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1.
Arch Virol ; 166(8): 2285-2289, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826502

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are considered multipotent progenitors with the capacity to differentiate into mesoderm-like cells in many species. The immunosuppressive properties of MSCs are important for downregulating inflammatory responses. Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) is the etiological agent of a poult mortality syndrome that affects intestinal epithelial cells. In this study, poult MSCs were isolated, characterized, and infected with TCoV after in vitro culture. The poult-derived MSCs showed fibroblast-like morphology and the ability to undergo differentiation into mesodermal-derived cells and to support virus replication. Infection with TCoV resulted in cytopathic effects and the loss of cell viability. TCoV antigens and new viral progeny were detected at high levels, as were transcripts of the pro-inflammatory factors INFγ, IL-6, and IL-8. These findings suggest that the cytokine storm phenomenon is not restricted to one genus of the family Coronaviridae and that MSCs cannot always balance the process.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Turkey/physiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Virus Replication , Animals , Cell Differentiation , Cell Survival , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/virology , Turkeys , Up-Regulation
2.
J Virol ; 96(1): e0169521, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816694

ABSTRACT

The replication of coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and the recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is closely associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of infected cells. The unfolded protein response (UPR), which is mediated by ER stress (ERS), is a typical outcome in coronavirus-infected cells and is closely associated with the characteristics of coronaviruses. However, the interaction between virus-induced ERS and coronavirus replication is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that infection with the betacoronavirus porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) induced ERS and triggered all three branches of the UPR signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, ERS suppressed PHEV replication in mouse neuro-2a (N2a) cells primarily by activating the protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK)-eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) axis of the UPR. Moreover, another eIF2α phosphorylation kinase, interferon (IFN)-induced double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), was also activated and acted cooperatively with PERK to decrease PHEV replication. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the PERK/PKR-eIF2α pathways negatively regulated PHEV replication by attenuating global protein translation. Phosphorylated eIF2α also promoted the formation of stress granules (SGs), which in turn repressed PHEV replication. In summary, our study presents a vital aspect of the host innate response to invading pathogens and reveals attractive host targets (e.g., PERK, PKR, and eIF2α) for antiviral drugs. IMPORTANCE Coronavirus diseases are caused by different coronaviruses of importance in humans and animals, and specific treatments are extremely limited. ERS, which can activate the UPR to modulate viral replication and the host innate response, is a frequent occurrence in coronavirus-infected cells. PHEV, a neurotropic betacoronavirus, causes nerve cell damage, which accounts for the high mortality rates in suckling piglets. However, it remains incompletely understood whether the highly developed ER in nerve cells plays an antiviral role in ERS and how ERS regulates viral proliferation. In this study, we found that PHEV infection induced ERS and activated the UPR both in vitro and in vivo and that the activated PERK/PKR-eIF2α axis inhibited PHEV replication through attenuating global protein translation and promoting SG formation. A better understanding of coronavirus-induced ERS and UPR activation may reveal the pathogenic mechanism of coronavirus and facilitate the development of new treatment strategies for these diseases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology , eIF-2 Kinase/metabolism , Animals , Betacoronavirus 1/metabolism , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/ultrastructure , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Mice , Phosphorylation , Protein Biosynthesis , Signal Transduction , Unfolded Protein Response
3.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 16: 827-841, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775529

ABSTRACT

The aim of this report is to review the literature and shed light on the uncertainties surrounding the use of antiviral agents in general and remdesivir in COVID-19 patients. This review evaluated a battery of antiviral compounds and their effectiveness in the treatment of COVID-19 since the beginning of the pandemic. Remdesivir is the only antiviral approved by the EMA and FDA for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This work extensively reviews remdesivir data generated from clinical trials and observational studies, paying attention to the most recent data, and focusing on outcomes to give readers a more comprehensive understanding of the results. This review also discusses the recommendations issued by official bodies during the pandemic in the light of the current knowledge. The use of remdesivir in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection is justified because a virus is the causative agent that triggers the inflammatory responses and its consequences. More trials are needed to improve the management of this disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
4.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767152

