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2.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010305

ABSTRACT

The pandemics caused by emerging viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 result in severe disruptions to public health. Vaccines and antibody drugs play essential roles in the control and prevention of emerging infectious diseases. However, in contrast with the neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), sub- or non-NAbs may facilitate the virus to enter the cells and enhance viral infection, which is termed antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). The ADE of most virus infections is mediated by the Fc receptors (FcRs) expressed on the myeloid cells, while others are developed by other mechanisms, such as complement receptor-mediated ADE. In this review, we comprehensively analyzed the characteristics of the viruses inducing FcRs-mediated ADE and the new molecular mechanisms of ADE involved in the virus entry, immune response, and transcription modulation, which will provide insights into viral pathogenicity and the development of safer vaccines and effective antibody drugs against the emerging viruses inducing ADE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement , Humans , Receptors, Fc , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
3.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(6): 913-926, 2022 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969576

ABSTRACT

Pakistan is endemic to a number of viral infections, owing to its humid climate, topographical variation, soaring population, and lack of education and awareness. These viruses may have several different modes of transmission, including respiratory or airborne transmission, sexual transmission, blood-borne, fecal-oral transmission, vector-borne transmission, and transmission following an organ transplant. Although several different microorganisms are responsible for causing these infections, a few viruses are found more commonly in Pakistan and are primarily responsible for causing infections. In this study, we present a review of the most recent studies on different viruses, transmitted through various transmission routes, found commonly in Pakistan, along with the prevalence of each, and recommend control measures required against these viruses.


Subject(s)
Virus Diseases , Viruses , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , Prevalence , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
4.
Phytother Res ; 35(11): 6148-6169, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935724

ABSTRACT

Uncontrolled inflammatory responses or cytokine storm associated with viral infections results in deleterious consequences such as vascular leakage, severe hemorrhage, shock, immune paralysis, multi-organ failure, and even death. With the emerging new viral infections and lack of effective prophylactic vaccines, evidence-based complementary strategies that limit viral infection-mediated hyperinflammatory responses could be a promising approach to limit host tissue injury. The present review emphasizes the potentials of antiinflammatory phytochemicals in limiting hyperinflammatory injury caused by viral infections. The predominant phytochemicals along with their mechanism in limiting hyperimmune and pro-inflammatory responses under viral infection have been reviewed comprehensively. How certain phytochemicals can be effective in limiting hyper-inflammatory response indirectly by favorably modulating gut microbiota and maintaining a functional intestinal barrier has also been presented. Finally, we have discussed improved systemic bioavailability of phytochemicals, efficient delivery strategies, and safety measures for effective antiinflammatory phytotherapies, in addition to emphasizing the requirement of tightly controlled clinical studies to establish the antiinflammatory efficacy of the phytochemicals. Collectively, the review provides a scooping overview on the potentials of bioactive phytochemicals to mitigate pro-inflammatory injury associated with viral infections.


Subject(s)
Phytochemicals , Virus Diseases , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Intestines , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
5.
Nat Rev Drug Discov ; 21(9): 676-696, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900495

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are appealing as potential therapeutics and prophylactics for viral infections owing to characteristics such as their high specificity and their ability to enhance immune responses. Furthermore, antibody engineering can be used to strengthen effector function and prolong mAb half-life, and advances in structural biology have enabled the selection and optimization of potent neutralizing mAbs through identification of vulnerable regions in viral proteins, which can also be relevant for vaccine design. The COVID-19 pandemic has stimulated extensive efforts to develop neutralizing mAbs against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with several mAbs now having received authorization for emergency use, providing not just an important component of strategies to combat COVID-19 but also a boost to efforts to harness mAbs in therapeutic and preventive settings for other infectious diseases. Here, we describe advances in antibody discovery and engineering that have led to the development of mAbs for use against infections caused by viruses including SARS-CoV-2, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Ebola virus (EBOV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and influenza. We also discuss the rationale for moving from empirical to structure-guided strategies in vaccine development, based on identifying optimal candidate antigens and vulnerable regions within them that can be targeted by antibodies to result in a strong protective immune response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
6.
Nature ; 603(7903): 784-786, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773942
8.
Science ; 375(6585): 1133-1139, 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736002

ABSTRACT

The vaccine and drug discovery responses to COVID-19 have worked far better than could have been imagined. Yet by the end of 2021, more than 5 million people had died, and the pandemic continues to evolve and rage globally. This Review will describe how each of the vaccines, antibody therapies, and antiviral drugs that have been approved to date were built on decades of investment in technology and basic science. We will caution that the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has so far proven a straightforward test of our pandemic preparedness, and we will recommend steps we should undertake now to prepare for, to minimize the effects of, and ideally to prevent future pandemics. Other Reviews in this series describe the interactions of SARS-CoV-2 with the immune system and those therapies that target the host response to infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Disease Progression , Drug Development , Drug Discovery , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vaccinology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
11.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 44(8): 587-598, 2021 Oct.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626213

ABSTRACT

Patients with certain immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), have an increased risk of severe infectious diseases than the general population, which are mainly associated with the immunosuppressive treatments that they receive. These treatments act on the immune system through different mechanisms, causing different degrees of immunosuppression and a variable risk depending on whether the pathogen is a virus, bacteria or fungus. This article reviews the most relevant literature on the subject, which was selected and discussed by a panel of experts. The aim of this article is to review the risk of infections in patients with IBD and RA, and the potential preventive measures.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Biological Therapy/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , COVID-19/etiology , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/prevention & control , Vaccination Coverage , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage
12.
Vopr Virusol ; 66(6): 399-408, 2022 01 08.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623042

ABSTRACT

Mucosal immunity is realized through a structural and functional system called mucose-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). MALT is subdivided into parts (clusters) depending on their anatomical location, but they all have a similar structure: mucus layer, epithelial tissue, lamina propria and lymphoid follicles. Plasma cells of MALT produce a unique type of immunoglobulins, IgA, which have the ability to polymerize. In mucosal immunization, the predominant form of IgA is a secretory dimer, sIgA, which is concentrated in large quantities in the mucosa. Mucosal IgA acts as a first line of defense and neutralizes viruses efficiently at the portal of entry, preventing infection of epithelial cells and generalization of infection. To date, several mucosal antiviral vaccines have been licensed, which include attenuated strains of the corresponding viruses: poliomyelitis, influenza, and rotavirus. Despite the tremendous success of these vaccines, in particular, in the eradication of poliomyelitis, significant disadvantages of using attenuated viral strains in their composition are the risk of reactogenicity and the possibility of reversion to a virulent strain during vaccination. Nevertheless, it is mucosal vaccination, which mimics a natural infection, is able to induce a fast and effective immune response and thus help prevent and possibly stop outbreaks of many viral infections. Currently, a number of intranasal vaccines based on a new vector approach are successfully undergoing clinical trials. In these vaccines, the safe viral vectors are used to deliver protectively significant immunogens of pathogenic viruses. The most tested vector for intranasal vaccines is adenovirus, and the most significant immunogen is SARSCoV-2 S protein. Mucosal vector vaccines against human respiratory syncytial virus and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 based on Sendai virus, which is able to replicate asymptomatically in cells of bronchial epithelium, are also being investigated.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Poliomyelitis , Viral Vaccines , Virus Diseases , Administration, Intranasal , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunoglobulin A , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
13.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613999

ABSTRACT

We acknowledge the publications for this Special Issue, "Basic Studies for Vaccine Development Targeting Virus Infections" [...].


Subject(s)
Virus Diseases/immunology , Animals , Humans , Orthomyxoviridae , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Transcriptome , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection
14.
Salud Colect ; 16: e2897, 2020 10 17.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608979

ABSTRACT

Taking into account the latent threat of future pandemics, the objective of this study is to analyze - particularly with respect to medications - the sustainability of the health system, healthcare coverage, budgetary efficiency, and connections with the pharmaceutical patent system. In this context, the pharmaceutical patent system acts as a determining factor, given that promoting its existence stimulates the production of research, but in turn its existence stands in the way of rapid advancements, primarily due to the development of protective legislation concerning patents, which has largely accommodated the industry. Given that the pharmaceutical industry has managed to extend the duration of patents and avoid the incorporation of generics, our analysis focuses on the influence of pharmaceutical patents; this influence has led to reflection on the possibility of combining efforts by forging alliances between numerous companies and the public sector in order to face the challenges posed by new diseases caused by viruses that give rise to epidemics and pandemics.


Ante la amenaza latente de futuras pandemias, este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar ­desde el eje de los medicamentos­ la sostenibilidad del sistema sanitario, la cobertura, la eficiencia del gasto y su vinculación al sistema de patentes farmacéuticas. En este marco, el sistema de patentes farmacéuticas adquiere un papel determinante, dado que fomentar su existencia estimula la producción de investigación pero, a su vez, su existencia no suscita un rápido avance, debido al desarrollo legislativo protector que han tenido las patentes y que ha dado lugar a un acomodamiento de la industria. Como la industria farmacéutica ha conseguido extender la duración de patentes y evitar la incorporación de genéricos, se analiza la influencia de las patentes farmacéuticas que ha dado lugar a reflexionar acerca de la posibilidad de consorciar esfuerzos realizando alianzas entre varias empresas y el sector público para afrontar los retos que plantean nuevas enfermedades producidas por virus que dan lugar a epidemias y pandemias.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Drug Costs , Drug Industry/organization & administration , Health Policy , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Patents as Topic , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/economics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drugs, Generic , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , Program Evaluation , Virus Diseases/economics , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
16.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program ; 2021(1): 587-591, 2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566498

ABSTRACT

Infections are a major cause of morbidity and can result in mortality in long-term survivors after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Chronic graft-versus-host disease and delayed immune reconstitution are recognized risk factors. Different strategies must be utilized depending on the individual patient's situation but include prolonged antimicrobial prophylaxis and vaccination. Some important infections due to pathogens preventable by vaccination are pneumococci, influenza, varicella-zoster virus, and SARS-CoV-2. Despite the fact that such recommendations have been in place for decades, implementation of these recommendations has been reported to be poor.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Mycoses/prevention & control , Vaccination , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Aged , Bacterial Infections/etiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Humans , Infections/etiology , Male , Mycoses/etiology , Transplantation, Homologous/adverse effects , Transplantation, Homologous/methods , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/etiology
17.
Bull Cancer ; 108(12S): S90-S97, 2021 Dec.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559003

ABSTRACT

Infections occurring after CAR T-cells are a common complication. At the acute phase of treatment following CAR T-cell infusion, the exact incidence of infections is unknown given the overlapping symptoms with cytokine release syndrome. The risk factors for infection include the malignant underlying disease and its multiple treatments, and an immunosuppressive state induced by CAR-T cells themselves and the treatment of their complications. During the twelfth edition of practice harmonization workshops of the Francophone society of bone marrow transplantation and cellular therapy (SFGM-TC), a working group focused its work on the management of post-CAR infectious complications. In this review we discuss anti-infection prophylaxis and vaccination of patients undergoing CAR T-cell therapy as well as a special chapter for the specific case of COVID-19. These recommendations apply to commercial CAR-T cells, in order to guide strategies for the management and prevention of infectious complications associated with this new therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Mycoses/prevention & control , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Bone Marrow Transplantation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cell Transplantation , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Immunization , Immunocompromised Host , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/adverse effects , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/therapy , Pneumocystis , Risk Factors
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 801: 149719, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545408

