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1.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236616

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and influenza A virus, require the host proteases to mediate viral entry into cells. Rather than targeting the continuously mutating viral proteins, targeting the conserved host-based entry mechanism could offer advantages. Nafamostat and camostat were discovered as covalent inhibitors of TMPRSS2 protease involved in viral entry. To circumvent their limitations, a reversible inhibitor might be required. Considering nafamostat structure and using pentamidine as a starting point, a small set of structurally diverse rigid analogues were designed and evaluated in silico to guide selection of compounds to be prepared for biological evaluation. Based on the results of in silico study, six compounds were prepared and evaluated in vitro. At the enzyme level, compounds 10-12 triggered potential TMPRSS2 inhibition with low micromolar IC50 concentrations, but they were less effective in cellular assays. Meanwhile, compound 14 did not trigger potential TMPRSS2 inhibition at the enzyme level, but it showed potential cellular activity regarding inhibition of membrane fusion with a low micromolar IC50 value of 10.87 µM, suggesting its action could be mediated by another molecular target. Furthermore, in vitro evaluation showed that compound 14 inhibited pseudovirus entry as well as thrombin and factor Xa. Together, this study presents compound 14 as a hit compound that might serve as a starting point for developing potential viral entry inhibitors with possible application against coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Benzamidines/pharmacology , Virus Internalization , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry
2.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236421

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, has given rise to many new variants with increased transmissibility and the ability to evade vaccine protection. The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) is a major endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone that has been recently implicated as an essential host factor for SARS-CoV-2 entry and infection. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of YUM70, a small molecule inhibitor of GRP78, to block SARS-CoV-2 viral entry and infection in vitro and in vivo. Using human lung epithelial cells and pseudoviral particles carrying spike proteins from different SARS-CoV-2 variants, we found that YUM70 was equally effective at blocking viral entry mediated by original and variant spike proteins. Furthermore, YUM70 reduced SARS-CoV-2 infection without impacting cell viability in vitro and suppressed viral protein production following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additionally, YUM70 rescued the cell viability of multi-cellular human lung and liver 3D organoids transfected with a SARS-CoV-2 replicon. Importantly, YUM70 treatment ameliorated lung damage in transgenic mice infected with SARS-CoV-2, which correlated with reduced weight loss and longer survival. Thus, GRP78 inhibition may be a promising approach to augment existing therapies to block SARS-CoV-2, its variants, and other viruses that utilize GRP78 for entry and infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Mice , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone BiP , Virus Internalization , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Pandemics , Lung
3.
J Virol ; 97(6): e0054923, 2023 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245375

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has caused huge economic losses to the global pig industry. The swine enteric coronavirus spike (S) protein recognizes various cell surface molecules to regulate viral infection. In this study, we identified 211 host membrane proteins related to the S1 protein by pulldown combined with liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Among these, heat shock protein family A member 5 (HSPA5) was identified through screening as having a specific interaction with the PEDV S protein, and positive regulation of PEDV infection was validated by knockdown and overexpression tests. Further studies verified the role of HSPA5 in viral attachment and internalization. In addition, we found that HSPA5 interacts with S proteins through its nucleotide-binding structural domain (NBD) and that polyclonal antibodies can block viral infection. In detail, HSPA5 was found to be involved in viral trafficking via the endo-/lysosomal pathway. Inhibition of HSPA5 activity during internalization would reduce the subcellular colocalization of PEDV with lysosomes in the endo-/lysosomal pathway. Together, these findings show that HSPA5 is a novel PEDV potential target for the creation of therapeutic drugs. IMPORTANCE PEDV infection causes severe piglet mortality and threatens the global pig industry. However, the complex invasion mechanism of PEDV makes its prevention and control difficult. Here, we determined that HSPA5 is a novel target for PEDV which interacts with its S protein and is involved in viral attachment and internalization, influencing its transport via the endo-/lysosomal pathway. Our work extends knowledge about the relationship between the PEDV S and host proteins and provides a new therapeutic target against PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Swine , Chlorocebus aethiops , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Virus Internalization , Chromatography, Liquid , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Lysosomes/metabolism , Vero Cells
4.
PLoS Biol ; 21(6): e3002097, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243340