ABSTRACT

Influenza virus transcription is catalyzed by the viral RNA-polymerase (FluPol) through a cap-snatching activity. The snatching of the cap of cellular mRNA by FluPol is preceded by its binding to the flexible C-terminal domain (CTD) of the RPB1 subunit of RNA-polymerase II (Pol II). To better understand how FluPol brings the 3'-end of the genomic RNAs in close proximity to the host-derived primer, we hypothesized that FluPol may recognize additional Pol II subunits/domains to ensure cap-snatching. Using binary complementation assays between the Pol II and influenza A FluPol subunits and their structural domains, we revealed an interaction between the N-third domain of PB2 and RPB4. This interaction was confirmed by a co-immunoprecipitation assay and was found to occur with the homologous domains of influenza B and C FluPols. The N-half domain of RPB4 was found to be critical in this interaction. Punctual mutants generated at conserved positions between influenza A, B, and C FluPols in the N-third domain of PB2 exhibited strong transcriptional activity defects. These results suggest that FluPol interacts with several domains of Pol II (the CTD to bind Pol II), initiating host transcription and a second transcription on RPB4 to locate FluPol at the proximity of the 5'-end of nascent host mRNA.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae , Humans , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , RNA Polymerase II/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Viral Transcription , Virus Replication
5.
Eur J Med Chem ; 229: 114046, 2022 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768050

ABSTRACT

Severe diseases such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the previous SARS and MERS outbreaks, are the result of coronavirus infections and have demonstrated the urgent need for antiviral drugs to combat these deadly viruses. Due to its essential role in viral replication and function, 3CLpro (main coronaviruses cysteine-protease) has been identified as a promising target for the development of antiviral drugs. Previously reported SARS-CoV 3CLpro non-covalent inhibitors were used as a starting point for the development of covalent inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. We report herein our efforts in the design and synthesis of submicromolar covalent inhibitors when the enzymatic activity of the viral protease was used as a screening platform.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Drug Design , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , Virus Replication/drug effects
6.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765951

ABSTRACT

Previously, the association between the catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme L-Dopa decarboxylase (DDC) and Dengue virus (DV) replication was demonstrated in liver cells and was found to be mediated at least by the interaction between DDC and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Here, we show that biogenic amines production and uptake impede DV replication in hepatocytes and monocytes, while the virus reduces catecholamine biosynthesis, metabolism, and transport. To examine how catecholamine biosynthesis/metabolism influences DV, first, we verified the role of DDC by altering DDC expression. DDC silencing enhanced virus replication, but not translation, attenuated the negative effect of DDC substrates on the virus and reduced the infection related cell death. Then, the role of the downstream steps of the catecholamine biosynthesis/metabolism was analyzed by chemical inhibition of the respective enzymes, application of their substrates and/or their products; moreover, reserpine, the inhibitor of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), was used to examine the role of uptake/storage of catecholamines on DV. Apart from the role of each enzyme/transporter, these studies revealed that the dopamine uptake, and not the dopamine-signaling, is responsible for the negative effect on DV. Accordingly, all treatments expected to enhance the accumulation of catecholamines in the cell cytosol suppressed DV replication. This was verified by the use of chemical inducers of catecholamine biosynthesis. Last, the cellular redox alterations due to catecholamine oxidation were not related with the inhibition of DV replication. In turn, DV apart from its negative impact on DDC, inhibits tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine beta-hydroxylase, monoamine oxidase, and VMAT2 expression.


Subject(s)
Dengue , Dopamine , Catecholamines/metabolism , Dopamine/metabolism , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Humans , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Virus Replication
7.
Nature ; 603(7902): 706-714, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764186

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 variant emerged in 20211 and has multiple mutations in its spike protein2. Here we show that the spike protein of Omicron has a higher affinity for ACE2 compared with Delta, and a marked change in its antigenicity increases Omicron's evasion of therapeutic monoclonal and vaccine-elicited polyclonal neutralizing antibodies after two doses. mRNA vaccination as a third vaccine dose rescues and broadens neutralization. Importantly, the antiviral drugs remdesivir and molnupiravir retain efficacy against Omicron BA.1. Replication was similar for Omicron and Delta virus isolates in human nasal epithelial cultures. However, in lung cells and gut cells, Omicron demonstrated lower replication. Omicron spike protein was less efficiently cleaved compared with Delta. The differences in replication were mapped to the entry efficiency of the virus on the basis of spike-pseudotyped virus assays. The defect in entry of Omicron pseudotyped virus to specific cell types effectively correlated with higher cellular RNA expression of TMPRSS2, and deletion of TMPRSS2 affected Delta entry to a greater extent than Omicron. Furthermore, drug inhibitors targeting specific entry pathways3 demonstrated that the Omicron spike inefficiently uses the cellular protease TMPRSS2, which promotes cell entry through plasma membrane fusion, with greater dependency on cell entry through the endocytic pathway. Consistent with suboptimal S1/S2 cleavage and inability to use TMPRSS2, syncytium formation by the Omicron spike was substantially impaired compared with the Delta spike. The less efficient spike cleavage of Omicron at S1/S2 is associated with a shift in cellular tropism away from TMPRSS2-expressing cells, with implications for altered pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Membrane Fusion , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Line , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cell Membrane/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Immune Sera/immunology , Intestines/pathology , Intestines/virology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Nasal Mucosa/pathology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Tissue Culture Techniques , Virulence , Virus Replication
8.
Antiviral Res ; 200: 105270, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763566

