Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 47
Filter
1.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726020

ABSTRACT

Clinical samples collected in coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), patients are commonly manipulated in biosafety level 2 laboratories for molecular diagnostic purposes. Here, we tested French norm NF-EN-14476+A2 derived from European standard EN-14885 to assess the risk of manipulating infectious viruses prior to RNA extraction. SARS-CoV-2 cell-culture supernatant and nasopharyngeal samples (virus-spiked samples and clinical samples collected in COVID-19 patients) were used to measure the reduction of infectivity after 10 minute contact with lysis buffer containing various detergents and chaotropic agents. A total of thirteen protocols were evaluated. Two commercially available formulations showed the ability to reduce infectivity by at least 6 log 10, whereas others proved less effective.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Chlorocebus aethiops , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling/methods , Vero Cells , Viral Load/methods
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 405: 124043, 2021 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635125

ABSTRACT

In this review, we present the environmental perspectives of the viruses and antiviral drugs related to SARS-CoV-2. The present review paper discusses occurrence, fate, transport, susceptibility, and inactivation mechanisms of viruses in the environment as well as environmental occurrence and fate of antiviral drugs, and prospects (prevalence and occurrence) of antiviral drug resistance (both antiviral drug resistant viruses and antiviral resistance in the human). During winter, the number of viral disease cases and environmental occurrence of antiviral drug surge due to various biotic and abiotic factors such as transmission pathways, human behaviour, susceptibility, and immunity as well as cold climatic conditions. Adsorption and persistence critically determine the fate and transport of viruses in the environment. Inactivation and disinfection of virus include UV, alcohol, and other chemical-base methods but the susceptibility of virus against these methods varies. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are major reserviors of antiviral drugs and their metabolites and transformation products. Ecotoxicity of antiviral drug residues against aquatic organisms have been reported, however more threatening is the development of antiviral resistance, both in humans and in wild animal reservoirs. In particular, emergence of antiviral drug-resistant viruses via exposure of wild animals to high loads of antiviral residues during the current pandemic needs further evaluation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , Environmental Microbiology , Environmental Pollutants , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Inactivation , Adsorption , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Aquatic Organisms/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , Ecotoxicology , Environmental Pollutants/chemistry , Environmental Pollutants/therapeutic use , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seasons , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , Water Purification
3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(4): 4892-4898, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633913

ABSTRACT

This paper presents results of a study of a new cationic oligomer that contains end groups and a chromophore affording inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by visible light irradiation in solution or as a solid coating on paper wipes and glass fiber filtration substrates. A key finding of this study is that the cationic oligomer with a central thiophene ring and imidazolium charged groups gives outstanding performance in both the killing of E. coli bacterial cells and inactivation of the virus at very short times. Our introduction of cationic N-methyl imidazolium groups enhances the light activation process for both E. coli and SARS-CoV-2 but dampens the killing of the bacteria and eliminates the inactivation of the virus in the dark. For the studies with this oligomer in solution at a concentration of 1 µg/mL and E. coli, we obtain 3 log killing of the bacteria with 10 min of irradiation with LuzChem cool white lights (mimicking indoor illumination). With the oligomer in solution at a concentration of 10 µg/mL, we observe 4 log inactivation (99.99%) in 5 min of irradiation and total inactivation after 10 min. The oligomer is quite active against E. coli on oligomer-coated paper wipes and glass fiber filter supports. The SARS-CoV-2 is also inactivated by oligomer-coated glass fiber filter papers. This study indicates that these oligomer-coated materials may be very useful as wipes and filtration materials.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cations/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/radiation effects , Humans , Light , Phototherapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ultraviolet Rays , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects
4.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614009

ABSTRACT

Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) employs a photosensitizer, light, and oxygen to create a local burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can inactivate microorganisms. The botanical extract PhytoQuinTM is a powerful photosensitizer with antimicrobial properties. We previously demonstrated that photoactivated PhytoQuin also has antiviral properties against herpes simplex viruses and adenoviruses in a dose-dependent manner across a broad range of sub-cytotoxic concentrations. Here, we report that human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are also susceptible to photodynamic inactivation. Photoactivated-PhytoQuin inhibited the replication of the alphacoronavirus HCoV-229E and the betacoronavirus HCoV-OC43 in cultured cells across a range of sub-cytotoxic doses. This antiviral effect was light-dependent, as we observed minimal antiviral effect of PhytoQuin in the absence of photoactivation. Using RNase protection assays, we observed that PDI disrupted HCoV particle integrity allowing for the digestion of viral RNA by exogenous ribonucleases. Using lentiviruses pseudotyped with the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein, we once again observed a strong, light-dependent antiviral effect of PhytoQuin, which prevented S-mediated entry into human cells. We also observed that PhytoQuin PDI altered S protein electrophoretic mobility. The PhytoQuin constituent emodin displayed equivalent light-dependent antiviral activity to PhytoQuin in matched-dose experiments, indicating that it plays a central role in PhytoQuin PDI against CoVs. Together, these findings demonstrate that HCoV lipid envelopes and proteins are damaged by PhytoQuin PDI and expands the list of susceptible viruses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Photosensitizing Agents/pharmacology , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/radiation effects , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cricetinae , Emodin/pharmacology , Emodin/radiation effects , Humans , Light , Photosensitizing Agents/radiation effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/radiation effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/drug effects , Virion/drug effects
5.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(3): e0109121, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591660

ABSTRACT

Chemical methods of virus inactivation are used routinely to prevent viral transmission in both a personal hygiene capacity but also in at-risk environments like hospitals. Several virucidal products exist, including hand soaps, gels, and surface disinfectants. Resin acids, which can be derived from tall oil, produced from trees, have been shown to exhibit antibacterial activity. However, whether these products or their derivatives have virucidal activity is unknown. Here, we assessed the capacity of rosin soap to inactivate a panel of pathogenic mammalian viruses in vitro. We show that rosin soap can inactivate human enveloped viruses: influenza A virus (IAV), respiratory syncytial virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). For IAV, rosin soap could provide a 100,000-fold reduction in infectivity. However, rosin soap failed to affect the nonenveloped encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). The inhibitory effect of rosin soap against IAV infectivity was dependent on its concentration but not on the incubation time or temperature. In all, we demonstrate a novel chemical inactivation method against enveloped viruses, which could be of use for preventing virus infections in certain settings. IMPORTANCE Viruses remain a significant cause of human disease and death, most notably illustrated through the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Control of virus infection continues to pose a significant global health challenge to the human population. Viruses can spread through multiple routes, including via environmental and surface contamination, where viruses can remain infectious for days. Methods for inactivating viruses on such surfaces may help mitigate infection. Here, we present evidence identifying a novel virucidal product, rosin soap, which is produced from tall oil from coniferous trees. Rosin soap was able to rapidly and potently inactivate influenza virus and other enveloped viruses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Resins, Plant/pharmacology , Soaps/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Influenza A virus/growth & development , Plant Oils/analysis , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Resins, Plant/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Soaps/analysis , Virus Inactivation/drug effects
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24318, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585786

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic presents a unique challenge to the healthcare community due to the high infectivity rate and need for effective personal protective equipment. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have shown promising antimicrobial properties and are recognized as a safe additive in many food and cosmetic products. This work presents a novel nanocomposite synthesis approach, which allows zinc oxide nanoparticles to be grown within textile and face mask materials, including melt-blown polypropylene and nylon-cotton. The resulting nanocomposite achieves greater than 3 log10 reduction (≥ 99.9%) in coronavirus titer within a contact time of 10 min, by disintegrating the viral envelope. The new nanocomposite textile retains activity even after 100 laundry cycles and has been dermatologist tested as non-irritant and hypoallergenic. Various face mask designs were tested to improve filtration efficiency and breathability while offering antiviral protection, with Claros' design reporting higher filtration efficiency than surgical masks (> 50%) for particles ranged 200 nm to 5 µm in size.


Subject(s)
Masks/virology , Nanocomposites/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Filtration/methods , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Nylons/chemistry , Polypropylenes/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Textiles/analysis , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23379, 2021 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550346

ABSTRACT

A pathogen inactivation step during collection or processing of clinical samples has the potential to reduce infectious risks associated with diagnostic procedures. It is essential that these inactivation methods are demonstrated to be effective, particularly for non-traditional inactivation reagents or for commercial products where the chemical composition is undisclosed. This study assessed inactivation effectiveness of twenty-four next-generation (guanidine-free) nucleic acid extraction lysis buffers and twelve rapid antigen test buffers against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. These data have significant safety implications for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic testing and support the design and evidence-based risk assessment of these procedures.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Acetamides , Buffers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Fluoroacetates , Guanidine/adverse effects , Humans , Virus Inactivation/drug effects
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(23)2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542582

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic and associated supply-chain disruptions emphasise the requirement for antimicrobial materials for on-demand manufacturing. Besides aerosol transmission, SARS-CoV-2 is also propagated through contact with virus-contaminated surfaces. As such, the development of effective biofunctional materials that can inactivate SARS-CoV-2 is critical for pandemic preparedness. Such materials will enable the rational development of antiviral devices with prolonged serviceability, reducing the environmental burden of disposable alternatives. This research reveals the novel use of Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) to 3D print porous Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) superalloy with potent antiviral activity (100% viral inactivation in 30 min). The porous material was rationally conceived using a multi-objective surrogate model featuring track thickness (tt) and pore diameter (ϕd) as responses. The regression analysis found the most significant parameters for Co-Cr-Mo track formation to be the interaction effects of scanning rate (Vs) and laser power (Pl) in the order PlVs>Vs>Pl. Contrastively, the pore diameter was found to be primarily driven by the hatch spacing (Sh). The study is the first to demonstrate the superior antiviral properties of 3D printed Co-Cr-Mo superalloy against an enveloped virus used as biosafe viral model of SARS-CoV-2. The material significantly outperforms the viral inactivation time of other broadly used antiviral metals such as copper and silver, as the material's viral inactivation time was from 5 h to 30 min. As such, the study goes beyond the current state-of-the-art in antiviral alloys to provide extra protection to combat the SARS-CoV-2 viral spread. The evolving nature of the COVID-19 pandemic brings new and unpredictable challenges where on-demand 3D printing of antiviral materials can achieve rapid solutions while reducing the environmental impact of disposable devices.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chromium/pharmacology , Cobalt/pharmacology , Molybdenum/pharmacology , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Alloys , COVID-19 , Humans , Porosity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Surface Properties , Virus Inactivation/drug effects
9.
N Biotechnol ; 66: 36-45, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521430

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has generated a major need for non-destructive and environmentally friendly disinfection methods. This work presents the development and testing of a disinfection process based on gaseous ozone for SARS-CoV-2-contaminated porous and non-porous surfaces. A newly developed disinfection chamber was used, equipped with a CeraPlas™ cold plasma generator that produces ozone during plasma ignition. A reduction of more than log 6 of infectious virus could be demonstrated for virus-contaminated cotton and FFP3 face masks as well as glass slides after exposure to 800 ppm ozone for 10-60 min, depending on the material. In contrast to other disinfectants, ozone can be produced quickly and cost-effectively, and its environmentally friendly breakdown product oxygen does not leave harmful residues. Disinfection with ozone could help to overcome delivery difficulties of personal protective equipment by enabling safe reuse with further applications, thereby reducing waste generation, and may allow regular disinfection of personal items with non-porous surfaces.


Subject(s)
Disinfection/methods , Ozone , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Equipment Contamination , Masks/virology , Ozone/pharmacology , Porosity
10.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 9342748, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, an outbreak of a novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has become a world health concern leading to severe respiratory tract infections in humans. Virus transmission occurs through person-to-person contact, respiratory droplets, and contaminated hands or surfaces. Accordingly, we aim at reviewing the literature on all information available about the persistence of coronaviruses, including human and animal coronaviruses, on inanimate surfaces and inactivation strategies with biocides employed for chemical and physical disinfection. METHOD: A comprehensive search was systematically conducted in main databases from 1998 to 2020 to identify various viral disinfectants associated with HCoV and methods for control and prevention of this newly emerged virus. RESULTS: The analysis of 62 studies shows that human coronaviruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus or endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV), canine coronavirus (CCV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) can be efficiently inactivated by physical and chemical disinfectants at different concentrations (70, 80, 85, and 95%) of 2-propanol (70 and 80%) in less than or equal to 60 s and 0.5% hydrogen peroxide or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite within 1 minute. Additionally, glutaraldehyde (0.5-2%), formaldehyde (0.7-1%), and povidone-iodine (0.1-0.75%) could readily inactivate coronaviruses. Moreover, dry heat at 56°C, ultraviolet light dose of 0.2 to 140 J/cm2, and gamma irradiation could effectively inactivate coronavirus. The WHO recommends the use of 0.1% sodium hypochlorite solution or an ethanol-based disinfectant with an ethanol concentration between 62% and 71%. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study can help researchers, policymakers, health decision makers, and people perceive and take the correct measures to control and prevent further transmission of COVID-19. Prevention and decontamination will be the main ways to stop the ongoing outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , 2-Propanol/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus, Canine/drug effects , Disinfection/methods , Ethanol/pharmacology , Formaldehyde/pharmacology , Gamma Rays , Glutaral/pharmacology , Hot Temperature , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Murine hepatitis virus/drug effects , Povidone-Iodine/pharmacology , SARS Virus/drug effects , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/drug effects , Ultraviolet Rays
11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(41): 48469-48477, 2021 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461961

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of developing surfaces and coatings with antiviral activity. Here, we present, for the first time, peptide-based assemblies that can kill viruses. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the assemblies is in the range tens of micrograms per milliliter. This value is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the MIC of metal nanoparticles. When applied on a surface, by drop casting, the peptide spherical assemblies adhere to the surface and form an antiviral coating against both RNA- and DNA-based viruses including coronavirus. Our results show that the coating reduced the number of T4 bacteriophages (DNA-based virus) by 3 log, compared with an untreated surface and 6 log, when compared with a stock solution. Importantly, we showed that this coating completely inactivated canine coronavirus (RNA-based virus). This peptide-based coating can be useful wherever sterile surfaces are needed to reduce the risk of viral transmission.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Peptides/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteriophages/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dihydroxyphenylalanine/chemistry , Dog Diseases/drug therapy , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Peptides/pharmacology , Peptides/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Inactivation/drug effects
12.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(39): 9557-9563, 2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439482

ABSTRACT

Lipid-enveloped viruses, such as Ebola, influenza, or coronaviruses, are a major threat to human health. Ethanol is an efficient disinfectant that is widely used to inactivate these viruses and prevent their transmission. However, the interactions between ethanol and enveloped viruses leading to their inactivation are not yet fully understood. This study demonstrates the link between ethanol-induced viral inactivation and the nanostructural and chemical transformations of the model virus Phi6, an 85 nm diameter lipid-enveloped bacterial virus that is commonly used as surrogate for human pathogenic viruses. The virus morphology was investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering and dynamic light scattering and was related to its infectivity. The Phi6's surface chemistry was characterized by cryogenic X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the modifications in protein structure were assessed by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. Ethanol-triggered structural modifications were found in the lipid envelope, detaching from the protein capsid and forming coexisting nanostructures.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophage phi 6/chemistry , Ethanol/pharmacology , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Bacteriophage phi 6/drug effects , Bacteriophage phi 6/ultrastructure , Capsid Proteins/chemistry , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Circular Dichroism , Dynamic Light Scattering , Ethanol/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Photoelectron Spectroscopy , Scattering, Small Angle , X-Ray Diffraction
13.
Biocontrol Sci ; 26(3): 177-180, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438814

ABSTRACT

Ethanol is an effective disinfectant against the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. However, its effective concentration has not been shown, and we therefore analyzed the effects of different concentrations of ethanol on SARS-CoV-2. When SARS-CoV-2 was treated with varying ethanol concentrations and examined for changes in infectivity, the ethanol concentration at which 99% of the infectious titers were reduced was 24.1% (w/w) [29.3% (v/v)]. For reference, ethanol susceptibility was also examined with other envelope viruses, including influenza virus, vesicular stomatitis virus in the family Rhabdoviridae, and Newcastle disease virus in the family Paramyxoviridae, and the 99% inhibitory concentrations were found to be 28.8%(w/w) [34.8% (v/v)], 24.0% (w/w) [29.2% (v/v)], and 13.3% (w/w) [16.4% (v/v)], respectively. Some differences from SARS-CoV-2 were observed, but the differences were not significant. It was concluded that ethanol at a concentration of 30%(w/w) [36.2% (v/v)] almost completely inactivates SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Disinfectants/analysis , Ethanol/analysis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Viruses/drug effects , Viruses/growth & development
14.
Virus Res ; 305: 198555, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412516

ABSTRACT

Inactivated viral preparations are important resources in vaccine and antisera industry. Of the many vaccines that are being developed against COVID-19, inactivated whole-virus vaccines are also considered effective. ß-propiolactone (BPL) is a widely used chemical inactivator of several viruses. Here, we analyze various concentrations of BPL to effectively inactivate SARS-CoV-2 and their effects on the biochemical properties of the virion particles. BPL at 1:2000 (v/v) concentrations effectively inactivated SARS-CoV-2. However, higher BPL concentrations resulted in the loss of both protein content as well as the antigenic integrity of the structural proteins. Higher concentrations also caused substantial aggregation of the virion particles possibly resulting in insufficient inactivation, and a loss in antigenic potential. We also identify that the viral RNA content in the culture supernatants can be a direct indicator of their antigenic content. Our findings may have important implications in the vaccine and antisera industry during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Propiolactone/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virion/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Animals , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Flocculation/drug effects , Humans , Immune Sera/chemistry , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated , Vero Cells , Virion/chemistry , Virion/immunology
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14295, 2021 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387482

ABSTRACT

Methylene blue is an FDA (Food and Drug Administration) and EMA (European Medicines Agency) approved drug with an excellent safety profile. It displays broad-spectrum virucidal activity in the presence of UV light and has been shown to be effective in inactivating various viruses in blood products prior to transfusions. In addition, its use has been validated for methemoglobinemia and malaria treatment. In this study, we first evaluated the virucidal activity of methylene blue against influenza virus H1N1 upon different incubation times and in the presence or absence of light activation, and then against SARS-CoV-2. We further assessed the therapeutic activity of methylene blue by administering it to cells previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. Finally, we examined the effect of co-administration of the drug together with immune serum. Our findings reveal that methylene blue displays virucidal preventive or therapeutic activity against influenza virus H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2 at low micromolar concentrations and in the absence of UV-activation. We also confirm that MB antiviral activity is based on several mechanisms of action as the extent of genomic RNA degradation is higher in presence of light and after long exposure. Our work supports the interest of testing methylene blue in clinical studies to confirm a preventive and/or therapeutic efficacy against both influenza virus H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Methylene Blue/pharmacology , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , Vero Cells , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/radiation effects
16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(26): 30317-30325, 2021 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387130

ABSTRACT

Influenza A viruses (IAV) and SARS-CoV-2 can spread via liquid droplets and aerosols. Face masks and other personal protective equipment (PPE) can act as barriers that prevent the spread of these viruses. However, IAV and SARS-CoV-2 are stable for hours on various materials, which makes frequent and correct disposal of these PPE important. Metal ions embedded into PPE may inactivate respiratory viruses, but confounding factors such as adsorption of viruses make measuring and optimizing the inactivation characteristics difficult. Here, we used polyamide 6.6 (PA66) fibers containing embedded zinc ions and systematically investigated if these fibers can adsorb and inactivate SARS-CoV-2 and IAV H1N1 when woven into a fabric. We found that our PA66-based fabric decreased the IAV H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2 titer by approximately 100-fold. Moreover, we found that the zinc content and the virus inactivating property of the fabric remained stable over 50 standardized washes. Overall, these results provide insights into the development of reusable PPE that offer protection against RNA virus spread.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/physiology , Nylons/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Textiles , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Zinc/pharmacology , Adsorption , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cotton Fiber , Dogs , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Ions , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Polypropylenes/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology
17.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 575: 36-41, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370449

ABSTRACT

Air spaces and material surfaces in a pathogen-contaminated environment can often be a source of infection to humans, and disinfection has become a common intervention focused on reducing the contamination levels. In this study, we examined the efficacy of SAIW, a unique electrolyzed water with chlorine-free, high pH, high concentration of dissolved hydrogen, and low oxygen reduction potential, for the inactivation of several viruses and bacteria. Infectivity assays revealed that initial viral titers of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), influenza A virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, human coronavirus, feline calicivirus, and canine parvovirus, were reduced by 2.9- to 5.5-log10 within 30 s of SAIW exposure. Similarly, the culturability of three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Legionella) dropped down by 1.9- to 4.9-log10 within 30 s of SAIW treatment. Mechanistically, treatment with SAIW was found to significantly decrease the binding and subsequent entry efficiencies of SARS-CoV-2 on Vero cells. Finally, we showed that this chlorine-free electrolytic ion water had no acute inhalation toxicity in mice, demonstrating that SAIW holds promise for a safer antiviral and antibacterial disinfectant.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Water/pharmacology , Animals , Calicivirus, Feline/drug effects , Calicivirus, Feline/growth & development , Chlorocebus aethiops , Colony Count, Microbial , Electrolysis , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/growth & development , Herpesvirus 1, Human/drug effects , Herpesvirus 1, Human/growth & development , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Influenza A virus/growth & development , Legionella/drug effects , Legionella/growth & development , Mice , Parvovirus, Canine/drug effects , Parvovirus, Canine/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Salmonella/drug effects , Salmonella/growth & development , Skin/drug effects , Vero Cells , Viral Load
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360773

ABSTRACT

The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic causes serious public health, social, and economic issues all over the globe. Surface transmission has been claimed as a possible SARS-CoV-2 infection route, especially in heavy contaminated environmental surfaces, including hospitals and crowded public places. Herein, we studied the deactivation of SARS-CoV-2 on photoactive AgNPs@TiO2 coated on industrial ceramic tiles under dark, UVA, and LED light irradiations. SARS-CoV-2 inactivation is effective under any light/dark conditions. The presence of AgNPs has an important key to limit the survival of SARS-CoV-2 in the dark; moreover, there is a synergistic action when TiO2 is decorated with Ag to enhance the virus photocatalytic inactivation even under LED. The radical oxidation was confirmed as the the central mechanism behind SARS-CoV-2 damage/inactivation by ESR analysis under LED light. Therefore, photoactive AgNPs@TiO2 ceramic tiles could be exploited to fight surface infections, especially during viral severe pandemics.


Subject(s)
Ceramics/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Titanium/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Light , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/radiation effects , Pandemics , Particle Size , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Surface Properties , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects
19.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253022, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308177

ABSTRACT

Influenza and RSV are human viruses responsible for outbreaks in hospitals, long-term care facilities and nursing homes. The present study assessed an air treatment using ozone at two relative humidity conditions (RHs) in order to reduce the infectivity of airborne influenza. Bovine pulmonary surfactant (BPS) and synthetic tracheal mucus (STM) were used as aerosols protectants to better reflect the human aerosol composition. Residual ozone concentration inside the aerosol chamber was also measured. RSV's sensitivity resulted in testing its resistance to aerosolization and sampling processes instead of ozone exposure. The results showed that without supplement and with STM, a reduction in influenza A infectivity of four orders of magnitude was obtained with an exposure to 1.70 ± 0.19 ppm of ozone at 76% RH for 80 min. Consequently, ozone could be considered as a virucidal disinfectant for airborne influenza A. RSV did not withstand the aerosolization and sampling processes required for the use of the experimental setup. Therefore, ozone exposure could not be performed for this virus. Nonetheless, this study provides great insight for the efficacy of ozone as an air treatment for the control of nosocomial influenza A outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/drug effects , Ozone/pharmacology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Aerosols , Air Microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Ozone/administration & dosage , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control
20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(26): 30317-30325, 2021 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284676

ABSTRACT

Influenza A viruses (IAV) and SARS-CoV-2 can spread via liquid droplets and aerosols. Face masks and other personal protective equipment (PPE) can act as barriers that prevent the spread of these viruses. However, IAV and SARS-CoV-2 are stable for hours on various materials, which makes frequent and correct disposal of these PPE important. Metal ions embedded into PPE may inactivate respiratory viruses, but confounding factors such as adsorption of viruses make measuring and optimizing the inactivation characteristics difficult. Here, we used polyamide 6.6 (PA66) fibers containing embedded zinc ions and systematically investigated if these fibers can adsorb and inactivate SARS-CoV-2 and IAV H1N1 when woven into a fabric. We found that our PA66-based fabric decreased the IAV H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2 titer by approximately 100-fold. Moreover, we found that the zinc content and the virus inactivating property of the fabric remained stable over 50 standardized washes. Overall, these results provide insights into the development of reusable PPE that offer protection against RNA virus spread.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/physiology , Nylons/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Textiles , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Zinc/pharmacology , Adsorption , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cotton Fiber , Dogs , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Ions , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Polypropylenes/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL