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1.
Microb Biotechnol ; 16(7): 1397-1411, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313257

ABSTRACT

This Lilliput explores the current epidemiological and virological arguments for a zoonotic origin of the COVID-19 pandemic. While the role of bats, pangolins and racoon dogs as viral reservoirs has not yet been proven, a spill-over of a coronavirus infection from animals into humans at the Huanan food market in Wuhan has a much greater plausibility than alternative hypotheses such as a laboratory virus escape, deliberate genetic engineering or introduction by cold chain food products. This Lilliput highlights the dynamic nature of the animal-human interface for viral cross-infections from humans into feral white tail deer or farmed minks (reverse zoonosis). Surveillance of viral infections at the animal-human interface is an urgent task since live animal markets are not the only risks for future viral spill-overs. Climate change will induce animal migration which leads to viral exchanges between animal species that have not met in the past. Environmental change and deforestation will also increase contact between animals and humans. Developing an early warning system for emerging viral infections becomes thus a societal necessity not only for human but also for animal and environmental health (One Health concept). Microbiologists have developed tools ranging from virome analysis in key suspects such as viral reservoirs (bats, wild game animals, bushmeat) and in humans exposed to wild animals, to wastewater analysis to detect known and unknown viruses circulating in the human population and sentinel studies in animal-exposed patients with fever. Criteria need to be developed to assess the virulence and transmissibility of zoonotic viruses. An early virus warning system is costly and will need political lobbying. The accelerating number of viral infections with pandemic potential over the last decades should provide the public pressure to extend pandemic preparedness for the inclusion of early viral alert systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Deer , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Dogs , Humans , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/veterinary , Animals, Wild
2.
Annu Rev Anim Biosci ; 11: 33-55, 2023 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284296

ABSTRACT

Zoonoses are diseases and infections naturally transmitted between humans and vertebrate animals. Over the years, zoonoses have become increasingly significant threats to global health. They form the dominant group of diseases among the emerging infectious diseases (EID) and currently account for 73% of EID. Approximately 25% of zoonoses originate in domestic animals. The etiological agents of zoonoses include different pathogens, with viruses accounting for approximately 30% of all zoonotic infections. Zoonotic diseases can be transmitted directly or indirectly, by contact, via aerosols, through a vector, or vertically in utero. Zoonotic diseases are found in every continent except Antarctica. Numerous factors associated with the pathogen, human activities, and the environment play significant roles in the transmission and emergence of zoonotic diseases. Effective response and control of zoonotic diseases call for multiple-sector involvement and collaboration according to the One Health concept.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Virus Diseases , Animals , Humans , Animals, Domestic , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Zoonoses , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/veterinary , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/veterinary
3.
Viruses ; 14(12)2022 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2171911

ABSTRACT

Southeast Asia is considered a global hotspot of emerging zoonotic diseases. There, wildlife is commonly traded under poor sanitary conditions in open markets; these markets have been considered 'the perfect storm' for zoonotic disease transmission. We assessed the potential of wildlife trade in spreading viral diseases by quantifying the number of wild animals of four mammalian orders (Rodentia, Chiroptera, Carnivora and Primates) on sale in 14 Indonesian wildlife markets and identifying zoonotic viruses potentially hosted by these animals. We constructed a network analysis to visualize the animals that are traded alongside each other that may carry similar viruses. We recorded 6725 wild animals of at least 15 species on sale. Cities and markets with larger human population and number of stalls, respectively, offered more individuals for sale. Eight out of 15 animal taxa recorded are hosts of 17 zoonotic virus species, nine of which can infect more than one species as a host. The network analysis showed that long-tailed macaque has the greatest potential for spreading viral diseases, since it is simultaneously the most traded species, sold in 13/14 markets, and a potential host for nine viruses. It is traded alongside pig-tailed macaques in three markets, with which it shares six viruses in common (Cowpox, Dengue, Hepatitis E, Herpes B, Simian foamy, and Simian retrovirus type D). Short-nosed fruit bats and large flying foxes are potential hosts of Nipah virus and are also sold in large quantities in 10/14 markets. This study highlights the need for better surveillance and sanitary conditions to avoid the negative health impacts of unregulated wildlife markets.


Subject(s)
Carnivora , Chiroptera , Communicable Diseases , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Animals , Humans , Animals, Wild , Rodentia , Indonesia/epidemiology , Primates , Zoonoses , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/veterinary
4.
Vet Rec ; 190(11): 467-468, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2128323
5.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123863

ABSTRACT

From 2019 to 2021, a retrospective molecular study was conducted in the Campania region (southern Italy) to determine the prevalence of viral diseases in domestic cats. A total of 328 dead animals were analyzed by Real-Time PCR for the presence of feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline enteric coronavirus (FCoV), rotavirus (RVA), feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1), and feline calicivirus (FCV). The possible presence of SARS-CoV-2 was also investigated by Real-Time PCR. The cats included in this study were specifically sourced and referred by local veterinarians and local authorities to the Zooprofilactic Experimental Institute of Southern Italy (IZSM) for pathological evaluation. The samples consisted of owners, catteries, and stray cats. Results revealed: 73.5% positive cats for FPV (189/257), 23.6% for FeLV (21/89), 21.5% for FCoV (56/266), 11.4% for RVA (16/140), 9.05% for FeHV-1 (21/232), and 7.04 for FCV (15/213). In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 was never detected. FPV was more prevalent in winter (p = 0.0027). FCoV FHV-1, FCV, and RVA predominated in autumn, whereas FeLV predominated in summer. As expected, viral infections were found more frequently in outdoor and shelter cats than in indoor ones, although no statistical association was found between animal lifestyle and viral presence. The study showed a high prevalence of FPV, FeLV, and FCoV and a moderate prevalence of RVA, FHV-1, and FCV. Moreover, the prevalence of these pathogens varied among the cat populations investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Calicivirus, Feline , Coronavirus, Feline , Virus Diseases , Cats , Animals , Retrospective Studies , Prevalence , Antibodies, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Feline Panleukopenia Virus , Leukemia Virus, Feline , Coronavirus, Feline/genetics , Virus Diseases/veterinary
6.
Vet Res ; 53(1): 70, 2022 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064844

ABSTRACT

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most important diseases impacting the global cattle industry, resulting in significant economic loss. Commonly referred to as shipping fever, BRD is especially concerning for young calves during transport when they are most susceptible to developing disease. Despite years of extensive study, managing BRD remains challenging as its aetiology involves complex interactions between pathogens, environmental and host factors. While at the beginning of the twentieth century, scientists believed that BRD was only caused by bacterial infections ("bovine pasteurellosis"), we now know that viruses play a key role in BRD induction. Mixtures of pathogenic bacteria and viruses are frequently isolated from respiratory secretions of animals with respiratory illness. The increased diagnostic screening data has changed our understanding of pathogens contributing to BRD development. In this review, we aim to comprehensively examine experimental evidence from all existing studies performed to understand coinfections between respiratory pathogens in cattle. Despite the fact that pneumonia has not always been successfully reproduced by in vivo calf modelling, several studies attempted to investigate the clinical significance of interactions between different pathogens. The most studied model of pneumonia induction has been reproduced by a primary viral infection followed by a secondary bacterial superinfection, with strong evidence suggesting this could potentially be one of the most common scenarios during BRD onset. Different in vitro studies indicated that viral priming may increase bacterial adherence and colonization of the respiratory tract, suggesting a possible mechanism underpinning bronchopneumonia onset in cattle. In addition, a few in vivo studies on viral coinfections and bacterial coinfections demonstrated that a primary viral infection could also increase the pathogenicity of a secondary viral infection and, similarly, dual infections with two bacterial pathogens could increase the severity of BRD lesions. Therefore, different scenarios of pathogen dynamics could be hypothesized for BRD onset which are not limited to a primary viral infection followed by a secondary bacterial superinfection.


Subject(s)
Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex , Cattle Diseases , Coinfection , Pasteurella Infections , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Superinfection , Virus Diseases , Animals , Bacteria , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Coinfection/veterinary , Pasteurella Infections/veterinary , Respiratory System , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Superinfection/veterinary , Virus Diseases/veterinary
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(34): 46999-47023, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316142

