Zika, influenza A virus, (IAV), and coronavirus) viruses through multiple stages of infection, from the initial cell membrane attachment to the syncytium formation and viral particle release. However, the mechanisms by which different tetraspanins mediate their effects vary. This review aimed to compare and contrast the role of tetraspanins in the life cycles of HPV, HIV, Zika, IAV, and coronavirus viruses, which cause the most significant health and economic burdens to society. In doing so, a better understanding of the relative contribution of tetraspanins in virus infection will allow for a more targeted approach in the treatment of these diseases.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Tetraspanins/physiology , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Humans , Influenza A virus/pathogenicity , Papillomaviridae/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Internalization , Zika Virus/pathogenicity
4.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448967

ABSTRACT

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of non­coding RNAs with a circular, covalent structure that lack both 5' ends and 3' poly(A) tails, which are stable and specific molecules that exist in eukaryotic cells and are highly conserved. The role of circRNAs in viral infections is being increasingly acknowledged, since circRNAs have been discovered to be involved in several viral infections (such as hepatitis B virus infection and human papilloma virus infection) through a range of circRNA/microRNA/mRNA regulatory axes. These findings have prompted investigations into the potential of circRNAs as targets for the diagnosis and treatment of viral infection­related diseases. The aim of the present review was to systematically examine and discuss the role of circRNAs in several common viral infections, as well as their potential as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Circular/physiology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Virus Diseases/genetics , Biomarkers/analysis , Humans , RNA, Circular/genetics , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/therapy , Virus Diseases/virology
5.
FEBS J ; 288(17): 5071-5088, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393880

ABSTRACT

While there is undeniable evidence to link endosomal acid-base homeostasis to viral pathogenesis, the lack of druggable molecular targets has hindered translation from bench to bedside. The recent identification of variants in the interferon-inducible endosomal Na+ /H+ exchanger 9 associated with severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has brought a shift in the way we envision aberrant endosomal acidification. Is it linked to an increased susceptibility to viral infection or a propensity to develop critical illness? This review summarizes the genetic and cellular evidence linking endosomal Na+ /H+ exchangers and viral diseases to suggest how they can act as a broad-spectrum modulator of viral infection and downstream pathophysiology. The review also presents novel insights supporting the complex role of endosomal acid-base homeostasis in viral pathogenesis and discusses the potential causes for negative outcomes of clinical trials utilizing alkalinizing drugs as therapies for COVID-19. These findings lead to a pathogenic model of viral disease that predicts that nonspecific targeting of endosomal pH might fail, even if administered early on, and suggests that endosomal Na+ /H+ exchangers may regulate key host antiviral defence mechanisms and mediators that act to drive inflammatory organ injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchangers/genetics , Virus Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Endosomes/genetics , Endosomes/virology , Humans , Protons , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchangers/antagonists & inhibitors , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/virology
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 624293, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394756

ABSTRACT

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor, which interacts with a wide range of organic molecules of endogenous and exogenous origin, including environmental pollutants, tryptophan metabolites, and microbial metabolites. The activation of AHR by these agonists drives its translocation into the nucleus where it controls the expression of a large number of target genes that include the AHR repressor (AHRR), detoxifying monooxygenases (CYP1A1 and CYP1B1), and cytokines. Recent advances reveal that AHR signaling modulates aspects of the intrinsic, innate and adaptive immune response to diverse microorganisms. This review will focus on the increasing evidence supporting a role for AHR as a modulator of the host response to viral infection.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Immunity, Innate , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/metabolism , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/immunology , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus , Animals , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Ligands , Signal Transduction , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Viruses/genetics , Viruses/pathogenicity
7.
Immunity ; 54(4): 753-768.e5, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385739

ABSTRACT

Viral infections induce a conserved host response distinct from bacterial infections. We hypothesized that the conserved response is associated with disease severity and is distinct between patients with different outcomes. To test this, we integrated 4,780 blood transcriptome profiles from patients aged 0 to 90 years infected with one of 16 viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, Ebola, chikungunya, and influenza, across 34 cohorts from 18 countries, and single-cell RNA sequencing profiles of 702,970 immune cells from 289 samples across three cohorts. Severe viral infection was associated with increased hematopoiesis, myelopoiesis, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. We identified protective and detrimental gene modules that defined distinct trajectories associated with mild versus severe outcomes. The interferon response was decoupled from the protective host response in patients with severe outcomes. These findings were consistent, irrespective of age and virus, and provide insights to accelerate the development of diagnostics and host-directed therapies to improve global pandemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
Immunity/genetics , Virus Diseases/immunology , Antigen Presentation/genetics , Cohort Studies , Hematopoiesis/genetics , Humans , Interferons/blood , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Myeloid Cells/pathology , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Systems Biology , Transcriptome , Virus Diseases/blood , Virus Diseases/classification , Virus Diseases/genetics , Viruses/classification , Viruses/pathogenicity
8.
Front Immunol ; 11: 607314, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389171

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality after viral infections, including influenza A virus H1N1, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. The angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key host membrane-bound protein that modulates ALI induced by viral infection, pulmonary acid aspiration, and sepsis. However, the contributions of ACE2 sequence variants to individual differences in disease risk and severity after viral infection are not understood. In this study, we quantified H1N1 influenza-infected lung transcriptomes across a family of 41 BXD recombinant inbred strains of mice and both parents-C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. In response to infection Ace2 mRNA levels decreased significantly for both parental strains and the expression levels was associated with disease severity (body weight loss) and viral load (expression levels of viral NA segment) across the BXD family members. Pulmonary RNA-seq for 43 lines was analyzed using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and Bayesian network approaches. Ace2 not only participated in virus-induced ALI by interacting with TNF, MAPK, and NOTCH signaling pathways, but was also linked with high confidence to gene products that have important functions in the pulmonary epithelium, including Rnf128, Muc5b, and Tmprss2. Comparable sets of transcripts were also highlighted in parallel studies of human SARS-CoV-infected primary human airway epithelial cells. Using conventional mapping methods, we determined that weight loss at two and three days after viral infection maps to chromosome X-the location of Ace2. This finding motivated the hierarchical Bayesian network analysis, which defined molecular endophenotypes of lung infection linked to Ace2 expression and to a key disease outcome. Core members of this Bayesian network include Ace2, Atf4, Csf2, Cxcl2, Lif, Maml3, Muc5b, Reg3g, Ripk3, and Traf3. Collectively, these findings define a causally-rooted Ace2 modulatory network relevant to host response to viral infection and identify potential therapeutic targets for virus-induced respiratory diseases, including those caused by influenza and coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Lung/virology , Virus Diseases/genetics , Animals , Bayes Theorem , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Inbred DBA , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , Signal Transduction/genetics
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 621440, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305640

ABSTRACT

The risk of severe outcomes following respiratory tract infections is significantly increased in individuals over 60 years, especially in those with chronic medical conditions, i.e., hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer. Down Syndrome (DS), the most prevalent intellectual disability, is caused by trisomy-21 in ~1:750 live births worldwide. Over the past few decades, a substantial body of evidence has accumulated, pointing at the occurrence of alterations, impairments, and subsequently dysfunction of the various components of the immune system in individuals with DS. This associates with increased vulnerability to respiratory tract infections in this population, such as the influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), and bacterial pneumonias. To emphasize this link, here we comprehensively review the immunobiology of DS and its contribution to higher susceptibility to severe illness and mortality from respiratory tract infections.


Subject(s)
Down Syndrome/immunology , Immune System/physiology , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/physiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Adult , Animals , COVID-19 , Down Syndrome/genetics , Down Syndrome/mortality , Humans , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Risk , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/mortality
10.
Virologie (Montrouge) ; 25(2): 63-92, 2021 04 01.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298417

ABSTRACT

Epigenetics play an important role in viral replication and in viral associated pathogenesis. In fact, viruses interact with epigenetic factors to promote the viral replication by stimulating the entry into the lytic cycle, but also by promoting viral latency. Furthermore, epigenetics control the immune response implemented by the host to counteract viral infections. Thus, epigenetic modifications are identified as potential therapeutic targets to control viral infections. Several studies have already shown the efficiency of inhibitors of histone deacetylases, demethylases, acetyltransferases and methyltransferases, as well as inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases in viral infections repression or in latency reactivation. In this review, we will examine the epigenetic regulation of viral infections by several DNA viruses, e.g. HSV, EBV, HCMV, KSHV, HBV, HPV and HAdV, and RNA viruses, e.g. HCV, HIV, IAV and CoV. Also, we will discuss the potential use of therapeutic approaches targeting epigenetics for the control of viral infections.


Subject(s)
Herpesvirus 8, Human , Virus Diseases , Epigenesis, Genetic , Humans , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Latency , Virus Replication/genetics
11.
J Biol Chem ; 297(1): 100856, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283409

ABSTRACT

The nuclear pore complex is the sole gateway connecting the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. In humans, the nuclear pore complex is one of the largest multiprotein assemblies in the cell, with a molecular mass of ∼110 MDa and consisting of 8 to 64 copies of about 34 different nuclear pore proteins, termed nucleoporins, for a total of 1000 subunits per pore. Trafficking events across the nuclear pore are mediated by nuclear transport receptors and are highly regulated. The nuclear pore complex is also used by several RNA viruses and almost all DNA viruses to access the host cell nucleoplasm for replication. Viruses hijack the nuclear pore complex, and nuclear transport receptors, to access the nucleoplasm where they replicate. In addition, the nuclear pore complex is used by the cell innate immune system, a network of signal transduction pathways that coordinates the first response to foreign invaders, including viruses and other pathogens. Several branches of this response depend on dynamic signaling events that involve the nuclear translocation of downstream signal transducers. Mounting evidence has shown that these signaling cascades, especially those steps that involve nucleocytoplasmic trafficking events, are targeted by viruses so that they can evade the innate immune system. This review summarizes how nuclear pore proteins and nuclear transport receptors contribute to the innate immune response and highlights how viruses manipulate this cellular machinery to favor infection. A comprehensive understanding of nuclear pore proteins in antiviral innate immunity will likely contribute to the development of new antiviral therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate/genetics , Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins/genetics , Nuclear Pore/genetics , Virus Diseases/genetics , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/genetics , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/immunology , DNA Viruses/genetics , DNA Viruses/pathogenicity , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Immune Evasion/immunology , NF-kappa B/genetics , Nuclear Pore/immunology , Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins/immunology , RNA Viruses/genetics , RNA Viruses/pathogenicity , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/immunology
12.
EBioMedicine ; 68: 103390, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) continues to challenge the limits of our knowledge and our healthcare system. Here we sought to define the host immune response, a.k.a, the "cytokine storm" that has been implicated in fatal COVID-19 using an AI-based approach. METHOD: Over 45,000 transcriptomic datasets of viral pandemics were analyzed to extract a 166-gene signature using ACE2 as a 'seed' gene; ACE2 was rationalized because it encodes the receptor that facilitates the entry of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) into host cells. An AI-based approach was used to explore the utility of the signature in navigating the uncharted territory of Covid-19, setting therapeutic goals, and finding therapeutic solutions. FINDINGS: The 166-gene signature was surprisingly conserved across all viral pandemics, including COVID-19, and a subset of 20-genes classified disease severity, inspiring the nomenclatures ViP and severe-ViP signatures, respectively. The ViP signatures pinpointed a paradoxical phenomenon wherein lung epithelial and myeloid cells mount an IL15 cytokine storm, and epithelial and NK cell senescence and apoptosis determine severity/fatality. Precise therapeutic goals could be formulated; these goals were met in high-dose SARS-CoV-2-challenged hamsters using either neutralizing antibodies that abrogate SARS-CoV-2•ACE2 engagement or a directly acting antiviral agent, EIDD-2801. IL15/IL15RA were elevated in the lungs of patients with fatal disease, and plasma levels of the cytokine prognosticated disease severity. INTERPRETATION: The ViP signatures provide a quantitative and qualitative framework for titrating the immune response in viral pandemics and may serve as a powerful unbiased tool to rapidly assess disease severity and vet candidate drugs. FUNDING: This work was supported by the National Institutes for Health (NIH) [grants CA151673 and GM138385 (to DS) and AI141630 (to P.G), DK107585-05S1 (SD) and AI155696 (to P.G, D.S and S.D), U19-AI142742 (to S. C, CCHI: Cooperative Centers for Human Immunology)]; Research Grants Program Office (RGPO) from the University of California Office of the President (UCOP) (R00RG2628 & R00RG2642 to P.G, D.S and S.D); the UC San Diego Sanford Stem Cell Clinical Center (to P.G, D.S and S.D); LJI Institutional Funds (to S.C); the VA San Diego Healthcare System Institutional funds (to L.C.A). GDK was supported through The American Association of Immunologists Intersect Fellowship Program for Computational Scientists and Immunologists. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: The host immune response in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Interleukin-15/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-15/genetics , Virus Diseases/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Artificial Intelligence , Autopsy , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Cricetinae , Cytidine/administration & dosage , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Cytidine/pharmacology , Databases, Genetic , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Regulatory Networks/drug effects , Genetic Markers/drug effects , Humans , Hydroxylamines/administration & dosage , Hydroxylamines/pharmacology , Interleukin-15/blood , Lung/immunology , Mesocricetus , Pandemics , Receptors, Interleukin-15/blood , Virus Diseases/immunology
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(22)2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242054