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has made evident the need for broad-spectrum, efficient antiviral treatments to combat emerging and re-emerging viruses. Plitidepsin is an antitumor agent of marine origin that has also shown a potent pre-clinical efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. Plitidepsin targets the host protein eEF1A (eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha) and affects viral infection at an early, post-entry step. Because electron microscopy is a valuable tool to study virus-cell interactions and the mechanism of action of antiviral drugs, in this work we have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to evaluate the effects of plitidepsin in SARS-CoV-2 infection in cultured Vero E6 cells 24 and 48h post-infection. In the absence of plitidepsin, TEM morphological analysis showed double-membrane vesicles (DMVs), organelles that support coronavirus genome replication, single-membrane vesicles with viral particles, large vacuoles with groups of viruses and numerous extracellular virions attached to the plasma membrane. When treated with plitidepsin, no viral structures were found in SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero E6 cells. Immunogold detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) provided clear signals in cells infected in the absence of plitidepsin, but complete absence in cells infected and treated with plitidepsin. The present study shows that plitidepsin blocks the biogenesis of viral replication organelles and the morphogenesis of virus progeny. Electron microscopy morphological analysis coupled to immunogold labeling of SARS-CoV-2 products offers a unique approach to understand how antivirals such as plitidepsin work.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depsipeptides , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Depsipeptides/pharmacology , Peptides, Cyclic , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
9.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763118

ABSTRACT

Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer and has proven to be critical in viral infections. Metabolic reprogramming provides the cell with energy and biomass for large-scale biosynthesis. Based on studies of the cellular changes that contribute to metabolic reprogramming, seven main hallmarks can be identified: (1) increased glycolysis and lactic acid, (2) increased glutaminolysis, (3) increased pentose phosphate pathway, (4) mitochondrial changes, (5) increased lipid metabolism, (6) changes in amino acid metabolism, and (7) changes in other biosynthetic and bioenergetic pathways. Viruses depend on metabolic reprogramming to increase biomass to fuel viral genome replication and production of new virions. Viruses take advantage of the non-metabolic effects of metabolic reprogramming, creating an anti-apoptotic environment and evading the immune system. Other non-metabolic effects can negatively affect cellular function. Understanding the role metabolic reprogramming plays in viral pathogenesis may provide better therapeutic targets for antivirals.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Viruses , Energy Metabolism , Glycolysis , Humans , Mitochondria/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , Virus Replication , Viruses/genetics
10.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(2): e52-e58, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751515

ABSTRACT

As the number of individuals vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 rises worldwide, population-level data regarding the vaccines' ability to reduce infection are being generated. Randomised trials have shown that these vaccines dramatically reduce symptomatic COVID-19; however, less is known about their effects on transmission between individuals. The natural course of infection with SARS-CoV-2 involves infection of the respiratory epithelia and replication within the mucosa to sufficient viral titres for transmission via aerosol particles and droplets. Here we discuss the available data on the existing, approved SARS-CoV-2 vaccines' capacity to reduce transmissibility by reducing primary infection, viral replication, capacity for transmission, and symptomaticity. The potential for mucosal-targeted SARS-CoV-2 vaccine strategies to more effectively limit transmission than intramuscular vaccines is considered with regard to known immunological mechanisms. Finally, we enumerate the population-level effects of approved vaccines on transmission through observational studies following clinical trials and vaccine distribution in real-world settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Virus Replication/immunology
11.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(2): e1010342, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753215