ABSTRACT

In the last 40 years, novel viruses have evolved at a much faster pace than other pathogens. Viral diseases pose a significant threat to public health around the world. Bovines have a longstanding history of significant contributions to human nutrition, agricultural, industrial purposes, medical research, drug and vaccine development, and livelihood. The life cycle, genomic structures, viral proteins, and pathophysiology of bovine viruses studied in vitro paved the way for understanding the human counterparts. Calf model has been used for testing vaccines against RSV, papillomavirus vaccines and anti-HCV agents were principally developed after using the BPV and BVDV model, respectively. Some bovine viruses-based vaccines (BPIV-3 and bovine rotaviruses) were successfully developed, clinically tried, and commercially produced. Cows, immunized with HIV envelope glycoprotein, produced effective broadly neutralizing antibodies in their serum and colostrum against HIV. Here, we have summarized a few examples of human viral infections for which the use of bovines has contributed to the acquisition of new knowledge to improve human health against viral infections covering the convergence between some human and bovine viruses and using bovines as disease models. Additionally, the production of vaccines and drugs, bovine-based products were covered, and the precautions in dealing with bovines and bovine-based materials.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral , Virus Diseases , Animals , Cattle , Colostrum , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Virus Diseases/veterinary
8.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(4): e0140522, 2022 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909614

ABSTRACT

We previously found that a deletion in γ-coronavirus Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) accessory gene 5a is critical for decreased viral pathogenicity in chickens. Here, we systematically analyzed IBV virus infection: invasion, genome replication, subgenomic mRNA (sgmRNA) synthesis, protein synthesis, and virion release. The ability of the mutant IBV strain rYN-Δ5a to invade susceptible cells was not significantly different from that of parental rYN. However, compared with rYN, the level of sgmRNA synthesis and genome replication after cell entry by rYN-Δ5a was significantly lower in the early stage, resulting in a significantly lower level of nucleoprotein (N) synthesis and a consequent significantly lower number of offspring viruses released into the supernatant. The detected 5a protein was diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm and perinuclear area. We identified 16 differentially expressed host proteins, 8 of which were found to be host nuclear and cytoplasmic transport-related proteins. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed an interaction between hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged TNPO1, TNPO3, XPO1, XPOT, RanBP1, and EIF2B4 proteins and Flag-tagged 5a protein, and laser confocal microscopy confirmed 5a protein colocalization with these proteins, indicating that 5a protein can cause changes in the host protein localization. These host proteins promote the nuclear localization of N proteins, so we believe that 5a protein can hijack host nucleoplasmic transport-related proteins to help N enter the nucleus. This may involve regulating the cell cycle to promote the optimal intracellular conditions for virus assembly or by participating in the regulation of nucleolar function as a strategy to optimize virus replication. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses (CoVs) have a huge impact on humans and animals. It is important for the prevention and control of the viruses to assess the molecular mechanisms related to virulence attenuation. Here, we systematically analyzed a single cycle of virus infection by γ-CoV IBV lacking accessory protein 5a. We observed that a 5a deletion in the IBV genome affected virus replication and sgmRNA synthesis early in the virus life cycle, leading to decreases in protein synthesis, offspring virus assembly, and virion release in chicken embryonic kidney cells. IBV 5a protein was found to interact with multiple host nuclear and cytoplasmic transport- and translation-related proteins, which can also interact with IBV N and relocate it into the cell nucleus. These findings provide a comprehensive view regarding the importance of IBV accessory protein 5a and an important theoretical basis for studying the interaction between coronavirus and host cell proteins.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Virus Diseases , Animals , Chick Embryo , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Host Microbial Interactions , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Proteins/metabolism , Nucleotides/metabolism , Virus Diseases/veterinary , Virus Replication , beta Karyopherins/metabolism
9.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875810

ABSTRACT

Climate variability and anomalies are known drivers of the emergence and outbreaks of infectious diseases. In this study, we investigated the potential association between climate factors and anomalies, including El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and land surface temperature anomalies, as well as the emergence and spillover events of bat-borne viral diseases in humans and livestock in the Asia-Pacific region and the Arabian Peninsula. Our findings from time series analyses, logistic regression models, and structural equation modelling revealed that the spillover patterns of the Nipah virus in Bangladesh and the Hendra virus in Australia were differently impacted by climate variability and with different time lags. We also used event coincidence analysis to show that the emergence events of most bat-borne viral diseases in the Asia-Pacific region and the Arabian Peninsula were statistically associated with ENSO climate anomalies. Spillover patterns of the Nipah virus in Bangladesh and the Hendra virus in Australia were also significantly associated with these events, although the pattern and co-influence of other climate factors differed. Our results suggest that climate factors and anomalies may create opportunities for virus spillover from bats to livestock and humans. Ongoing climate change and the future intensification of El Niño events will therefore potentially increase the emergence and spillover of bat-borne viral diseases in the Asia-Pacific region and the Arabian Peninsula.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Hendra Virus , Nipah Virus , Virus Diseases , Animals , Asia/epidemiology , Humans , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/veterinary
10.
11.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 626-632, 2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414833

ABSTRACT

Viruses can be transmitted from animals to humans (and vice versa) and across animal species. As such, host-virus interactions and transmission have attracted considerable attention. Non-human primates (NHPs), our closest evolutionary relatives, are susceptible to human viruses and certain pathogens are known to circulate between humans and NHPs. Here, we generated global statistics on VI-NHPs based on a literature search and public data mining. In total, 140 NHP species from 12 families are reported to be infected by 186 DNA and RNA virus species, 68.8% of which are also found in humans, indicating high potential for crossing species boundaries. The top 10 NHP species with high centrality in the NHP-virus network include two great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus) and eight Old World monkeys (Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, M. leonina, Papio cynocephalus, Cercopithecus ascanius, C. erythrotis, Chlorocebus aethiops, and Allochrocebus lhoesti). Given the wide distribution of Old World monkeys and their frequent contact with humans, there is a high risk of virus circulation between humans and such species. Thus, we suggest recurring epidemiological surveillance of NHPs, specifically Old World monkeys that are in frequent contact with humans, and other effective measures to prevent potential circulation and transmission of viruses. Avoidance of false positives and sampling bias should also be a focus in future work.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Primates/virology , Public Health , Virus Diseases/veterinary , Viruses/classification , Animals , Animals, Wild , Global Health , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/virology
12.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389526

ABSTRACT

A challenging debate has arisen on the role of veterinary expertise in facing the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. It seems totally unreasonable that in most countries, veterinary diagnostic and tracing forces were not deployed at the start to perform strategic tasks, which could have mitigated the outcome of this dramatic health emergency. Erasing the invisible line between human and veterinary virology will empower the response to future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing , Pandemics/prevention & control , Veterinary Medicine , Viral Zoonoses , Virus Diseases , Animals , Humans , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/transmission , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/transmission , Virus Diseases/veterinary
13.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376993

ABSTRACT

Given the impact of pandemics due to viruses of bat origin, there is increasing interest in comparative investigation into the differences between bat and human immune responses. The practice of comparative biology can be enhanced by computational methods used for dynamic knowledge representation to visualize and interrogate the putative differences between the two systems. We present an agent based model that encompasses and bridges differences between bat and human responses to viral infection: the comparative biology immune agent based model, or CBIABM. The CBIABM examines differences in innate immune mechanisms between bats and humans, specifically regarding inflammasome activity and type 1 interferon dynamics, in terms of tolerance to viral infection. Simulation experiments with the CBIABM demonstrate the efficacy of bat-related features in conferring viral tolerance and also suggest a crucial role for endothelial inflammasome activity as a mechanism for bat systemic viral tolerance and affecting the severity of disease in human viral infections. We hope that this initial study will inspire additional comparative modeling projects to link, compare, and contrast immunological functions shared across different species, and in so doing, provide insight and aid in preparation for future viral pandemics of zoonotic origin.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/veterinary , Animals , Chiroptera/virology , Computer Simulation , Endothelium/physiology , Humans , Inflammasomes/immunology , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Stress, Physiological , Viral Zoonoses , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Virus Shedding
14.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(4): 2616-2621, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331776

ABSTRACT

Myxomatosis is an emergent disease in the Iberian hare, having been considered a rabbit disease for decades. Genome sequencing of the strains obtained from Iberian hares with myxomatosis showed these to be distinct from the classical ones that circulated in rabbits since the virus introduction in Europe, in 1952. The main genomic difference in this natural recombinant hare myxoma virus (ha-MYXV) is the presence of an additional 2.8 kb region disrupting the M009L gene and adding a set of genes homologous to the myxoma virus (MYXV) genes M060R, M061R, M064R, M065R and M066R originated in Poxviruses. After the emergence of this recombinant virus (ha-MYXV) in hares, in the summer of 2019, the ha-MYXV was not detected in rabbit surveys, suggesting an apparent species segregation with the MYXV classic strains persistently circulating in rabbits. Recently, a group of six unvaccinated European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus cuniculus) from a backyard rabbitry in South Portugal developed signs of myxomatosis (anorexia, dyspnoea, oedema of eyelids, head, ears, external genitals and anus, and skin myxomas in the base of the ears). Five of them died within 24-48 hr of symptom onset. Molecular analysis revealed that only the recombinant MYXV was present. This is the first documented report of a recombinant hare myxoma virus in farm rabbits associated with high mortality, which increases the concern for the future of both the Iberian hare and wild rabbits and questions the safety of the rabbit industry. This highlights the urgent need to evaluate the efficacy of available vaccines against this new MYXV.


Subject(s)
Myxoma virus , Myxoma , Virus Diseases , Agriculture , Animals , Farms , Myxoma/veterinary , Myxoma virus/genetics , Rabbits , Virus Diseases/veterinary
15.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1025055

ABSTRACT

Bats are often claimed to be a major source for future viral epidemics, as they are associated with several viruses with zoonotic potential. Here we describe the presence and biodiversity of bats associated with intensive pig farms devoted to the production of heavy pigs in northern Italy. Since chiropters or signs of their presence were not found within animal shelters in our study area, we suggest that fecal viruses with high environmental resistance have the highest likelihood for spillover through indirect transmission. In turn, we investigated the circulation of mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs), coronaviruses (CoVs) and astroviruses (AstVs) in pigs and bats sharing the same environment. Results of our preliminary study did not show any bat virus in pigs suggesting that spillover from these animals is rare. However, several AstVs, CoVs and MRVs circulated undetected in pigs. Among those, one MRV was a reassortant strain carrying viral genes likely acquired from bats. On the other hand, we found a swine AstV and a MRV strain carrying swine genes in bat guano, indicating that viral exchange at the bat-pig interface might occur more frequently from pigs to bats rather than the other way around. Considering the indoor farming system as the most common system in the European Union (EU), preventive measures should focus on biosecurity rather than displacement of bats, which are protected throughout the EU and provide critical ecosystem services for rural settings.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Swine , Animals , Biodiversity , Chiroptera/virology , DNA Viruses/classification , DNA Viruses/genetics , Ecosystem , Phylogeny , RNA Viruses/classification , RNA Viruses/genetics , Reassortant Viruses/genetics , Swine/virology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Swine Diseases/transmission , Swine Diseases/virology , Virus Diseases/veterinary
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008699, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932350

ABSTRACT

Surveillance of highly pathogenic viruses circulating in both human and animal populations is crucial to unveil endemic infections and potential zoonotic reservoirs. Monitoring the burden of disease by serological assay could be used as an early warning system for imminent outbreaks as an increased seroprevalance often precedes larger outbreaks. However, the multitude of highly pathogenic viruses necessitates the need to identify specific antibodies against several targets from both humans as well as from potential reservoir animals such as bats. In order to address this, we have developed a broadly reactive multiplex microsphere immunoassay (MMIA) for the detection of antibodies against several highly pathogenic viruses from both humans and animals. To this aim, nucleoproteins (NP) of Ebola virus (EBOV), Marburg virus (MARV) and nucleocapsid proteins (NP) of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus and Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus were employed in a 5-plex assay for IgG detection. After optimisation, specific binding to each respective NP was shown by testing sera from humans and non-human primates with known infection status. The usefulness of our assay for serosurveillance was shown by determining the immune response against the NP antigens in a panel of 129 human serum samples collected in Guinea between 2011 and 2012 in comparison to a panel of 88 sera from the German blood bank. We found good agreement between our MMIA and commercial or in-house reference methods by ELISA or IIFT with statistically significant higher binding to both EBOV NP and MARV NP coupled microspheres in the Guinea panel. Finally, the MMIA was successfully adapted to detect antibodies from bats that had been inoculated with EBOV- and MARV- virus-like particles, highlighting the versatility of this technique and potentially enabling the monitoring of wildlife as well as human populations with this assay. We were thus able to develop and validate a sensitive and broadly reactive high-throughput serological assay which could be used as a screening tool to detect antibodies against several highly pathogenic viruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Immunoassay/methods , Microspheres , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Virus Diseases/veterinary , Animals , Chiroptera , Humans , Primates , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/virology
17.
Microb Physiol ; 30(1-6): 2-8, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-783632

ABSTRACT

For decades it has been known that infectious agents including pathogenic protozoans, bacteria, and viruses, adapted to a particular animal host, can mutate to gain the ability to infect another host, and the mechanisms involved have been studied in great detail. Although an infectious agent in one animal can alter its host range with relative ease, no example of a plant virus changing its host organism to an animal has been documented. One prevalent pathway for the transmission of infectious agents between hosts involves ingestion of the flesh of one organism by another. In this article we document numerous examples of viral and prion diseases transmitted by eating animals. We suggest that the occurrence of cross-species viral epidemics can be substantially reduced by shifting to a more vegetarian diet and enforcing stricter laws that ban the slaughter and trade of wild and endangered species.


Subject(s)
Epidemics , Host Specificity , Plant Viruses , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/transmission , Virus Diseases/veterinary , Animals , Birds , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/veterinary , Coronavirus , Diet Therapy , Eating , Ebolavirus , HIV , Humans , Influenza in Birds , Marburgvirus , Orthomyxoviridae , Prion Diseases , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Zoonoses
18.
Poult Sci ; 99(2): 783-790, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-829267

ABSTRACT

In the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam, small-scale chicken farming is common. However, high levels of disease or mortality in such flocks impair economic development and challenge the livelihoods of many rural households. We investigated 61 diseased small-scale flocks (122 chickens) for evidence of infection with 5 bacteria, 4 viruses, and helminths. Serological profiles (ELISA) were also determined against 6 of these pathogens. The aims of this study were the following: (1) to investigate the prevalence of different pathogens and to compare the probability of detection of bacterial pathogens using PCR and culture; (2) to investigate the relationship between detection of organisms in birds' tissues and the observed morbidity and mortality, as well as their antibody profile; and (3) to characterize risk factors for infection with specific viral or bacterial pathogens. We used PCR to test for viral (viruses causing infectious bronchitis [IB], highly pathogenic avian influenza [HPAI], Newcastle disease, and infectious bursal disease [IBD]) and bacterial pathogens (Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Pasteurella multocida, Avibacterium paragallinarum, and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale [ORT]). The latter two were also investigated in respiratory tissues by conventional culture. Colisepticemic Escherichia coli was investigated by liver or spleen culture. In 49 of 61 (80.3%) flocks, at least one bacterial or viral pathogen was detected, and in 29 (47.5%) flocks, more than one pathogen was detected. A. paragallinarum was detected in 62.3% flocks, followed by M. gallisepticum (26.2%), viruses causing IBD (24.6%) and IB (21.3%), septicemic E. coli (14.8%), ORT (13.1%), and HPAI viruses (4.9%). Of all flocks, 67.2% flocks were colonized by helminths. Mortality was highest among flocks infected with HPAI (100%, interquartile range [IQR]: 81.6-100%) and lowest with flocks infected with ORT (5.3%, IQR: 1.1-9.0%). The results indicated slight agreement (kappa ≤ 0.167) between detection by PCR and culture for both A. paragallinarum and ORT, as well as between the presence of cestodes and ORT infection (kappa = 0.317). Control of A. paragallinarum, viruses causing HPAI, IBD, and IB, M. gallisepticum, and gastrointestinal helminths should be a priority in small-scale flocks.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/veterinary , Chickens , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/veterinary , Animals , Antibody Formation , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Morbidity , Mortality , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/parasitology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Poultry Diseases/microbiology , Poultry Diseases/parasitology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Vietnam/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/virology
19.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(1): 344-376, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-822794

ABSTRACT

During the past decade, livestock diseases have (re-)emerged in areas where they had been previously eradicated or never been recorded before. Drivers (i.e. factors of (re-)emergence) have been identified. Livestock diseases spread irrespective of borders, and therefore, reliable methods are required to help decision-makers to identify potential threats and try stopping their (re-)emergence. Ranking methods and multicriteria approaches are cost-effective tools for such purpose and were applied to prioritize a list of selected diseases (N = 29 including 6 zoonoses) based on the opinion of 62 experts in accordance with 50 drivers-related criteria. Diseases appearing in the upper ranking were porcine epidemic diarrhoea, foot-and-mouth disease, low pathogenic avian influenza, African horse sickness and highly pathogenic avian influenza. The tool proposed uses a multicriteria decision analysis approach to prioritize pathogens according to drivers and can be applied to other countries or diseases.


Subject(s)
Decision Making , Livestock/microbiology , Virus Diseases/veterinary , Animals , Belgium/epidemiology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Decision Support Techniques , Health Priorities , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/virology , Zoonoses
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