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1.
Viruses ; 12(8)2020 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453290

ABSTRACT

Enteric viral co-infections, infections involving more than one virus, have been reported for a diverse group of etiological agents, including rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus, and enteroviruses. These pathogens are causative agents for acute gastroenteritis and diarrheal disease in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals of all ages globally. Despite virus-virus co-infection events in the intestine being increasingly detected, little is known about their impact on disease outcomes or human health. Here, we review what is currently known about the clinical prevalence of virus-virus co-infections and how co-infections may influence vaccine responses. While experimental investigations into enteric virus co-infections have been limited, we highlight in vivo and in vitro models with exciting potential to investigate viral co-infections. Many features of virus-virus co-infection mechanisms in the intestine remain unclear, and further research will be critical.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/virology , Gastroenteritis/virology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/pathogenicity , Animals , Asymptomatic Infections , Disease Models, Animal , Feces/virology , Humans , Intestines/virology , Mice , Primates
2.
Acta Med Acad ; 49(2): 130-143, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414828

ABSTRACT

In this review, we discuss the latest developments in research pertaining to virus-induced asthma exacerbations and consider recent advances in treatment options. Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways that continues to impose a substantial clinical burden worldwide. Asthma exacerbations, characterised by an acute deterioration in respiratory symptoms and airflow obstruction, are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These episodes are most commonly triggered by respiratory virus infections. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of virus-induced exacerbations have been the focus of extensive biomedical research. Developing a robust understanding of the interplay between respiratory viruses and the host immune response will be critical for developing more efficacious, targeted therapies for exacerbations. CONCLUSION: There has been significant recent progress in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying virus-induced airway inflammation in asthma and these advances will underpin the development of future clinical therapies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Adenovirus Infections, Human/drug therapy , Adenovirus Infections, Human/immunology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/physiopathology , Administration, Inhalation , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Paramyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Paramyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/physiopathology , Picornaviridae Infections/drug therapy , Picornaviridae Infections/immunology , Picornaviridae Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology
3.
Crit Care Med ; 49(10): 1664-1673, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452743

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The rapid diagnosis of acute infections and sepsis remains a serious challenge. As a result of limitations in current diagnostics, guidelines recommend early antimicrobials for suspected sepsis patients to improve outcomes at a cost to antimicrobial stewardship. We aimed to develop and prospectively validate a new, 29-messenger RNA blood-based host-response classifier Inflammatix Bacterial Viral Non-Infected version 2 (IMX-BVN-2) to determine the likelihood of bacterial and viral infections. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Emergency Department, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. PATIENTS: Three hundred twelve adult patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected acute infections or sepsis with at least one vital sign change. INTERVENTIONS: None (observational study only). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Gene expression levels from extracted whole blood RNA was quantified on a NanoString nCounter SPRINT (NanoString Technologies, Seattle, WA). Two predicted probability scores for the presence of bacterial and viral infection were calculated using the IMX-BVN-2 neural network classifier, which was trained on an independent development set. The IMX-BVN-2 bacterial score showed an area under the receiver operating curve for adjudicated bacterial versus ruled out bacterial infection of 0.90 (95% CI, 0.85-0.95) compared with 0.89 (95% CI, 0.84-0.94) for procalcitonin with procalcitonin being used in the adjudication. The IMX-BVN-2 viral score area under the receiver operating curve for adjudicated versus ruled out viral infection was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.77-0.89). CONCLUSIONS: IMX-BVN-2 demonstrated accuracy for detecting both viral infections and bacterial infections. This shows the potential of host-response tests as a novel and practical approach for determining the causes of infections, which could improve patient outcomes while upholding antimicrobial stewardship.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Area Under Curve , Bacterial Infections/blood , Bacterial Infections/physiopathology , Berlin , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger/blood , ROC Curve , Virus Diseases/blood , Virus Diseases/physiopathology
4.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389305

ABSTRACT

Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system contributing substantially to health and disease. There is increasing evidence that inflammatory microglia may induce or accelerate brain aging, by interfering with physiological repair and remodeling processes. Many viral infections affect the brain and interfere with microglia functions, including human immune deficiency virus, flaviviruses, SARS-CoV-2, influenza, and human herpes viruses. Especially chronic viral infections causing low-grade neuroinflammation may contribute to brain aging. This review elucidates the potential role of various neurotropic viruses in microglia-driven neurocognitive deficiencies and possibly accelerated brain aging.


Subject(s)
Aging , Brain/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Microglia/virology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology , Animals , Brain/immunology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Microglia/immunology , Microglia/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology
5.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(12): 166244, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356140

ABSTRACT

The placenta provides a significant physical and physiological barrier to prevent fetal infection during pregnancy. Nevertheless, it is at times breached by pathogens and leads to vertical transmission of infection from mother to fetus. This review will focus specifically on the Zika flavivirus, the HIV retrovirus and the emerging SARS-CoV2 coronavirus, which have affected pregnant women and their offspring in recent epidemics. In particular, we will address how viral infections affect the immune response at the maternal-fetal interface and how the placental barrier is physically breached and discuss the consequences of infection on various aspects of placental function to support fetal growth and development. Improved understanding of how the placenta responds to viral infections will lay the foundation for developing therapeutics to these and emergent viruses, to minimise the harms of infection to the offspring.


Subject(s)
Placenta/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Fetus/virology , HIV Infections/metabolism , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Placenta/metabolism , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Zika Virus/pathogenicity , Zika Virus Infection/metabolism
6.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(11): 166231, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330650

ABSTRACT

Other than being a physiological process, pregnancy is a condition characterized by major adaptations of maternal endocrine and metabolic homeostasis that are necessary to accommodate the fetoplacental unit. Unfortunately, all these systemic, cellular, and molecular changes in maternal physiology also make the mother and the fetus more prone to adverse outcomes, including numerous alterations arising from viral infections. Common infections during pregnancy that have long been recognized as congenitally and perinatally transmissible to newborns include toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex viruses (originally coined as ToRCH infections). In addition, enterovirus, parvovirus B19, hepatitis virus, varicella-zoster virus, human immunodeficiency virus, Zika and Dengue virus, and, more recently, coronavirus infections including Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) infections (especially the novel SARS-CoV-2 responsible for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic), constitute relevant targets for current research on maternal-fetal interactions in viral infections during pregnancy. Appropriate maternal education from preconception to the early postnatal period is crucial to promote healthy pregnancies in general and to prevent and/or reduce the impact of viral infections in particular. Specifically, an adequate lifestyle based on proper nutrition plans and feeding interventions, whenever possible, might be crucial to reduce the risk of virus-related gestational diseases and accompanying complications in later life. Here we aim to provide an overview of the emerging literature addressing the impact of nutrition in the context of potentially harmful viral infections during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Nutritional Requirements , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
7.
Curr Opin Virol ; 49: 151-156, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271612

ABSTRACT

Intestinal microbiota have profound effects on viral infections locally and systemically. While they can directly influence enteric virus infections, there is also an increasing appreciation for the role of microbiota-derived metabolites in regulating virus infections. Because metabolites diffuse across the intestinal epithelium and enter circulation, they can influence host response to pathogens at extraintestinal sites. In this review, we summarize the effects of three types of microbiota-derived metabolites on virus infections. While short-chain fatty acids serve to regulate the extent of inflammation associated with viral infections, the flavonoid desaminotyrosine and bile acids generally regulate interferon responses. A common theme that emerges is that microbiota-derived metabolites can have proviral and antiviral effects depending on the virus in question. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which microbiota-derived metabolites impact viral infections and the highly conditional nature of these responses should pave the way to developing novel rational antivirals.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Virus Diseases/microbiology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology , Bile Acids and Salts/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Volatile/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Interferons/metabolism , Virus Diseases/immunology
8.
Adv Virus Res ; 109: 135-161, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193185

ABSTRACT

Proteases precisely and irreversibly catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds, regulating the fate, localization, and activity of many proteins. Consequently, proteolytic activity plays an important role in fundamental cellular processes such as differentiation and migration, immunological and inflammatory reactions, apoptosis and survival. During virus infection, host proteases are involved in several processes, from cell entry to initiation, progression and resolution of inflammation. On the other hand, many viruses encode their own highly specific proteases, responsible for the proteolytic processing of viral proteins, but, at the same time, to cleave host proteins to corrupt antiviral host responses and adjust protein activity to favor viral replication. Traditionally, protease substrate identification has been addressed by means of hypothesis-driven approaches, but recent advances in proteomics have made a toolkit available to uncover the extensive repertoire of host proteins cleaved during infection, either by viral or host proteases. Here, we review the currently available proteomics-based methods that can and have contributed to the systematic and unbiased identification of new protease substrates in the context of virus-host interactions. The role of specific proteases during the course of virus infections will also be highlighted.


Subject(s)
Host Microbial Interactions , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Proteomics/methods , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Diseases/physiopathology , Animals , Books , Humans , Mice , Proteolysis , Virus Replication
9.
Stroke ; 52(5): 1885-1894, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166635

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has raised concerns about the correlation with this viral illness and increased risk of stroke. Although it is too early in the pandemic to know the strength of the association between COVID-19 and stroke, it is an opportune time to review the relationship between acute viral illnesses and stroke. Here, we summarize pathophysiological principles and available literature to guide understanding of how viruses may contribute to ischemic stroke. After a review of inflammatory mechanisms, we summarize relevant pathophysiological principles of vasculopathy, hypercoagulability, and hemodynamic instability. We will end by discussing mechanisms by which several well-known viruses may cause stroke in an effort to inform our understanding of the relationship between COVID-19 and stroke.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Acute Disease , Blood Coagulation , Brain Ischemia/virology , Hemodynamics , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Pandemics , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/physiopathology , Risk , Thrombophilia/physiopathology , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Vascular Diseases/physiopathology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology
11.
Br J Nutr ; 125(6): 618-627, 2021 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139692

ABSTRACT

Se is a micronutrient essential for human health. Sub-optimal Se status is common, occurring in a significant proportion of the population across the world including parts of Europe and China. Human and animal studies have shown that Se status is a key determinant of the host response to viral infections. In this review, we address the question whether Se intake is a factor in determining the severity of response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Emphasis is placed on epidemiological and animal studies which suggest that Se affects host response to RNA viruses and on the molecular mechanisms by which Se and selenoproteins modulate the inter-linked redox homeostasis, stress response and inflammatory response. Together these studies indicate that Se status is an important factor in determining the host response to viral infections. Therefore, we conclude that Se status is likely to influence human response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and that Se status is one (of several) risk factors which may impact on the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection, particularly in populations where Se intake is sub-optimal or low. We suggest the use of appropriate markers to assess the Se status of COVID-19 patients and possible supplementation may be beneficial in limiting the severity of symptoms, especially in countries where Se status is regarded as sub-optimal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , RNA, Viral/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Selenium/pharmacology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Micronutrients/pharmacology , Nutritional Status , Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects , Stress, Physiological/drug effects , Virus Diseases/virology
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069828

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). While this respiratory virus only causes mild symptoms in younger healthy individuals, elderly people and those with cardiovascular diseases such as systemic hypertension are susceptible to developing severe conditions that can be fatal. SARS-CoV-2 infection is also associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial injury, acute coronary syndrome, and thromboembolism. Understanding the mechanisms of the effects of this virus on the cardiovascular system should thus help develop therapeutic strategies to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Since this virus causes severe and fatal conditions in older individuals with cardiovascular comorbidities, effective therapies targeting specific populations will likely contribute to ending this pandemic. In this review article, the effects of various viruses-including other coronaviruses, influenza, dengue, and human immunodeficiency virus-on the cardiovascular system are described to help provide molecular mechanisms of pathologies associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19. The goal is to provide mechanistic information from the biology of other viral infections in relation to cardiovascular pathologies for the purpose of developing improved vaccines and therapeutic agents effective in preventing and/or treating the acute and long-term consequences of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Virus Diseases/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Virus Diseases/physiopathology
13.
Brain Behav Immun ; 91: 756-770, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064862

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has emerged as a striking 21st century pandemic. Communities across the globe have experienced significant infection rates and widespread psychosocial stress and trauma, leading to calls for increased allocation of resources for mental health screening and treatment. In addition to the burden of psychosocial stress, there is increasing evidence of direct viral neuroinvasion of the central nervous system through physical contact with the nasal mucosa. In a parallel fashion, there is a significant body of ongoing research related to the risk of in utero viral transmission and the resulting neurodevelopmental impact in the fetus. Aberrant neurodevelopment secondary to viral transmission has previously been related to the later development of psychosis, schizophrenia, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, generating the hypothesis that this population of individuals exposed to SARS-CoV-2 may see an increased incidence in future decades. We discuss the current understanding of the possible neurotropism and vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and relate this to the history of viral pandemics to better understand the relationship of viral infection, aberrant immune response and neurodevelopment, and the risk for schizophrenia disorder.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/virology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , Psychotic Disorders/etiology , Psychotic Disorders/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(24)2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977753

ABSTRACT

The twenty-first century has witnessed some of the deadliest viral pandemics with far-reaching consequences. These include the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (1981), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (2002), Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A/H1N1) (2009), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) (2012) and Ebola virus (2013) and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) (2019-present). Age- and gender-based characterizations suggest that SARS-CoV-2 resembles SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV with regard tohigher fatality rates in males, and in the older population with comorbidities. The invasion-mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, involves binding of its spike protein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors; MERS-CoV utilizes dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), whereas H1N1 influenza is equipped with hemagglutinin protein. The viral infections-mediated immunomodulation, and progressive inflammatory state may affect the functions of several other organs. Although no effective commercial vaccine is available for any of the viruses, those against SARS-CoV-2 are being developed at an unprecedented speed. Until now, only Pfizer/BioNTech's vaccine has received temporary authorization from the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Given the frequent emergence of viral pandemics in the 21st century, proper understanding of their characteristics and modes of action are essential to address the immediate and long-term health consequences.


Subject(s)
Pandemics/history , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Ebolavirus , Female , HIV , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Male , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Public Health , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/physiopathology
15.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 18(3): 169-193, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-851285

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory cardiomyopathy, characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration into the myocardium and a high risk of deteriorating cardiac function, has a heterogeneous aetiology. Inflammatory cardiomyopathy is predominantly mediated by viral infection, but can also be induced by bacterial, protozoal or fungal infections as well as a wide variety of toxic substances and drugs and systemic immune-mediated diseases. Despite extensive research, inflammatory cardiomyopathy complicated by left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure or arrhythmia is associated with a poor prognosis. At present, the reason why some patients recover without residual myocardial injury whereas others develop dilated cardiomyopathy is unclear. The relative roles of the pathogen, host genomics and environmental factors in disease progression and healing are still under discussion, including which viruses are active inducers and which are only bystanders. As a consequence, treatment strategies are not well established. In this Review, we summarize and evaluate the available evidence on the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathy, with a special focus on virus-induced and virus-associated myocarditis. Furthermore, we identify knowledge gaps, appraise the available experimental models and propose future directions for the field. The current knowledge and open questions regarding the cardiovascular effects associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are also discussed. This Review is the result of scientific cooperation of members of the Heart Failure Association of the ESC, the Heart Failure Society of America and the Japanese Heart Failure Society.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathies/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Autoimmunity/immunology , Biopsy , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathies/immunology , Cardiomyopathies/therapy , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coxsackievirus Infections/immunology , Coxsackievirus Infections/physiopathology , Coxsackievirus Infections/therapy , Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Echovirus Infections/immunology , Echovirus Infections/physiopathology , Echovirus Infections/therapy , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/immunology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/physiopathology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/therapy , Erythema Infectiosum/immunology , Erythema Infectiosum/physiopathology , Erythema Infectiosum/therapy , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Hepatitis C/immunology , Hepatitis C/physiopathology , Hepatitis C/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/therapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Influenza, Human/therapy , Leukocytes/immunology , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/therapy , Myocardium/pathology , Prognosis , Roseolovirus Infections/immunology , Roseolovirus Infections/physiopathology
16.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833099

ABSTRACT

Virus infection has drawn extensive attention since it causes serious or even deadly diseases, consequently inducing a series of social and public health problems. Caveolin-1 is the most important structural protein of caveolae, a membrane invagination widely known for its role in endocytosis and subsequent cytoplasmic transportation. Caveolae/caveolin-1 is tightly associated with a wide range of biological processes, including cholesterol homeostasis, cell mechano-sensing, tumorigenesis, and signal transduction. Intriguingly, the versatile roles of caveolae/caveolin-1 in virus infections have increasingly been appreciated. Over the past few decades, more and more viruses have been identified to invade host cells via caveolae-mediated endocytosis, although other known pathways have been explored. The subsequent post-entry events, including trafficking, replication, assembly, and egress of a large number of viruses, are caveolae/caveolin-1-dependent. Deprivation of caveolae/caveolin-1 by drug application or gene editing leads to abnormalities in viral uptake, viral protein expression, or virion release, whereas the underlying mechanisms remain elusive and must be explored holistically to provide potential novel antiviral targets and strategies. This review recapitulates our current knowledge on how caveolae/caveolin-1 functions in every step of the viral infection cycle and various relevant signaling pathways, hoping to provide a new perspective for future viral cell biology research.


Subject(s)
Caveolae/virology , Caveolin 1/metabolism , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Animals , Caveolae/metabolism , Caveolin 1/genetics , Endocytosis , Humans , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/physiopathology , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/genetics
18.
Auris Nasus Larynx ; 47(4): 565-573, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591651

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: The newly emerged coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), is threatening the world. Olfactory or gustatory dysfunction is reported as one of the symptoms worldwide. As reported so far, different clinical features have been reported according to outbreak sites and gender; most of the patients, who complained of anosmia or hyposmia, were Europeans. We had a fast review for novel articles about COVID-19 infection and olfactory function. OBSERVATIONS: Rapid reviews for COVID-19 or other viral infection and olfactory and/or gustatory dysfunctions were done in this review. Up to date, a lot of reports have shown that olfactory dysfunction is related to viral infections but no exact mechanism, clinical course, and definite treatment have been discovered, which is also same in COVID-19. In general, intranasal steroid (INS) and oral steroid for short time help improve the recovery of the olfactory function in case of olfactory dysfunction after virus infection. Considering severe respiratory complications and immunocompromised state of COVID-19, the use of steroid should be limited and cautious because we do not have enough data to support the usage of steroid to treat olfactory dysfunction in the clinical course of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In the days of pandemic COVID-19, we should keep in mind that olfactory dysfunctions, even without other upper respiratory infection or otolaryngologic symptoms, might be the early signs of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Administration, Intranasal , Administration, Oral , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Nasal Lavage , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/physiopathology
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