ABSTRACT

Viral infection of the heart is a common but underappreciated cause of heart failure. Viruses can cause direct cardiac damage by lysing infected cardiomyocytes. Inflammatory immune responses that limit viral replication can also indirectly cause damage during infection, making regulatory factors that fine-tune these responses particularly important. Identifying and understanding these factors that regulate cardiac immune responses during infection will be essential for developing targeted treatments for virus-associated heart failure. Our laboratory has discovered Brain Expressed X-linked protein 1 (BEX1) as a novel stress-regulated pro-inflammatory factor in the heart. Here we report that BEX1 plays a cardioprotective role in the heart during viral infection. Specifically, we adopted genetic gain- and loss-of-function strategies to modulate BEX1 expression in the heart in the context of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced cardiomyopathy and found that BEX1 limits viral replication in cardiomyocytes. Interestingly, despite the greater viral load observed in mice lacking BEX1, inflammatory immune cell recruitment in the mouse heart was profoundly impaired in the absence of BEX1. Overall, the absence of BEX1 accelerated CVB3-driven heart failure and pathologic heart remodeling. This result suggests that limiting inflammatory cell recruitment has detrimental consequences for the heart during viral infections. Conversely, transgenic mice overexpressing BEX1 in cardiomyocytes revealed the efficacy of BEX1 for counteracting viral replication in the heart in vivo. We also found that BEX1 retains its antiviral role in isolated cells. Indeed, BEX1 was necessary and sufficient to counteract viral replication in both isolated primary cardiomyocytes and mouse embryonic fibroblasts suggesting a broader applicability of BEX1 as antiviral agent that extended to viruses other than CVB3, including Influenza A and Sendai virus. Mechanistically, BEX1 regulated interferon beta (IFN-ß) expression in infected cells. Overall, our study suggests a multifaceted role of BEX1 in the cardiac antiviral immune response.


Subject(s)
Coxsackievirus Infections , Heart Failure , Myocarditis , Virus Diseases , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Enterovirus B, Human , Fibroblasts , Mice , Myocytes, Cardiac , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Replication
12.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(2): e1010268, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753212

ABSTRACT

Next generation sequencing has revealed the presence of numerous RNA viruses in animal reservoir hosts, including many closely related to known human pathogens. Despite their zoonotic potential, most of these viruses remain understudied due to not yet being cultured. While reverse genetic systems can facilitate virus rescue, this is often hindered by missing viral genome ends. A prime example is Lloviu virus (LLOV), an uncultured filovirus that is closely related to the highly pathogenic Ebola virus. Using minigenome systems, we complemented the missing LLOV genomic ends and identified cis-acting elements required for LLOV replication that were lacking in the published sequence. We leveraged these data to generate recombinant full-length LLOV clones and rescue infectious virus. Similar to other filoviruses, recombinant LLOV (rLLOV) forms filamentous virions and induces the formation of characteristic inclusions in the cytoplasm of the infected cells, as shown by electron microscopy. Known target cells of Ebola virus, including macrophages and hepatocytes, are permissive to rLLOV infection, suggesting that humans could be potential hosts. However, inflammatory responses in human macrophages, a hallmark of Ebola virus disease, are not induced by rLLOV. Additional tropism testing identified pneumocytes as capable of robust rLLOV and Ebola virus infection. We also used rLLOV to test antivirals targeting multiple facets of the replication cycle. Rescue of uncultured viruses of pathogenic concern represents a valuable tool in our arsenal for pandemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
Ebolavirus/genetics , Filoviridae Infections/virology , Filoviridae/genetics , Virus Replication , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Genetic Complementation Test , Genome, Viral , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/virology , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Inclusion Bodies/virology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Macrophages/virology , RNA, Viral , Reverse Genetics , Vero Cells , Virion/genetics
13.
J Biol Chem ; 297(6): 101362, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751075

ABSTRACT

The Nsp9 replicase is a conserved coronaviral protein that acts as an essential accessory component of the multi-subunit viral replication/transcription complex. Nsp9 is the predominant substrate for the essential nucleotidylation activity of Nsp12. Compounds specifically interfering with this viral activity would facilitate its study. Using a native mass-spectrometry-based approach to screen a natural product library for Nsp9 binders, we identified an ent-kaurane natural product, oridonin, capable of binding to purified SARS-CoV-2 Nsp9 with micromolar affinities. By determining the crystal structure of the Nsp9-oridonin complex, we showed that oridonin binds through a conserved site near Nsp9's C-terminal GxxxG-helix. In enzymatic assays, oridonin's binding to Nsp9 reduces its potential to act as substrate for Nsp12's Nidovirus RdRp-Associated Nucleotidyl transferase (NiRAN) domain. We also showed using in vitro cellular assays oridonin, while cytotoxic at higher doses has broad antiviral activity, reducing viral titer following infection with either SARS-CoV-2 or, to a lesser extent, MERS-CoV. Accordingly, these preliminary findings suggest that the oridonin molecular scaffold may have the potential to be developed into an antiviral compound to inhibit the function of Nsp9 during coronaviral replication.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diterpenes, Kaurane/pharmacology , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites/drug effects , Biological Products/chemistry , Biological Products/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Diterpenes, Kaurane/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , RNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry
14.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1406, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750000