ABSTRACT

The modulation of the transcriptome is among the earliest responses to infection. However, defining the transcriptomic signatures of disease is challenging because logistic, technical, and cost factors limit the size and representativeness of samples in clinical studies. These limitations lead to a poor performance of signatures when applied to new datasets. Although the study focuses on infection, the central hypothesis of the work is the generalization of sets of signatures across diseases. We use a machine learning approach to identify common elements in datasets and then test empirically whether they are informative about a second dataset from a disease or process distinct from the original dataset. We identify sets of genes, which we name transfer signatures, that are predictive across diverse datasets and/or species (e.g., rhesus to humans). We demonstrate the usefulness of transfer signatures in two use cases: the progression of latent to active tuberculosis and the severity of COVID-19 and influenza A H1N1 infection. This indicates that transfer signatures can be deployed in settings that lack disease-specific biomarkers. The broad significance of our work lies in the concept that a small set of archetypal human immunophenotypes, captured by transfer signatures, can explain a larger set of responses to diverse diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Transcriptome/genetics , Databases, Genetic , Humans , Tuberculosis/genetics , Virus Diseases/genetics
14.
FEBS J ; 288(17): 5021-5041, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221577

ABSTRACT

Inborn errors of immunity (IEIs) are a group of genetically defined disorders leading to defective immunity. Some IEIs have been linked to mutations of immune receptors or signaling molecules, resulting in defective signaling of respective cascades essential for combating specific pathogens. However, it remains incompletely understood why in selected IEIs, such as X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 2 (XLP-2), hypo-immune response to specific pathogens results in persistent inflammation. Moreover, mechanisms underlying the generation of anticytokine autoantibodies are mostly unknown. Recently, IEIs have been associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with a small proportion of patients that contract severe COVID-19 displaying loss-of-function mutations in genes associated with type I interferons (IFNs). Moreover, approximately 10% of patients with severe COVID-19 possess anti-type I IFN-neutralizing autoantibodies. Apart from IEIs that impair immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), SARS-CoV-2 encodes several proteins that suppress early type I IFN production. One primary consequence of the lack of type I IFNs during early SARS-CoV-2 infection is the increased inflammation associated with COVID-19. In XLP-2, resolution of inflammation rescued experimental subjects from infection-induced mortality. Recent studies also indicate that targeting inflammation could alleviate COVID-19. In this review, we discuss infection-induced inflammation in IEIs, using XLP-2 and COVID-19 as examples. We suggest that resolving inflammation may represent an effective therapeutic approach to these diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Interferon Type I/genetics , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunity/genetics , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology
15.
EBioMedicine ; 67: 103352, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1205123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Precise differential diagnosis between acute viral and bacterial infections is important to enable appropriate therapy, avoid unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions and optimize the use of hospital resources. A systems view of host response to infections provides opportunities for discovering sensitive and robust molecular diagnostics. METHODS: We combine blood transcriptomes from six independent datasets (n = 756) with a knowledge-based human protein-protein interaction network, identifies subnetworks capturing host response to each infection class, and derives common response cores separately for viral and bacterial infections. We subject the subnetworks to a series of computational filters to identify a parsimonious gene panel and a standalone diagnostic score that can be applied to individual samples. We rigorously validate the panel and the diagnostic score in a wide range of publicly available datasets and in a newly developed Bangalore-Viral Bacterial (BL-VB) cohort. FINDING: We discover a 10-gene blood-based biomarker panel (Panel-VB) that demonstrates high predictive performance to distinguish