ABSTRACT

Fruits, vegetables, spices, and herbs are a potential source of phenolic acids and polyphenols. These compounds are known as natural by-products or secondary metabolites of plants, which are present in the daily diet and provide important benefits to the human body such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-allergic, antihypertensive and antiviral properties, among others. Plentiful evidence has been provided on the great potential of polyphenols against different viruses that cause widespread health problems. As a result, this review focuses on the potential antiviral properties of some polyphenols and their action mechanism against various types of viruses such as coronaviruses, influenza, herpes simplex, dengue fever, and rotavirus, among others. Also, it is important to highlight the relationship between antiviral and antioxidant activities that can contribute to the protection of cells and tissues of the human body. The wide variety of action mechanisms of antiviral agents, such as polyphenols, against viral infections could be applied as a treatment or prevention strategy; but at the same time, antiviral polyphenols could be used to produce natural antiviral drugs. A recent example of an antiviral polyphenol application deals with the use of hesperidin extracted from Citrus sinensis. The action mechanism of hesperidin relies on its binding to the key entry or spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Finally, the extraction, purification and recovery of polyphenols with potential antiviral activity, which are essential for virus replication and infection without side-effects, have been critically reviewed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Antioxidants , Antiviral Agents , Humans , Polyphenols , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
19.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542801

ABSTRACT

Nestled within the Rocky Mountain National Forest, 114 scientists and students gathered at Colorado State University's Mountain Campus for this year's 21st annual Rocky Mountain National Virology Association meeting. This 3-day retreat consisted of 31 talks and 30 poster presentations discussing advances in research pertaining to viral and prion diseases. The keynote address provided a timely discussion on zoonotic coronaviruses, lessons learned, and the path forward towards predicting, preparing, and preventing future viral disease outbreaks. Other invited speakers discussed advances in SARS-CoV-2 surveillance, molecular interactions involved in flavivirus genome assembly, evaluation of ethnomedicines for their efficacy against infectious diseases, multi-omic analyses to define risk factors associated with long COVID, the role that interferon lambda plays in control of viral pathogenesis, cell-fusion-dependent pathogenesis of varicella zoster virus, and advances in the development of a vaccine platform against prion diseases. On behalf of the Rocky Mountain Virology Association, this report summarizes select presentations.


Subject(s)
Virology , Animals , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prion Diseases/diagnosis , Prion Diseases/prevention & control , Prions/immunology , Prions/isolation & purification , Prions/pathogenicity , Vaccines , Virology/organization & administration , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/immunology , Viruses/isolation & purification , Viruses/pathogenicity
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12110, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517640

ABSTRACT

Wearing surgical masks or other similar face coverings can reduce the emission of expiratory particles produced via breathing, talking, coughing, or sneezing. Although it is well established that some fraction of the expiratory airflow leaks around the edges of the mask, it is unclear how these leakage airflows affect the overall efficiency with which masks block emission of expiratory aerosol particles. Here, we show experimentally that the aerosol particle concentrations in the leakage airflows around a surgical mask are reduced compared to no mask wearing, with the magnitude of reduction dependent on the direction of escape (out the top, the sides, or the bottom). Because the actual leakage flowrate in each direction is difficult to measure, we use a Monte Carlo approach to estimate flow-corrected particle emission rates for particles having diameters in the range 0.5-20 µm. in all orientations. From these, we derive a flow-weighted overall number-based particle removal efficiency for the mask. The overall mask efficiency, accounting both for air that passes through the mask and for leakage flows, is reduced compared to the through-mask filtration efficiency, from 93 to 70% for talking, but from only 94-90% for coughing. These results demonstrate that leakage flows due to imperfect sealing do decrease mask efficiencies for reducing emission of expiratory particles, but even with such leakage surgical masks provide substantial control.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cough , Exhalation , Filtration , Masks , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Equipment Failure , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monte Carlo Method , Particle Size , Probability , Respiration , Sneezing , Young Adult
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