ABSTRACT

Identifying host genes essential for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has the potential to reveal novel drug targets and further our understanding of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). We previously performed a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screen to identify proviral host factors for highly pathogenic human coronaviruses. Few host factors were required by diverse coronaviruses across multiple cell types, but DYRK1A was one such exception. Although its role in coronavirus infection was previously undescribed, DYRK1A encodes Dual Specificity Tyrosine Phosphorylation Regulated Kinase 1A and is known to regulate cell proliferation and neuronal development. Here, we demonstrate that DYRK1A regulates ACE2 and DPP4 transcription independent of its catalytic kinase function to support SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) entry. We show that DYRK1A promotes DNA accessibility at the ACE2 promoter and a putative distal enhancer, facilitating transcription and gene expression. Finally, we validate that the proviral activity of DYRK1A is conserved across species using cells of nonhuman primate and human origin. In summary, we report that DYRK1A is a novel regulator of ACE2 and DPP4 expression that may dictate susceptibility to multiple highly pathogenic human coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Internalization , Animals , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/genetics
5.
Nature ; 619(7969): 403-409, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242865

ABSTRACT

The entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells depends on the refolding of the virus-encoded spike protein from a prefusion conformation, which is metastable after cleavage, to a lower-energy stable postfusion conformation1,2. This transition overcomes kinetic barriers for fusion of viral and target cell membranes3,4. Here we report a cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the intact postfusion spike in a lipid bilayer that represents the single-membrane product of the fusion reaction. The structure provides structural definition of the functionally critical membrane-interacting segments, including the fusion peptide and transmembrane anchor. The internal fusion peptide forms a hairpin-like wedge that spans almost the entire lipid bilayer and the transmembrane segment wraps around the fusion peptide at the last stage of membrane fusion. These results advance our understanding of the spike protein in a membrane environment and may guide development of intervention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Lipid Bilayers , Virus Internalization , Membrane Fusion , Protein Conformation
6.
Virol J ; 20(1): 99, 2023 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230955

ABSTRACT

Several approaches have been developed to analyze the entry of highly pathogenic viruses. In this study, we report the implementation of a Bimolecular Multicellular Complementation (BiMuC) assay to safely and efficiently monitor SARS-CoV-2 S-mediated membrane fusion without the need for microscopy-based equipment. Using BiMuC, we screened a library of approved drugs and identified compounds that enhance S protein-mediated cell-cell membrane fusion. Among them, ethynylestradiol promotes the growth of SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza A virus in vitro. Our findings demonstrate the potential of BiMuC for identifying small molecules that modulate the life cycle of enveloped viruses, including SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization , Biological Assay , Gene Library
7.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(1): e1010171, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327858

ABSTRACT

The development of physiological models that reproduce SARS-CoV-2 infection in primary human cells will be instrumental to identify host-pathogen interactions and potential therapeutics. Here, using cell suspensions directly from primary human lung tissues (HLT), we have developed a rapid platform for the identification of viral targets and the expression of viral entry factors, as well as for the screening of viral entry inhibitors and anti-inflammatory compounds. The direct use of HLT cells, without long-term cell culture and in vitro differentiation approaches, preserves main immune and structural cell populations, including the most susceptible cell targets for SARS-CoV-2; alveolar type II (AT-II) cells, while maintaining the expression of proteins involved in viral infection, such as ACE2, TMPRSS2, CD147 and AXL. Further, antiviral testing of 39 drug candidates reveals a highly reproducible method, suitable for different SARS-CoV-2 variants, and provides the identification of new compounds missed by conventional systems, such as VeroE6. Using this method, we also show that interferons do not modulate ACE2 expression, and that stimulation of local inflammatory responses can be modulated by different compounds with antiviral activity. Overall, we present a relevant and rapid method for the study of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization , Adult , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drugs, Investigational/pharmacology , Drugs, Investigational/therapeutic use , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/therapy , Inflammation/virology , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects
8.
Redox Biol ; 64: 102769, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328371

ABSTRACT

Cholesterol-24-hydroxylase (CH24H or Cyp46a1) is a reticulum-associated membrane protein that plays an irreplaceable role in cholesterol metabolism in the brain and has been well-studied in several neuro-associated diseases in recent years. In the present study, we found that CH24H expression can be induced by several neuroinvasive viruses, including vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), rabies virus (RABV), Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and murine hepatitis virus (MHV). The CH24H metabolite, 24-hydroxycholesterol (24HC), also shows competence in inhibiting the replication of multiple viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). 24HC can increase the cholesterol concentration in multivesicular body (MVB)/late endosome (LE) by disrupting the interaction between OSBP and VAPA, resulting in viral particles being trapped in MVB/LE, ultimately compromising VSV and RABV entry into host cells. These findings provide the first evidence that brain cholesterol oxidation products may play a critical role in viral infection.


Subject(s)
Virus Internalization , Animals , Mice , Cholesterol/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Homeostasis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Cholesterol 24-Hydroxylase/metabolism
9.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 21(1): 8-15, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326975

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has quickly become a great public health hazard globally. Nasal epithelial cells are an important site for SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on the endotypes of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and the potential impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Endotypes of CRSwNP are characterized by type 1, type 2 and type 3 inflammation according to patterns of inflammatory cells and the cytokines expressed in nasal tissue. Nasal epithelial cells show the highest expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the receptor for attachment and entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells, among all investigated cells in the respiratory tree. SARS-CoV-2 infection likely leads to increased activation of T-helper-1 (Th1) cell responses. Recent studies further suggest that ACE2 may be upregulated by type 1 and downregulated by type 2 inflammatory cytokines in nasal epithelial cells. SUMMARY: Expression of ACE2 in nasal epithelial cells is influenced by inflammatory endotypes of CRSwNP. Type 1 inflammation in nasal tissue may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by upregulating ACE2 expression. However, clinical association between CRSwNP and COVID-19 is still unclear.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Nasal Polyps/epidemiology , Rhinitis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sinusitis/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Goblet Cells/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Nasal Polyps/immunology , Rhinitis/immunology , Risk Factors , Sinusitis/immunology , Virus Internalization
10.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(4): e0109722, 2022 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325199

ABSTRACT

Human adenovirus type 26 (HAdV26) has been recognized as a promising platform for vaccine vector development, and very recently vaccine against COVID-19 based on HAdV26 was authorized for emergency use. Nevertheless, basic biology of this virus, namely, pathway which HAdV26 uses to enter the cell, is still insufficiently known. We have shown here that HAdV26 infection of human epithelial cells expressing low amount of αvß3 integrin involves clathrin and is caveolin-1-independent, while HAdV26 infection of cells with high amount of αvß3 integrin does not involve clathrin but is caveolin-1-dependent. Thus, this study demonstrates that caveolin-1 is limiting factor in αvß3 integrin-mediated HAdV26 infection. Regardless of αvß3 integrin expression, HAdV26 infection involves dynamin-2. Our data provide for the first-time description of HAdV26 cell entry pathway, hence increase our knowledge of HAdV26 infection. Knowing that functionality of adenovirus vector is influenced by its cell entry pathway and intracellular trafficking, our results will contribute to better understanding of HAdV26 immunogenicity and antigen presentation when used as vaccine vector. IMPORTANCE In order to fulfill its role as a vector, adenovirus needs to successfully deliver its DNA genome to the host nucleus, a process highly influenced by adenovirus intracellular translocation. Thus, cell entry pathway and intracellular trafficking determine functionality of human adenovirus-based vectors. Endocytosis of HAdV26, currently extensively studied as a vaccine vector, has not been described so far. We present here that HAdV26 infection of human epithelial cells with high expression of αvß3 integrin, one of the putative HAdV26 receptors, is caveolin-1- and partially dynamin-2-dependent. Since caveolin containing domains provide a unique environment for specific signaling events and participate in inflammatory signaling one can imagine that directing HAdV26 cell entry toward caveolin-1-mediate pathway might play role in immunogenicity of this virus. Therefore, our results contribute to better understanding of HAdV26 infection pathway, hence, can be helpful in explaining induction of immune response and antigen presentation by HAdV26-based vaccine vector.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human , COVID-19 , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines , Caveolin 1/genetics , Caveolin 1/metabolism , Clathrin/metabolism , Dynamin II/metabolism , Humans , Integrins/metabolism , Virus Internalization
11.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(5): e1011123, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324624

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV Spike (S) protein shares considerable homology with SARS-CoV-2 S, especially in the conserved S2 subunit (S2). S protein mediates coronavirus receptor binding and membrane fusion, and the latter activity can greatly influence coronavirus infection. We observed that SARS-CoV S is less effective in inducing membrane fusion compared with SARS-CoV-2 S. We identify that S813T mutation is sufficient in S2 interfering with the cleavage of SARS-CoV-2 S by TMPRSS2, reducing spike fusogenicity and pseudoparticle entry. Conversely, the mutation of T813S in SARS-CoV S increased fusion ability and viral replication. Our data suggested that residue 813 in the S was critical for the proteolytic activation, and the change from threonine to serine at 813 position might be an evolutionary feature adopted by SARS-2-related viruses. This finding deepened the understanding of Spike fusogenicity and could provide a new perspective for exploring Sarbecovirus' evolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Humans , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Proteolysis , Virus Replication , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
12.
J Med Virol ; 95(5): e28796, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321936

