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1.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715768

ABSTRACT

Viral diseases consistently pose a substantial economic and public health burden worldwide [...].


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Viruses/classification , Viruses/drug effects , Viruses/genetics
2.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(12): 1483-1492, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550288

ABSTRACT

Better methods to predict and prevent the emergence of zoonotic viruses could support future efforts to reduce the risk of epidemics. We propose a network science framework for understanding and predicting human and animal susceptibility to viral infections. Related approaches have so far helped to identify basic biological rules that govern cross-species transmission and structure the global virome. We highlight ways to make modelling both accurate and actionable, and discuss the barriers that prevent researchers from translating viral ecology into public health policies that could prevent future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Animals , Humans , Virus Diseases/physiopathology , Viruses/genetics , Zoonoses/physiopathology , Zoonoses/virology
3.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538529

ABSTRACT

Viruses are obligate parasites that depend on a host cell for replication and survival. Consequently, to fully understand the viral processes involved in infection and replication, it is fundamental to study them in the cellular context. Often, viral infections induce significant changes in the subcellular organization of the host cell due to the formation of viral factories, alteration of cell cytoskeleton and/or budding of newly formed particles. Accurate 3D mapping of organelle reorganization in infected cells can thus provide valuable information for both basic virus research and antiviral drug development. Among the available techniques for 3D cell imaging, cryo-soft X-ray tomography stands out for its large depth of view (allowing for 10 µm thick biological samples to be imaged without further thinning), its resolution (about 50 nm for tomographies, sufficient to detect viral particles), the minimal requirements for sample manipulation (can be used on frozen, unfixed and unstained whole cells) and the potential to be combined with other techniques (i.e., correlative fluorescence microscopy). In this review we describe the fundamentals of cryo-soft X-ray tomography, its sample requirements, its advantages and its limitations. To highlight the potential of this technique, examples of virus research performed at BL09-MISTRAL beamline in ALBA synchrotron are also presented.


Subject(s)
Tomography, X-Ray/methods , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Tomography, X-Ray/instrumentation , Virus Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Viruses/chemistry , Viruses/drug effects
4.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(22): e0121521, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494942

ABSTRACT

Fomites can represent a reservoir for pathogens, which may be subsequently transferred from surfaces to skin. In this study, we aim to understand how different factors (including virus type, surface type, time since last hand wash, and direction of transfer) affect virus transfer rates, defined as the fraction of virus transferred, between fingerpads and fomites. To determine this, 360 transfer events were performed with 20 volunteers using Phi6 (a surrogate for enveloped viruses), MS2 (a surrogate for nonenveloped viruses), and three clean surfaces (stainless steel, painted wood, and plastic). Considering all transfer events (all surfaces and both transfer directions combined), the mean transfer rates of Phi6 and MS2 were 0.17 and 0.26, respectively. Transfer of MS2 was significantly higher than that of Phi6 (P < 0.05). Surface type was a significant factor that affected the transfer rate of Phi6: Phi6 is more easily transferred to and from stainless steel and plastic than to and from painted wood. Direction of transfer was a significant factor affecting MS2 transfer rates: MS2 is more easily transferred from surfaces to fingerpads than from fingerpads to surfaces. Data from these virus transfer events, and subsequent transfer rate distributions, provide information that can be used to refine quantitative microbial risk assessments. This study provides a large-scale data set of transfer events with a surrogate for enveloped viruses, which extends the reach of the study to the role of fomites in the transmission of human enveloped viruses like influenza and SARS-CoV-2. IMPORTANCE This study created a large-scale data set for the transfer of enveloped viruses between skin and surfaces. The data set produced by this study provides information on modeling the distribution of enveloped and nonenveloped virus transfer rates, which can aid in the implementation of risk assessment models in the future. Additionally, enveloped and nonenveloped viruses were applied to experimental surfaces in an equivalent matrix to avoid matrix effects, so results between different viral species can be directly compared without confounding effects of different matrices. Our results indicating how virus type, surface type, time since last hand wash, and direction of transfer affect virus transfer rates can be used in decision-making processes to lower the risk of viral infection from transmission through fomites.


Subject(s)
Fingers/virology , Fomites/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Bacteriophage phi 6/physiology , Bacteriophage phi 6/ultrastructure , Fomites/classification , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Levivirus/physiology , Levivirus/ultrastructure , Viral Envelope/ultrastructure , Virus Diseases/transmission , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/ultrastructure
6.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390787

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has created an unusual situation, with rapid searches for compounds to interfere with the biological processes exploited by the virus. Doxycycline, with its pleiotropic effects, including anti-viral activity, has been proposed as a therapeutic candidate for COVID-19 and about twenty clinical trials have started since the beginning of the pandemic. To gain information on the activity of doxycycline against SARS-CoV-2 infection and clarify some of the conflicting clinical data published, we designed in vitro binding tests and infection studies with a pseudotyped virus expressing the spike protein, as well as a clinically isolated SARS-CoV-2 strain. Doxycycline inhibited the transduction of the pseudotyped virus in Vero E6 and HEK-293 T cells stably expressing human receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 but did not affect the entry and replication of SARS-CoV-2. Although this conclusion is apparently disappointing, it is paradigmatic of an experimental approach aimed at developing an integrated multidisciplinary platform which can shed light on the mechanisms of action of potential anti-COVID-19 compounds. To avoid wasting precious time and resources, we believe very stringent experimental criteria are needed in the preclinical phase, including infectivity studies with clinically isolated SARS-CoV-2, before moving on to (futile) clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Physiological Phenomena/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Cycle , Chlorocebus aethiops , Doxycycline/pharmacology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Transduction, Genetic , Vero Cells
7.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376993

ABSTRACT

Given the impact of pandemics due to viruses of bat origin, there is increasing interest in comparative investigation into the differences between bat and human immune responses. The practice of comparative biology can be enhanced by computational methods used for dynamic knowledge representation to visualize and interrogate the putative differences between the two systems. We present an agent based model that encompasses and bridges differences between bat and human responses to viral infection: the comparative biology immune agent based model, or CBIABM. The CBIABM examines differences in innate immune mechanisms between bats and humans, specifically regarding inflammasome activity and type 1 interferon dynamics, in terms of tolerance to viral infection. Simulation experiments with the CBIABM demonstrate the efficacy of bat-related features in conferring viral tolerance and also suggest a crucial role for endothelial inflammasome activity as a mechanism for bat systemic viral tolerance and affecting the severity of disease in human viral infections. We hope that this initial study will inspire additional comparative modeling projects to link, compare, and contrast immunological functions shared across different species, and in so doing, provide insight and aid in preparation for future viral pandemics of zoonotic origin.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/veterinary , Animals , Chiroptera/virology , Computer Simulation , Endothelium/physiology , Humans , Inflammasomes/immunology , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Stress, Physiological , Viral Zoonoses , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Virus Shedding
8.
Science ; 373(6558)2021 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376452

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed critical knowledge gaps in our understanding of and a need to update the traditional view of transmission pathways for respiratory viruses. The long-standing definitions of droplet and airborne transmission do not account for the mechanisms by which virus-laden respiratory droplets and aerosols travel through the air and lead to infection. In this Review, we discuss current evidence regarding the transmission of respiratory viruses by aerosols-how they are generated, transported, and deposited, as well as the factors affecting the relative contributions of droplet-spray deposition versus aerosol inhalation as modes of transmission. Improved understanding of aerosol transmission brought about by studies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection requires a reevaluation of the major transmission pathways for other respiratory viruses, which will allow better-informed controls to reduce airborne transmission.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , COVID-19/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/transmission , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Aerosols , COVID-19/virology , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Humans , Microbial Viability , Particle Size , Respiratory System/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/isolation & purification
9.
J Gen Virol ; 102(8)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369239

ABSTRACT

Viruses may exploit the cardiovascular system to facilitate transmission or within-host dissemination, and the symptoms of many viral diseases stem at least in part from a loss of vascular integrity. The microvascular architecture is comprised of an endothelial cell barrier ensheathed by perivascular cells (pericytes). Pericytes are antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and play crucial roles in angiogenesis and the maintenance of microvascular integrity through complex reciprocal contact-mediated and paracrine crosstalk with endothelial cells. We here review the emerging ways that viruses interact with pericytes and pay consideration to how these interactions influence microvascular function and viral pathogenesis. Major outcomes of virus-pericyte interactions include vascular leakage or haemorrhage, organ tropism facilitated by barrier disruption, including viral penetration of the blood-brain barrier and placenta, as well as inflammatory, neurological, cognitive and developmental sequelae. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms may include direct infection of pericytes, pericyte modulation by secreted viral gene products and/or the dysregulation of paracrine signalling from or to pericytes. Viruses we cover include the herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, Human betaherpesvirus 5), the retrovirus human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, HAND), the flaviviruses dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), and the coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19). We touch on promising pericyte-focussed therapies for treating the diseases caused by these important human pathogens, many of which are emerging viruses or are causing new or long-standing global pandemics.


Subject(s)
Cell Physiological Phenomena , Disease Susceptibility , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Pericytes/virology , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Virus Diseases/virology , Animals , Cell Communication , Dengue Virus/physiology , Disease Management , Endothelial Cells/virology , Endothelium/metabolism , Endothelium/virology , HIV/physiology , Humans , Paracrine Communication , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/therapy , Virus Physiological Phenomena
10.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259432

ABSTRACT

The host nucleocytoplasmic trafficking system is often hijacked by viruses to accomplish their replication and to suppress the host immune response. Viruses encode many factors that interact with the host nuclear transport receptors (NTRs) and the nucleoporins of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) to access the host nucleus. In this review, we discuss the viral factors and the host factors involved in the nuclear import and export of viral components. As nucleocytoplasmic shuttling is vital for the replication of many viruses, we also review several drugs that target the host nuclear transport machinery and discuss their feasibility for use in antiviral treatment.


Subject(s)
Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Cell Nucleus/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Virus Replication/physiology , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/physiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Humans , Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Proteins/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Viruses/pathogenicity
11.
Annu Rev Virol ; 8(1): 393-414, 2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255635

ABSTRACT

Biological sex affects the outcome of diverse respiratory viral infections. The pathogenesis of respiratory infections caused by viruses ranging from respiratory syncytial virus to influenza viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 differs between the sexes across the life course. Generally, males are more susceptible to severe outcomes from respiratory viral infections at younger and older ages. During reproductive years (i.e., after puberty and prior to menopause), females are often at greater risk than males for severe outcomes. Pregnancy and biological sex affect the pathogenesis of respiratory viral infections. In addition to sex differences in the pathogenesis of disease, there are consistent sex differences in responses to treatments, with females often developing greater immune responses but experiencing more adverse reactions than males. Animal models provide mechanistic insights into the causes of sex differences in respiratory virus pathogenesis and treatment outcomes, where available.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Age Factors , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Characteristics , Sex Factors , Viruses/classification
12.
Cell Biol Int ; 45(6): 1124-1147, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1251913

ABSTRACT

With each infectious pandemic or outbreak, the medical community feels the need to revisit basic concepts of immunology to understand and overcome the difficult times brought about by these infections. Regarding viruses, they have historically been responsible for many deaths, and such a peculiarity occurs because they are known to be obligate intracellular parasites that depend upon the host's cell machinery for their replication. Successful infection with the production of essential viral components requires constant viral evolution as a strategy to manipulate the cellular environment, including host internal factors, the host's nonspecific and adaptive immune responses to viruses, the metabolic and energetic state of the infected cell, and changes in the intracellular redox environment during the viral infection cycle. Based on this knowledge, it is fundamental to develop new therapeutic strategies for controlling viral dissemination, by means of antiviral therapies, vaccines, or antioxidants, or by targeting the inhibition or activation of cell signaling pathways or metabolic pathways that are altered during infection. The rapid recovery of altered cellular homeostasis during viral infection is still a major challenge. Here, we review the strategies by which viruses evade the host's immune response and potential tools used to develop more specific antiviral therapies to cure, control, or prevent viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Immune Evasion , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena/immunology , Viruses/immunology , Animals , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Virus Replication
13.
Curr Opin Virol ; 49: 86-91, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245923

ABSTRACT

It is intriguing to think that over millions of years, groups of nucleic acids got the chance to hold together with groups of proteins to build up what today is called a virus. Their only goal is to guarantee a successful replication inside a host. If their genome information is preserved, the task is accomplished. Viruses have evolved to infect organisms and propagate with high degree of adaptation, as it is the case of the SARS-CoV-2, agent of the 2020 world pandemic. The technological progress observed in the field of structural biology, especially in cryo-EM, has offered scientists the possibility of a better understanding of virus origins, behavior, and structural organization. In this minireview we summarize few perspectives about the origins and organization of viruses and the advances of cryo-EM to aid structural virologists to sample the virosphere.


Subject(s)
Cryoelectron Microscopy , Viruses/ultrastructure , Biological Evolution , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/ultrastructure , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Viruses/chemistry , Viruses/classification
14.
Trends Microbiol ; 29(9): 776-778, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034111

ABSTRACT

The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) family contains 17 members in humans, sharing a PARP domain to transfer ADP-ribose groups to target proteins to trigger ADP-ribosylation. The roles of PARPs have evolved from DNA damage repair to diverse biological processes, such as gene transcription, cellular stress response, etc. Recently, seminal studies have demonstrated the critical roles of PAPRs in antiviral innate immunity. PARPs catalyze ADP-ribosylation, a fundamental post-translational modification, using NAD+ as a substrate. ADP-ribosylation can occur either as mono- or poly-(ADP-ribosyl)ation, which is initially linked to DNA damage repair, as exemplified by PARP1. Recent advances in host antiviral immunity demonstrated that several PARPs, such as PARP9, 11, 12, 13, 14, etc., have broad-spectrum antiviral activities that are independent of their ADP-ribosylation.


Subject(s)
Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/immunology , Virus Diseases/enzymology , Virus Diseases/immunology , ADP-Ribosylation , Animals , Humans , Multigene Family , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/genetics , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Viruses/genetics
15.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(4)2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893102

ABSTRACT

In viruses, posttranslational modifications (PTMs) are essential for their life cycle. Recognizing viral PTMs is very important for a better understanding of the mechanism of viral infections and finding potential drug targets. However, few studies have investigated the roles of viral PTMs in virus-human interactions using comprehensive viral PTM datasets. To fill this gap, we developed the first comprehensive viral posttranslational modification database (VPTMdb) for collecting systematic information of PTMs in human viruses and infected host cells. The VPTMdb contains 1240 unique viral PTM sites with 8 modification types from 43 viruses (818 experimentally verified PTM sites manually extracted from 150 publications and 422 PTMs extracted from SwissProt) as well as 13 650 infected cells' PTMs extracted from seven global proteomics experiments in six human viruses. The investigation of viral PTM sequences motifs showed that most viral PTMs have the consensus motifs with human proteins in phosphorylation and five cellular kinase families phosphorylate more than 10 viral species. The analysis of protein disordered regions presented that more than 50% glycosylation sites of double-strand DNA viruses are in the disordered regions, whereas single-strand RNA and retroviruses prefer ordered regions. Domain-domain interaction analysis indicating potential roles of viral PTMs play in infections. The findings should make an important contribution to the field of virus-human interaction. Moreover, we created a novel sequence-based classifier named VPTMpre to help users predict viral protein phosphorylation sites. VPTMdb online web server (http://vptmdb.com:8787/VPTMdb/) was implemented for users to download viral PTM data and predict phosphorylation sites of interest.