ABSTRACT

Human rhinovirus (HRV), like coronavirus (HCoV), are positive-strand RNA viruses that cause both upper and lower respiratory tract illness, with their replication facilitated by concentrating RNA-synthesizing machinery in intracellular compartments made of modified host membranes, referred to as replication organelles (ROs). Here we report a non-canonical, essential function for stimulator of interferon genes (STING) during HRV infections. While the canonical function of STING is to detect cytosolic DNA and activate inflammatory responses, HRV infection triggers the release of STIM1-bound STING in the ER by lowering Ca2+, thereby allowing STING to interact with phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) and traffic to ROs to facilitates viral replication and transmission via autophagy. Our results thus hint a critical function of STING in HRV viral replication and transmission, with possible implications for other RO-mediated RNA viruses.


Subject(s)
Enterovirus , RNA Viruses , Humans , Organelles , Rhinovirus , Virus Replication/physiology
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2505, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747189

ABSTRACT

Mpro, the main protease of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is essential for the viral life cycle. Accordingly, several groups have performed in silico screens to identify Mpro inhibitors that might be used to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections. We selected more than five hundred compounds from the top-ranking hits of two very large in silico screens for on-demand synthesis. We then examined whether these compounds could bind to Mpro and inhibit its protease activity. Two interesting chemotypes were identified, which were further evaluated by characterizing an additional five hundred synthesis on-demand analogues. The compounds of the first chemotype denatured Mpro and were considered not useful for further development. The compounds of the second chemotype bound to and enhanced the melting temperature of Mpro. The most active compound from this chemotype inhibited Mpro in vitro with an IC50 value of 1 µM and suppressed replication of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in tissue culture cells. Its mode of binding to Mpro was determined by X-ray crystallography, revealing that it is a non-covalent inhibitor. We propose that the inhibitors described here could form the basis for medicinal chemistry efforts that could lead to the development of clinically relevant inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , Humans , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nitriles/chemistry , Nitriles/metabolism , Nitriles/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Quinazolines/chemistry , Quinazolines/metabolism , Quinazolines/pharmacology , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects
16.
J Virol ; 96(7): e0199521, 2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745826

ABSTRACT

C-type lectin domain-containing proteins (CTLDcps) shape host responses to pathogens and infectious disease outcomes. Previously, we identified the murine CTLDcp Cd302 as restriction factor, limiting hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection of murine hepatocytes. In this study, we investigated in detail the human orthologue's ability to restrict HCV infection in human liver cells. CD302 overexpression in Huh-7.5 cells potently inhibited infection of diverse HCV chimeras representing seven genotypes. Transcriptional profiling revealed abundant CD302 mRNA expression in human hepatocytes, the natural cellular target of HCV. Knockdown of endogenously expressed CD302 modestly enhanced HCV infection of Huh-7.5 cells and primary human hepatocytes. Functional analysis of naturally occurring CD302 transcript variants and engineered CD302 mutants showed that the C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) is essential for HCV restriction, whereas the cytoplasmic domain (CPD) is dispensable. Coding single nucleotide polymorphisms occurring in human populations and mapping to different domains of CD302 did not influence the capacity of CD302 to restrict HCV. Assessment of the anti-HCV phenotype at different life cycle stages indicated that CD302 preferentially targets the viral entry step. In contrast to the murine orthologue, overexpression of human CD302 did not modulate downstream expression of nuclear receptor-controlled genes. Ectopic CD302 expression restricted infection of liver tropic hepatitis E virus (HEV), while it did not affect infection rates of two respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and the alpha coronavirus HVCoV-229E. Together, these findings suggest that CD302 contributes to liver cell-intrinsic defense against HCV and might mediate broader antiviral defenses against additional hepatotropic viruses. IMPORTANCE The liver represents an immunoprivileged organ characterized by enhanced resistance to immune responses. However, the importance of liver cell-endogenous, noncytolytic innate immune responses in pathogen control is not well defined. Although the role of myeloid cell-expressed CTLDcps in host responses to viruses has been characterized in detail, we have little information about their potential functions in the liver and their relevance for immune responses in this organ. Human hepatocytes endogenously express the CTLDcp CD302. