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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2452: 465-473, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844280

ABSTRACT

Inactivation methods allow for hazard group 3 (HG3) pathogens to be disposed of and used safely in downstream experiments and assays to be carried out at lower containment levels. Commonly used viral inactivation methods include heat inactivation, fixation methods, ultraviolet (UV) light and detergent inactivation. Here we describe known methods used to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 for safe downstream biological assays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Ultraviolet Rays , Vero Cells , Virus Inactivation
2.
Clin Lab ; 68(5)2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835714

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Highly infectious viruses such as SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, and Ebola virus represent a threat to clinical laboratory workers. We aimed to investigate how virus inactivation by heating at 60°C for 1 hour affects routine clinical laboratory indicators. METHODS: Each collected serum sample was separated into two aliquots, and various indicators were measured in first aliquot after inactivation by heating at 60°C for 1 hour and in the second after room-temperature incubation for 1 hour. RESULTS: Serological test results for 36 indicators remained mostly unaffected by heat inactivation, with a mean estimated bias of < 10%. By contrast, the results for alanine transaminase, pseudocholinesterase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, cardiac troponin I, and myoglobin were affected by heat inactivation, with the mean esti-mated bias here being > 20%, which was further increased in the case of the results for alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB. Immunological serological measurements showed good agreement according to Kappa consistency checks after heat inactivation of serum. The results for alanine transaminase, pseudocholinesterase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, cardiac troponin I, and myoglobin were significantly correlated (r > 0.95) after heat inactivation, and after correction by using a regression equation, the results for the indicators still retained a clinical reference value. CONCLUSIONS: Inactivation by heating at 60°C for 1 hour exerts no marked effect on numerous routine biochemical and immunological indicators in serum, but the detection values for certain items are significantly decreased. Our method could serve as reference strategy for routine serological diagnostics in patients with suspected or confirmed infection with highly pathogenic viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Inactivation , Alanine Transaminase , Butyrylcholinesterase , Creatine Kinase , Creatine Kinase, MB Form , Heating , Humans , Lactate Dehydrogenases , Myoglobin , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin I
3.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820404

ABSTRACT

Recent research using UV radiation with wavelengths in the 200-235 nm range, often referred to as far-UVC, suggests that the minimal health hazard associated with these wavelengths will allow direct use of far-UVC radiation within occupied indoor spaces to provide continuous disinfection. Earlier experimental studies estimated the susceptibility of airborne human coronavirus OC43 exposed to 222-nm radiation based on fitting an exponential dose-response curve to the data. The current study extends the results to a wider range of doses of 222 nm far-UVC radiation and uses a computational model coupling radiation transport and computational fluid dynamics to improve dosimetry estimates. The new results suggest that the inactivation of human coronavirus OC43 within our exposure system is better described using a bi-exponential dose-response relation, and the estimated susceptibility constant at low doses-the relevant parameter for realistic low dose rate exposures-was 12.4 ± 0.4 cm2/mJ, which described the behavior of 99.7% ± 0.05% of the virus population. This new estimate is more than double the earlier susceptibility constant estimates that were based on a single-exponential dose response. These new results offer further evidence as to the efficacy of far-UVC to inactivate airborne pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Disinfection/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultraviolet Rays , Virus Inactivation
4.
rev. cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 12(1): e1273, ene-2021.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1811610

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), una afección respiratoria aguda causada por el SARS-CoV2, ha sido clasificada como pandemia por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) una vez que se ha expandido a 215 países del mundo, ha infectado a más de 7.800.000 personas y cerca de 440.000 personas han muerto por su causa1. El SARS-CoV2 es un coronavirus tipo ß de características genómicas similares al MERS-CoV y al SARS-CoV1 los cuales afectaron a más de 10.000 personas en las últimas dos décadas2,3. Debido a la alta tasa de contagio y propagación del SARS-CoV2, diversas medidas de mitigación han sido empleadas. Entre las medidas adoptadas se encuentran la cuarentena, el distanciamiento físico, la limpieza de superficies y aerosoles, así como el uso de equipos de protección personal (EPP)2­6 Dado que no se dispone de vacuna y tratamientos suficientemente efectivos, evitar el contagio por contacto directo con superficies, aerosoles o suspensiones contaminadas con el SARS-CoV2 es la primera y más importante medida de contención contra la pandemia7. Esto obedece a que el SARS-CoV2 puede sobrevivir por 3 h en aerosoles, 4 h en superficies de cobre, un día en cartón, dos días en acero inoxidable y hasta 3 días en plástico8. Dada la alta demanda de los EPP, que provoca escasez y obliga a la reutilización de estos7,9, métodos eficaces de limpieza son cruciales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Virus Inactivation , Anti-Bacterial Agents
5.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0261802, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779734

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is transmitted mainly by droplet or aerosol infection; however, it may also be transmitted by contact infection. SARS-CoV-2 that adheres to environmental surfaces remains infectious for several days. We herein attempted to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus adhering to an environmental surface by dry fogging hypochlorous acid solution and hydrogen peroxide solution. SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus were air-dried on plastic plates and placed into a test chamber for inactivation by the dry fogging of these disinfectants. The results obtained showed that the dry fogging of hypochlorous acid solution and hydrogen peroxide solution inactivated SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus in CT value (the product of the disinfectant concentration and contact time)-dependent manners. SARS-CoV-2 was more resistant to the virucidal effects of aerosolized hypochlorous acid solution and hydrogen peroxide solution than influenza A virus; therefore, higher concentrations of disinfectants or longer contact times were required to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 than influenza A virus. The present results provide important information for the development of a strategy that inactivates SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus on environmental surfaces by spatial fogging.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Influenza A virus , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Hypochlorous Acid/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Inactivation
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5869, 2022 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778639

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 global pandemic has necessitated evaluating various disinfection technologies for reducing viral transmission in public settings. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can inactivate pathogens and viruses but more insight is needed into the performance of different UV wavelengths and their applications. We observed greater than a 3-log reduction of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity with a dose of 12.5 mJ/cm2 of 254 nm UV light when the viruses were suspended in PBS, while a dose of 25 mJ/cm2 was necessary to achieve a similar reduction when they were in an EMEM culture medium containing 2%(v/v) FBS, highlighting the critical effect of media in which the virus is suspended, given that SARS-CoV-2 is always aerosolized when airborne or deposited on a surface. It was found that SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility (a measure of the effectiveness of the UV light) in a buffer such as PBS was 4.4-fold greater than that in a cell culture medium. Furthermore, we discovered the attenuation of UVC disinfection by amino acids, vitamins, and niacinamide, highlighting the importance of determining UVC dosages under a condition close to aerosols that wrap the viruses. We developed a disinfection model to determine the effect of the environment on UVC effectiveness with three different wavelengths, 222 nm, 254 nm, and 265 nm. An inverse correlation between the liquid absorbance and the viral susceptibility was observed. We found that 222 nm light was most effective at reducing viral infectivity in low absorbing liquids such as PBS, whereas 265 nm light was most effective in high absorbing liquids such as cell culture medium. Viral susceptibility was further decreased in N95 masks with 222 nm light being the most effective. The safety of 222 nm was also studied. We detected changes to the mechanical properties of the stratum corneum of human skins when the 222 nm accumulative exposure exceeded 50 J/cm2.The findings highlight the need to evaluate each UV for a given application, as well as limiting the dose to the lowest dose necessary to avoid unnecessary exposure to the public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultraviolet Rays , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects
7.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726020

ABSTRACT

Clinical samples collected in coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), patients are commonly manipulated in biosafety level 2 laboratories for molecular diagnostic purposes. Here, we tested French norm NF-EN-14476+A2 derived from European standard EN-14885 to assess the risk of manipulating infectious viruses prior to RNA extraction. SARS-CoV-2 cell-culture supernatant and nasopharyngeal samples (virus-spiked samples and clinical samples collected in COVID-19 patients) were used to measure the reduction of infectivity after 10 minute contact with lysis buffer containing various detergents and chaotropic agents. A total of thirteen protocols were evaluated. Two commercially available formulations showed the ability to reduce infectivity by at least 6 log 10, whereas others proved less effective.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Chlorocebus aethiops , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling/methods , Vero Cells , Viral Load/methods
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2883, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707349

ABSTRACT

We report the development of a large scale process for heat inactivation of clinical COVID-19 samples prior to laboratory processing for detection of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-qPCR. With more than 266 million confirmed cases, over 5.26 million deaths already recorded at the time of writing, COVID-19 continues to spread in many parts of the world. Consequently, mass testing for SARS-CoV-2 will remain at the forefront of the COVID-19 response and prevention for the near future. Due to biosafety considerations the standard testing process requires a significant amount of manual handling of patient samples within calibrated microbiological safety cabinets. This makes the process expensive, effects operator ergonomics and restricts testing to higher containment level laboratories. We have successfully modified the process by using industrial catering ovens for bulk heat inactivation of oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal swab samples within their secondary containment packaging before processing in the lab to enable all subsequent activities to be performed in the open laboratory. As part of a validation process, we tested greater than 1200 clinical COVID-19 samples and showed less than 1 Cq loss in RT-qPCR test sensitivity. We also demonstrate the bulk heat inactivation protocol inactivates a murine surrogate of human SARS-CoV-2. Using bulk heat inactivation, the assay is no longer reliant on containment level 2 facilities and practices, which reduces cost, improves operator safety and ergonomics and makes the process scalable. In addition, heating as the sole method of virus inactivation is ideally suited to streamlined and more rapid workflows such as 'direct to PCR' assays that do not involve RNA extraction or chemical neutralisation methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Hot Temperature , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Specimen Handling/methods , Virus Inactivation , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Humans , Mice , Murine hepatitis virus/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 55(1): 166-169, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700704

ABSTRACT

This was a preliminary study on ultraviolet C (UVC) irradiation for SARS-CoV-2-contaminated hospital environments. Forty-eight locations were tested for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR (33.3% contamination rate). After series dosages of 222-nm UVC irradiation, samples from the surfaces were negative at 15 s irradiation at 2 cm length (fluence: 81 mJ/cm2).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Disinfection , Humans , Ultraviolet Rays , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1724, 2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699378

ABSTRACT

This study introduces localized surface plasmon resonance (L-SPR) mediated heating filter membrane (HFM) for inactivating universal viral particles by using the photothermal effect of plasmonic metal nanoparticles (NPs). Plasmonic metal NPs were coated onto filter membrane via a conventional spray-coating method. The surface temperature of the HFM could be controlled to approximately 40-60 °C at room temperature, owing to the photothermal effect of the gold (Au) NPs coated on them, under irradiation by visible light-emitting diodes. Due to the photothermal effect of the HFMs, the virus titer of H1Npdm09 was reduced by > 99.9%, the full inactivation time being < 10 min, confirming the 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) assay. Crystal violet staining showed that the infectious samples with photothermal inactivation lost their infectivity against Mardin-Darby Canine Kidney cells. Moreover, photothermal inactivation could also be applied to reduce the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, showing reduction rate of 99%. We used quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) techniques to confirm the existence of viral genes on the surface of the HFM. The results of the TCID50 assay, crystal violet staining method, and qRT-PCR showed that the effective and immediate reduction in viral infectivity possibly originated from the denaturation or deformation of membrane proteins and components. This study provides a new, simple, and effective method to inactivate viral infectivity, leading to its potential application in various fields of indoor air quality control and medical science.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Hot Temperature , Light , Metal Nanoparticles , Micropore Filters , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods , Virion , Virus Inactivation , Air Pollution, Indoor , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Dogs , Gold/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
11.
Virol J ; 19(1): 29, 2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690906

ABSTRACT

Ultraviolet (UV) light has previously been established as useful method of disinfection, with demonstrated efficacy to inactivate a broad range of microorganisms. The advent of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes provides advantages in ease of disinfection, in that there can be delivery of germicidal UV with the same light unit that delivers standard white light to illuminate a room. Herein we demonstrate the efficacy and feasibility of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes as a means of decontamination by inactivating two distinct virus models, human coronavirus 229E and human immunodeficiency virus. Importantly, the same dose of ultraviolet light that inactivated human viruses also elicited complete inactivation of ultraviolet-resistant bacterial spores (Bacillus pumilus), a gold standard for demonstrating ultraviolet-mediated disinfection. This work demonstrates that seconds of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LED) exposure can inactivate viruses and bacteria, highlighting that UV-LED could be a useful and practical tool for broad sanitization of public spaces.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human , Disinfection , HIV-1 , Ultraviolet Rays , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/radiation effects , Disinfection/methods , HIV-1/radiation effects , Humans
12.
Immunohorizons ; 6(2): 144-155, 2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690086

ABSTRACT

Due to the severity of COVID-19 disease, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization recommend that manipulation of active viral cultures of SARS-CoV-2 and respiratory secretions from COVID-19 patients be performed in biosafety level (BSL)3 laboratories. Therefore, it is imperative to develop viral inactivation procedures that permit samples to be transferred to lower containment levels (BSL2), while maintaining the fidelity of complex downstream assays to expedite the development of medical countermeasures. In this study, we demonstrate optimal conditions for complete viral inactivation following fixation of infected cells with commonly used reagents for flow cytometry, UVC inactivation in sera and respiratory secretions for protein and Ab detection, heat inactivation following cDNA amplification for droplet-based single-cell mRNA sequencing, and extraction with an organic solvent for metabolomic studies. Thus, we provide a suite of viral inactivation protocols for downstream contemporary assays that facilitate sample transfer to BSL2, providing a conceptual framework for rapid initiation of high-fidelity research as the COVID-19 pandemic continues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Specimen Handling/methods , Virus Inactivation , Hot Temperature , Humans , Metabolomics/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultraviolet Rays
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 428: 128251, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683301

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, by ozone using virus grown in cell culture media either dried on surfaces (plastic, glass, stainless steel, copper, and coupons of ambulance seat and floor) or suspended in liquid. Treatment in liquid reduced SARS-CoV-2 at a rate of 0.92 ± 0.11 log10-reduction per ozone CT dose(mg min/L); where CT is ozone concentration times exposure time. On surface, the synergistic effect of CT and relative humidity (RH) was key to virus inactivation; the rate varied from 0.01 to 0.27 log10-reduction per ozone CT value(g min/m3) as RH varied from 17% to 70%. Depletion of ozone by competitive reactions with the medium constituents, mass transfer limiting the penetration of ozone to the bulk of the medium, and occlusion of the virus in dried matrix were postulated as potential mechanisms that reduce ozone efficacy. RH70% was found plausible since it provided the highest disinfection rate while being below the critical RH that promotes mould growth in buildings. In conclusion, through careful choice of (CT, RH), gaseous ozone is effective against SARS-CoV-2 and our results are of significance to a growing field where ozone is applied to control the spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ozone , Cell Culture Techniques , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Inactivation
14.
J Virol Methods ; 301: 114465, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654878

ABSTRACT

Airborne transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is one of the leading mechanisms of spread, especially in confined environments. The study aims to assess the thermal inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 at high temperatures in the time scale of seconds. An electric heater with a coiled resistance wire is located perpendicularly to the airflow direction inside an air tunnel. The airflow rate through the tunnel was 0.6 m3/h (10 L/ min). SARS-CoV-2 were suspended in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) with 10 % fetal bovine serum (FBS), aerosolized by a nebulizer at a rate of 0.2 L/min and introduced to the airflow inside the heater with the use of a compressor and an aspirator. In the control experiment, with the heater off, SARS-CoV-2 passed through the system. In the virus inactivation test experiments, the heater's outlet air temperature was set to 150 ± 5 °C and 220 ± 5 °C, and the air traveling through the tunnel was exposed to heat for 1.44 s. An inline gelatine filter harvested SARS-CoV-2 that passed through the system. The viral titer obtained from the gelatine filter in the control experiment was about 5.5 log10 TCID50. The virus's loss in viability in test experiments at 150 °C and 220 °C were 99.900 % and 99.999 %, respectively. The results indicate that high-temperature thermal inactivation substantially reduces the concentration of SARS-CoV-2 in the air within seconds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Serologic Tests , Viral Load , Virus Inactivation
15.
J Hazard Mater ; 405: 124043, 2021 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635125

ABSTRACT

In this review, we present the environmental perspectives of the viruses and antiviral drugs related to SARS-CoV-2. The present review paper discusses occurrence, fate, transport, susceptibility, and inactivation mechanisms of viruses in the environment as well as environmental occurrence and fate of antiviral drugs, and prospects (prevalence and occurrence) of antiviral drug resistance (both antiviral drug resistant viruses and antiviral resistance in the human). During winter, the number of viral disease cases and environmental occurrence of antiviral drug surge due to various biotic and abiotic factors such as transmission pathways, human behaviour, susceptibility, and immunity as well as cold climatic conditions. Adsorption and persistence critically determine the fate and transport of viruses in the environment. Inactivation and disinfection of virus include UV, alcohol, and other chemical-base methods but the susceptibility of virus against these methods varies. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are major reserviors of antiviral drugs and their metabolites and transformation products. Ecotoxicity of antiviral drug residues against aquatic organisms have been reported, however more threatening is the development of antiviral resistance, both in humans and in wild animal reservoirs. In particular, emergence of antiviral drug-resistant viruses via exposure of wild animals to high loads of antiviral residues during the current pandemic needs further evaluation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , Environmental Microbiology , Environmental Pollutants , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Inactivation , Adsorption , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Aquatic Organisms/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , Ecotoxicology , Environmental Pollutants/chemistry , Environmental Pollutants/therapeutic use , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seasons , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , Water Purification
16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(4): 4892-4898, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633913

ABSTRACT

This paper presents results of a study of a new cationic oligomer that contains end groups and a chromophore affording inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by visible light irradiation in solution or as a solid coating on paper wipes and glass fiber filtration substrates. A key finding of this study is that the cationic oligomer with a central thiophene ring and imidazolium charged groups gives outstanding performance in both the killing of E. coli bacterial cells and inactivation of the virus at very short times. Our introduction of cationic N-methyl imidazolium groups enhances the light activation process for both E. coli and SARS-CoV-2 but dampens the killing of the bacteria and eliminates the inactivation of the virus in the dark. For the studies with this oligomer in solution at a concentration of 1 µg/mL and E. coli, we obtain 3 log killing of the bacteria with 10 min of irradiation with LuzChem cool white lights (mimicking indoor illumination). With the oligomer in solution at a concentration of 10 µg/mL, we observe 4 log inactivation (99.99%) in 5 min of irradiation and total inactivation after 10 min. The oligomer is quite active against E. coli on oligomer-coated paper wipes and glass fiber filter supports. The SARS-CoV-2 is also inactivated by oligomer-coated glass fiber filter papers. This study indicates that these oligomer-coated materials may be very useful as wipes and filtration materials.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cations/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/radiation effects , Humans , Light , Phototherapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ultraviolet Rays , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects
17.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614009

ABSTRACT

Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) employs a photosensitizer, light, and oxygen to create a local burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can inactivate microorganisms. The botanical extract PhytoQuinTM is a powerful photosensitizer with antimicrobial properties. We previously demonstrated that photoactivated PhytoQuin also has antiviral properties against herpes simplex viruses and adenoviruses in a dose-dependent manner across a broad range of sub-cytotoxic concentrations. Here, we report that human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are also susceptible to photodynamic inactivation. Photoactivated-PhytoQuin inhibited the replication of the alphacoronavirus HCoV-229E and the betacoronavirus HCoV-OC43 in cultured cells across a range of sub-cytotoxic doses. This antiviral effect was light-dependent, as we observed minimal antiviral effect of PhytoQuin in the absence of photoactivation. Using RNase protection assays, we observed that PDI disrupted HCoV particle integrity allowing for the digestion of viral RNA by exogenous ribonucleases. Using lentiviruses pseudotyped with the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein, we once again observed a strong, light-dependent antiviral effect of PhytoQuin, which prevented S-mediated entry into human cells. We also observed that PhytoQuin PDI altered S protein electrophoretic mobility. The PhytoQuin constituent emodin displayed equivalent light-dependent antiviral activity to PhytoQuin in matched-dose experiments, indicating that it plays a central role in PhytoQuin PDI against CoVs. Together, these findings demonstrate that HCoV lipid envelopes and proteins are damaged by PhytoQuin PDI and expands the list of susceptible viruses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Photosensitizing Agents/pharmacology , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/radiation effects , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cricetinae , Emodin/pharmacology , Emodin/radiation effects , Humans , Light , Photosensitizing Agents/radiation effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/radiation effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/drug effects , Virion/drug effects
18.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(3): e0109121, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591660

ABSTRACT

Chemical methods of virus inactivation are used routinely to prevent viral transmission in both a personal hygiene capacity but also in at-risk environments like hospitals. Several virucidal products exist, including hand soaps, gels, and surface disinfectants. Resin acids, which can be derived from tall oil, produced from trees, have been shown to exhibit antibacterial activity. However, whether these products or their derivatives have virucidal activity is unknown. Here, we assessed the capacity of rosin soap to inactivate a panel of pathogenic mammalian viruses in vitro. We show that rosin soap can inactivate human enveloped viruses: influenza A virus (IAV), respiratory syncytial virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). For IAV, rosin soap could provide a 100,000-fold reduction in infectivity. However, rosin soap failed to affect the nonenveloped encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). The inhibitory effect of rosin soap against IAV infectivity was dependent on its concentration but not on the incubation time or temperature. In all, we demonstrate a novel chemical inactivation method against enveloped viruses, which could be of use for preventing virus infections in certain settings. IMPORTANCE Viruses remain a significant cause of human disease and death, most notably illustrated through the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Control of virus infection continues to pose a significant global health challenge to the human population. Viruses can spread through multiple routes, including via environmental and surface contamination, where viruses can remain infectious for days. Methods for inactivating viruses on such surfaces may help mitigate infection. Here, we present evidence identifying a novel virucidal product, rosin soap, which is produced from tall oil from coniferous trees. Rosin soap was able to rapidly and potently inactivate influenza virus and other enveloped viruses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Resins, Plant/pharmacology , Soaps/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Influenza A virus/growth & development , Plant Oils/analysis , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Resins, Plant/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Soaps/analysis , Virus Inactivation/drug effects
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24318, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585786

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic presents a unique challenge to the healthcare community due to the high infectivity rate and need for effective personal protective equipment. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have shown promising antimicrobial properties and are recognized as a safe additive in many food and cosmetic products. This work presents a novel nanocomposite synthesis approach, which allows zinc oxide nanoparticles to be grown within textile and face mask materials, including melt-blown polypropylene and nylon-cotton. The resulting nanocomposite achieves greater than 3 log10 reduction (≥ 99.9%) in coronavirus titer within a contact time of 10 min, by disintegrating the viral envelope. The new nanocomposite textile retains activity even after 100 laundry cycles and has been dermatologist tested as non-irritant and hypoallergenic. Various face mask designs were tested to improve filtration efficiency and breathability while offering antiviral protection, with Claros' design reporting higher filtration efficiency than surgical masks (> 50%) for particles ranged 200 nm to 5 µm in size.


Subject(s)
Masks/virology , Nanocomposites/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Filtration/methods , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Nylons/chemistry , Polypropylenes/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Textiles/analysis , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
20.
Water Res ; 210: 117995, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577771

ABSTRACT

Sewage sludge, as a reservoir of viruses, may pose threats to human health. Understanding how virus particles interact with sludge is the key to controlling virus exposure and transmission. In this study, we investigated the recovery, survivability, and sorption of four typical virus surrogates with different structures (Phi6, MS2, T4, and Phix174) in sewage sludge. The most effective elution method varies by viral analyte, while the ultrafiltration method could significantly reduce the recovery loss for all four viruses. Compared with nonenveloped viruses, the poor recoveries of Phi6 during elution (<15%) limited its efficient detection. The inactivation kinetics of four viruses in solid-containing sludge were significantly faster than those in solid-removed samples at 25 °C, indicating that the solid fraction of sludge played an important role in virus inactivation. Although enveloped Phi6 was more vulnerable in both solid-removed and solid-containing sludge samples, it could remain viable for several hours at 25 °C and several days at 4 °C, which may pose an infection risk during sludge collection, transportation, and treatment process. The adsorption and desorption behavior of viruses in sludge could be affected by virus envelope structure, capsid proteins, and virus particle size. Phi6 adsorption to sludge was great with log KF of 6.51 ± 0.53, followed by Phix174, MS2, and T4. Additionally, more than 95% of Phi6, MS2, and T4 adsorbed to sludge were strongly bound, and a considerable fraction of strongly-bound virus was confirmed to retain viability. These results shed light on the environmental behavior of viruses in sewage sludge and provide a theoretical basis for the risk assessment for sludge treatment and disposal.


Subject(s)
Sewage , Viruses , DNA Viruses , Humans , Ultrafiltration , Virus Inactivation
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