ABSTRACT

Host proteases trypsin and trypsin-like proteases have been reported to facilitate the entry of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in its host cells. These protease enzymes cleave the viral surface glycoprotein, spike, leading to successful cell surface receptor attachment, fusion and entry of the virus in its host cell. The spike protein has protease cleavage sites between the two domains S1 and S2. Since the cleavage site is recognized by the host proteases, it can be a potential antiviral therapeutic target. Trypsin-like proteases play an important role in virus infectivity and the property of spike protein cleavage by trypsin and trypsin-like proteases can be used to design assays for screening of antiviral candidates against spike protein cleavage. Here, we have documented the development of a proof-of-concept assay system for screening drugs against trypsin/trypsin-like proteases that cleave spike protein between its S1 and S2 domains. The assay system developed uses a fusion substrate protein containing a NanoLuc luciferase reporter protein, the protease cleavage site between S1 and S2 domains of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and a cellulose binding domain. The substrate protein can be immobilized on cellulose via the cellulose binding domain of the substrate. When trypsin and trypsin-like proteases cleave the substrate, the cellulose binding domain remain bound to the cellulose and the reporter protein is dislodged. Reporter assay using the released reporter protein is the read out of the protease activity. We have demonstrated the proof-of-concept using multiple proteases like trypsin, TMPRSS2, furin, cathepsin B, human airway trypsin and cathepsin L. A significant increment in fold change was observed with increasing enzyme concentration and incubation time. Introduction of increasing amounts of enzyme inhibitors in the reaction reduced the luminescent signal, thus validating the assay. Furthermore, we used SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses to study the cleavage band pattern and re-confirm the cleavage for enzymes tested in the assay. Taken together, we have tested an in-vitro assay system using the proposed substrate for screening drugs against trypsin like protease-based cleavage of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein. The assay system can also be potentially used for antiviral drug screening against any other enzyme that might cleave the used cleavage site.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Trypsin , Virus Internalization , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases
13.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(5): e1011358, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316295

ABSTRACT

Rapid evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza A virus (IAV) poses enormous challenge in the development of broad-spectrum antivirals that are effective against the existing and emerging viral strains. Virus entry through endocytosis represents an attractive target for drug development, as inhibition of this early infection step should block downstream infection processes, and potentially inhibit viruses sharing the same entry route. In this study, we report the identification of 1,3-diphenylurea (DPU) derivatives (DPUDs) as a new class of endocytosis inhibitors, which broadly restricted entry and replication of several SARS-CoV-2 and IAV strains. Importantly, the DPUDs did not induce any significant cytotoxicity at concentrations effective against the viral infections. Examining the uptake of cargoes specific to different endocytic pathways, we found that DPUDs majorly affected clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which both SARS-CoV-2 and IAV utilize for cellular entry. In the DPUD-treated cells, although virus binding on the cell surface was unaffected, internalization of both the viruses was drastically reduced. Since compounds similar to the DPUDs were previously reported to transport anions including chloride (Cl-) across lipid membrane and since intracellular Cl- concentration plays a critical role in regulating vesicular trafficking, we hypothesized that the observed defect in endocytosis by the DPUDs could be due to altered Cl- gradient across the cell membrane. Using in vitro assays we demonstrated that the DPUDs transported Cl- into the cell and led to intracellular Cl- accumulation, which possibly affected the endocytic machinery by perturbing intracellular Cl- homeostasis. Finally, we tested the DPUDs in mice challenged with IAV and mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 (MA 10). Treatment of the infected mice with the DPUDs led to remarkable body weight recovery, improved survival and significantly reduced lung viral load, highlighting their potential for development as broad-spectrum antivirals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A virus , Animals , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Influenza A virus/physiology , Endocytosis , Virus Internalization , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry
14.
J Virol ; 97(5): e0199222, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319107

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) binds to cell surface receptors and is activated for membrane fusion and cell entry via proteolytic cleavage. Phenomenological data have shown that SARS-CoV-2 can be activated for entry at either the cell surface or in endosomes, but the relative roles in different cell types and mechanisms of entry have been debated. Here, we used single-virus fusion experiments and exogenously controlled proteases to probe activation directly. We found that plasma membrane and an appropriate protease are sufficient to support SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus fusion. Furthermore, fusion kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses are indistinguishable no matter which of a broad range of proteases is used to activate the virus. This suggests that the fusion mechanism is insensitive to protease identity or even whether activation occurs before or after receptor binding. These data support a model for opportunistic fusion by SARS-CoV-2 in which the subcellular location of entry likely depends on the differential activity of airway, cellsurface, and endosomal proteases, but all support infection. Inhibition of any single host protease may thus reduce infection in some cells but may be less clinically robust. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 can use multiple pathways to infect cells, as demonstrated recently when new viral variants switched dominant infection pathways. Here, we used single-virus fusion experiments together with biochemical reconstitution to show that these multiple pathways coexist simultaneously and specifically that the virus can be activated by different proteases in different cellular compartments with mechanistically identical effects. The consequences of this are that the virus is evolutionarily plastic and that therapies targeting viral entry should address multiple pathways at once to achieve optimal clinical effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Cell Membrane/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
15.
Antiviral Res ; 214: 105606, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298798

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants represents a major threat to public health and requires identification of novel therapeutic agents to address the unmet medical needs. Small molecules impeding viral entry through inhibition of spike protein priming proteases could have potent antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Omicsynin B4, a pseudo-tetrapeptides identified from Streptomyces sp. 1647, has potent antiviral activity against influenza A viruses in our previous study. Here, we found omicsynin B4 exhibited broad-spectrum anti-coronavirus activity against HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43 and SARS-CoV-2 prototype and its variants in multiple cell lines. Further investigations revealed omicsynin B4 blocked the viral entry and might be related to the inhibition of host proteases. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein mediated pseudovirus assay supported the inhibitory activity on viral entry of omicsynin B4 with a more potent inhibition of Omicron variant, especially when overexpression of human TMPRSS2. Moreover, omicsynin B4 exhibited superior inhibitory activity in the sub-nanomolar range against CTSL, and a sub-micromolar inhibition against TMPRSS2 in biochemical assays. The molecular docking analysis confirmed that omicsynin B4 fits well in the substrate binding sites and forms a covalent bond to Cys25 and Ser441 in CTSL and TMPRSS2, respectively. In conclusion, we found that omicsynin B4 may serve as a natural protease inhibitor for CTSL and TMPRSS2, blocking various coronavirus S protein-driven entry into cells. These results further highlight the potential of omicsynin B4 as an attractive candidate for broad-spectrum antiviral therapy that could rapidly respond to emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Cathepsin L/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases , Molecular Docking Simulation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Serine Endopeptidases/pharmacology
16.
J Virol ; 97(4): e0014423, 2023 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297692

ABSTRACT

2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In addition to respiratory illness, COVID-19 patients exhibit neurological symptoms lasting from weeks to months (long COVID). It is unclear whether these neurological manifestations are due to an infection of brain cells. We found that a small fraction of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons, but not astrocytes, were naturally susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Based on the inhibitory effect of blocking antibodies, the infection seemed to depend on the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), despite very low levels of its expression in neurons. The presence of double-stranded RNA in the cytoplasm (the hallmark of viral replication), abundant synthesis of viral late genes localized throughout infected cells, and an increase in the level of viral RNA in the culture medium (viral release) within the first 48 h of infection suggested that the infection was productive. Productive entry of SARS-CoV-2 requires the fusion of the viral and cellular membranes, which results in the delivery of the viral genome into the cytoplasm of the target cell. The fusion is triggered by proteolytic cleavage of the viral surface spike protein, which can occur at the plasma membrane or from endosomes or lysosomes. We found that SARS-CoV-2 infection of human neurons was insensitive to nafamostat and camostat, which inhibit cellular serine proteases, including transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2). Inhibition of cathepsin L also did not significantly block infection. In contrast, the neuronal infection was blocked by apilimod, an inhibitor of phosphatidyl-inositol 5 kinase (PIK5K), which regulates early to late endosome maturation. IMPORTANCE COVID-19 is a disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Millions of patients display neurological symptoms, including headache, impairment of memory, seizures, and encephalopathy, as well as anatomical abnormalities, such as changes in brain morphology. SARS-CoV-2 infection of the human brain has been documented, but it is unclear whether the observed neurological symptoms are linked to direct brain infection. The mechanism of virus entry into neurons has also not been characterized. Here, we investigated SARS-CoV-2 infection by using a human iPSC-derived neural cell model and found that a small fraction of cortical-like neurons was naturally susceptible to infection. The productive infection was ACE2 dependent and TMPRSS2 independent. We also found that the virus used the late endosomal and lysosomal pathway for cell entry and that the infection could be blocked by apilimod, an inhibitor of cellular PIK5K.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/physiopathology , Endosomes/metabolism , Endosomes/virology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Neurons/virology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome/physiopathology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Phosphotransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Astrocytes/virology , Cells, Cultured
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(17): e2218623120, 2023 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306419

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads efficiently by spike-mediated, direct cell-to-cell transmission. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Herein, we demonstrate that the tight junction protein occludin (OCLN) is critical to this process. SARS-CoV-2 infection alters OCLN distribution and expression and causes syncytium formation that leads to viral spread. OCLN knockdown fails to alter SARS-CoV-2 binding but significantly lowers internalization, syncytium formation, and transmission. OCLN overexpression also has no effect on virus binding but enhances virus internalization, cell-to-cell transmission, and replication. OCLN directly interacts with the SARS-CoV-2 spike, and the endosomal entry pathway is involved in OCLN-mediated cell-to-cell fusion rather than in the cell surface entry pathway. All SARS-CoV-2 strains tested (prototypic, alpha, beta, gamma, delta, kappa, and omicron) are dependent on OCLN for cell-to-cell transmission, although the extent of syncytium formation differs between strains. We conclude that SARS-CoV-2 utilizes OCLN as an internalization factor for cell-to-cell transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occludin , Tight Junction Proteins , Virus Internalization , Humans , Occludin/genetics , Occludin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
18.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292459

ABSTRACT

The fusion of viral and cell membranes is one of the basic processes in the life cycles of viruses. A number of enveloped viruses confer fusion of the viral envelope and the cell membrane using surface viral fusion proteins. Their conformational rearrangements lead to the unification of lipid bilayers of cell membranes and viral envelopes and the formation of fusion pores through which the viral genome enters the cytoplasm of the cell. A deep understanding of all the stages of conformational transitions preceding the fusion of viral and cell membranes is necessary for the development of specific inhibitors of viral reproduction. This review systematizes knowledge about the results of molecular modeling aimed at finding and explaining the mechanisms of antiviral activity of entry inhibitors. The first section of this review describes types of viral fusion proteins and is followed by a comparison of the structural features of class I fusion proteins, namely influenza virus hemagglutinin and the S-protein of the human coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Orthomyxoviridae , Humans , Viral Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus/metabolism , Hemagglutinins/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Membrane Fusion , Orthomyxoviridae/metabolism , Virus Internalization
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(7)2023 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291973

ABSTRACT

To prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2, all routes of entry of the virus into the host must be mapped. The skin is in contact with the external environment and thus may be an alternative route of entry to transmission via the upper respiratory tract. SARS-CoV-2 cell entry is primarily dependent on ACE2 and the proteases TMPRSS2 or cathepsin L but other cofactors and attachment receptors have been identified that may play a more important role in specific tissues such as the skin. The continued emergence of new variants may also alter the tropism of the virus. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on these receptors and cofactors, their expression profile, factors modulating their expression and their role in facilitating SARS-CoV-2 infection. We discuss their expression in the skin and their possible involvement in percutaneous infection since the presence of the virus has been detected in the skin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Skin , Peptide Hydrolases , Virus Internalization
20.
Curr Med Chem ; 29(4): 700-718, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277069

ABSTRACT

Type Ⅰ enveloped viruses bind to cell receptors through surface glycoproteins to initiate infection or undergo receptor-mediated endocytosis and initiate membrane fusion in the acidic environment of endocytic compartments, releasing genetic material into the cell. In the process of membrane fusion, envelope protein exposes fusion peptide, followed by an insertion into the cell membrane or endosomal membrane. Further conformational changes ensue in which the type 1 envelope protein forms a typical six-helix bundle structure, shortening the distance between viral and cell membranes so that fusion can occur. Entry inhibitors targeting viral envelope proteins, or host factors, are effective antiviral agents and have been widely studied. Some have been used clinically, such as T20 and Maraviroc for human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) or Myrcludex B for hepatitis D virus (HDV). This review focuses on entry inhibitors that target the six-helical bundle core against highly pathogenic enveloped viruses with class I fusion proteins, including retroviruses, coronaviruses, influenza A viruses, paramyxoviruses, and filoviruses.


Subject(s)
HIV-1 , Virus Internalization , Endocytosis , HIV-1/metabolism , Humans , Membrane Fusion , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/pharmacology
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