viral from bacterial infections, with a weighted mean AUROC of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96-0.99) in eleven independent datasets (n = 898). We devise a new stand-alone patient-wise score (VB10) based on the panel, which shows high diagnostic accuracy with a weighted mean AUROC of 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.98) in 2996 patient samples from 56 public datasets from 19 different countries. Further, we evaluate VB10 in a newly generated South Indian (BL-VB, n = 56) cohort and find 97% accuracy in the confirmed cases of viral and bacterial infections. We find that VB10 is (a) capable of accurately identifying the infection class in culture-negative indeterminate cases, (b) reflects recovery status, and (c) is applicable across different age groups, covering a wide spectrum of acute bacterial and viral infections, including uncharacterized pathogens. We tested our VB10 score on publicly available COVID-19 data and find that our score detected viral infection in patient samples. INTERPRETATION: Our results point to the promise of VB10 as a diagnostic test for precise diagnosis of acute infections and monitoring recovery status. We expect that it will provide clinical decision support for antibiotic prescriptions and thereby aid in antibiotic stewardship efforts. FUNDING: Grand Challenges India, Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council (BIRAC), Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , Computational Biology/methods , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Adult , Bacterial Infections/blood , Bacterial Infections/genetics , Databases, Factual , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , Predictive Value of Tests , Protein Interaction Maps , Virus Diseases/blood , Virus Diseases/genetics
16.
Biomolecules ; 11(4)2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196027

ABSTRACT

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) cleave extracellular matrix proteins, growth factors, cytokines, and receptors to influence organ development, architecture, function, and the systemic and cell-specific responses to diseases and pharmacological drugs. Conversely, many diseases (such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, bacterial infections (tuberculosis), viral infections (COVID-19), and cancer), cholesterol-lowering drugs (such as statins), and tetracycline-class antibiotics (such as doxycycline) alter MMP activity through transcriptional, translational, and post-translational mechanisms. In this review, we summarize evidence that the aforementioned diseases and drugs exert significant epigenetic pressure on genes encoding MMPs, tissue inhibitors of MMPs, and factors that transcriptionally regulate the expression of MMPs. Our understanding of human pathologies associated with alterations in the proteolytic activity of MMPs must consider that these pathologies and their medicinal treatments may impose epigenetic pressure on the expression of MMP genes. Whether the epigenetic mechanisms affecting the activity of MMPs can be therapeutically targeted warrants further research.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Discovery , Epigenesis, Genetic/drug effects , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Matrix Metalloproteinases/genetics , Tetracyclines/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/genetics , Bone Diseases/drug therapy , Bone Diseases/genetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/genetics , Tetracyclines/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/genetics
17.
Cell Rep ; 34(11): 108872, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135279

ABSTRACT

Viruses need to hijack the translational machinery of the host cell for a productive infection to happen. However, given the dynamic landscape of tRNA pools among tissues, it is unclear whether different viruses infecting different tissues have adapted their codon usage toward their tropism. Here, we collect the coding sequences of 502 human-infecting viruses and determine that tropism explains changes in codon usage. Using the tRNA abundances across 23 human tissues from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we build an in silico model of translational efficiency that validates the correspondence of the viral codon usage with the translational machinery of their tropism. For instance, we detect that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is specifically adapted to the upper respiratory tract and alveoli. Furthermore, this correspondence is specifically defined in early viral proteins. The observed tissue-specific translational efficiency could be useful for the development of antiviral therapies and vaccines.


Subject(s)
Protein Biosynthesis/genetics , Virus Diseases/genetics , Viruses/genetics , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Codon Usage/genetics , Genes, Neoplasm/genetics , HCT116 Cells , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , RNA, Transfer/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Tropism/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Virus Diseases/virology
18.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res ; 1868(6): 118992, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103718

ABSTRACT

Receptor Tyrosine Kinases are critical regulators of signal transduction that support cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Dysregulation of normal Receptor Tyrosine Kinase function by mutation or other activity-altering event can be oncogenic or can impact the transformed malignant cell so it becomes particularly resistant to stress challenge, have increased proliferation, become evasive to immune surveillance, and may be more prone to metastasis of the tumor to other organ sites. The TAM family of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (TYRO3, AXL, MERTK) is emerging as important components of malignant cell survival in many cancers. The TAM kinases are important regulators of cellular homeostasis and proper cell differentiation in normal cells as receptors for their ligands GAS6 and Protein S. They also are critical to immune and inflammatory processes. In malignant cells, the TAM kinases can act as ligand independent co-receptors to mutant Receptor Tyrosine Kinases and in some cases (e.g. FLT3-ITD mutant) are required for their function. They also have a role in immune checkpoint surveillance. At the time of this review, the Covid-19 pandemic poses a global threat to world health. TAM kinases play an important role in host response to many viruses and it is suggested the TAM kinases may be important in aspects of Covid-19 biology. This review will cover the TAM kinases and their role in these processes.


Subject(s)
Cell Death , Immunity , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Mutation , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/metabolism , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/metabolism
19.
Brain Behav Immun ; 91: 731-739, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064859

ABSTRACT

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is a complex genetic system that encodes proteins which predominantly regulate immune/inflammatory processes. It can be involved in a variety of immuno-inflammatory disorders ranging from infections to autoimmunity and cancers. The HLA system is also suggested to be involved in neurodevelopment and neuroplasticity, especially through microglia regulation and synaptic pruning. Consequently, this highly polymorphic gene region has recently emerged as a major player in the etiology of several major psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder and bipolar disorder and with less evidence for major depressive disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We thus review here the role of HLA genes in particular subgroups of psychiatric disorders and foresee their potential implication in future research. In particular, given the prominent role that the HLA system plays in the regulation of viral infection, this review is particularly timely in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
HLA Antigens/genetics , Mental Disorders/genetics , Virus Diseases/psychology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Bipolar Disorder/genetics , COVID-19/psychology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , HLA Antigens/metabolism , Haplotypes/genetics , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Schizophrenia/genetics , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/immunology
20.
Free Radic Res ; 55(4): 364-374, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010202

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has so far affected more than 45 million people and has caused over 1 million deaths worldwide. Infection with SARS-CoV-2, the pathogenic agent, which is associated with an imbalanced redox status, causes hyperinflammation and a cytokine storm, leading to cell death. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient individuals may experience a hemolytic crisis after being exposed to oxidants or infection. Individuals with G6PD deficiency are more susceptible to coronavirus infection than individuals with normally functioning G6PD. An altered immune response to viral infections is found in individuals with G6PD deficiency. Evidence indicates that G6PD deficiency is a predisposing factor of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Disease Susceptibility , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase/genetics , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency/complications , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency/epidemiology , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency/genetics , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency/metabolism , Homeostasis/physiology , Humans , Oxidation-Reduction , Pandemics , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/metabolism
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