Subject(s)
Databases, Genetic , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Viral Proteins , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Viruses , Amino Acid Motifs , Humans , Internet , Phosphorylation/genetics , Protein Kinases/genetics , Protein Kinases/metabolism , Proteomics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Viruses/genetics , Viruses/metabolism
16.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247200, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158859

ABSTRACT

Inspired by the competition exclusion principle, this work aims at providing a computational framework to explore the theoretical feasibility of viral co-infection as a possible strategy to reduce the spread of a fatal strain in a population. We propose a stochastic-based model-called Co-Wish-to understand how competition between two viruses over a shared niche can affect the spread of each virus in infected tissue. To demonstrate the co-infection of two viruses, we first simulate the characteristics of two virus growth processes separately. Then, we examine their interactions until one can dominate the other. We use Co-Wish to explore how the model varies as the parameters of each virus growth process change when two viruses infect the host simultaneously. We will also investigate the effect of the delayed initiation of each infection. Moreover, Co-Wish not only examines the co-infection at the cell level but also includes the innate immune response during viral infection. The results highlight that the waiting times in the five stages of the viral infection of a cell in the model-namely attachment, penetration, eclipse, replication, and release-play an essential role in the competition between the two viruses. While it could prove challenging to fully understand the therapeutic potentials of viral co-infection, we discuss that our theoretical framework hints at an intriguing research direction in applying co-infection dynamics in controlling any viral outbreak's speed.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/virology , Models, Theoretical , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Animals , Coinfection/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , Stochastic Processes , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Viruses/pathogenicity
18.
Salud Publica Mex ; 63(1, ene-feb): 126-135, 2020 Dec 22.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041157

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Identificar evidencia científica sobre la transmisión indirecta del SARS-CoV-2 en espacios extrahospitalarios y medidas poblacionales para su prevención. Material y métodos. Una revisión rápida de lo publicado en PubMed y MedRxiv entre 01/12/2019 y 24/04/2020 sobre los temas 1) la contaminación y viabilidad del SARS-CoV-2 en distintas superficies inanimadas; 2) la efectividad desinfectante ante SARS-CoV-2 de productos accesibles a nivel domiciliario; 3) los casos y brotes de contagio de SARS-CoV-2 por medio de superficies. Resultados. Una alta proporción de los objetos de personas infectadas con SARS-CoV-2 (inodoro, ollas y tabletas electrónicas) se encuentran contaminados. Este virus permanece viable desde horas hasta días en papel, cartón, tela, vidrio, madera, plástico, acero y cubrebocas. El etanol, 2-propanol, cloro y jabón son efectivos para desactivarlo. Existe poca evidencia sobre casos y brotes por contagio indirecto. Conclusiones. Se requieren estudios que determinen la dosis mínima infectante por autoinoculación. Apelando al principio precautorio, se incluyeron recomendaciones para reducir el riesgo de contagio indirecto.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Fomites/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Physiological Phenomena
19.
Infect Dis Now ; 51(3): 219-227, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033594

ABSTRACT

The novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has been responsible for a worldwide pandemic. Although media transmission through contaminated surfaces is one of the most recognized ways of transmission, the study on the number and viability of viruses surviving on a surface after leaving the host represents a "blind spot" in current research. In this paper we have reviewed studies on the physical process of droplet evaporation on media surfaces, and analyzed the recent literature related to experiments on the decay of the viral concentration and infectious activity of SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses on those surface and in the air. The huge differences in the risk of media transmission of large saliva and sputum droplets were analyzed in terms of time elapsed. Due to the rapid decrease of water content in the evaporated droplets and the increased concentration of each component, the living environment of the virus tended to deteriorate sharply, and virus concentration plummeted within a few minutes. Although a virus can be detected in a matter of hours, tens of hours, or days, the risk of transmission is negligible compared to when it first left the host. This study suggests that the key to prevention and control is to start from the source, the earlier the better. It is extremely important to develop good public health habits, wear masks, and wash hands frequently. That said, excessive disinfection and sterilization of surfaces during a later period may have adverse effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Mucus/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Saliva/virology , Sputum/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Air Microbiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Cough , Desiccation , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Equipment Contamination , Fomites , Humans , Humidity , Hygiene , Particle Size , Respiration , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sneezing , Speech , Temperature , Time Factors , Viral Load , Viruses/isolation & purification
20.
Microb Biotechnol ; 14(1): 79-81, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954764
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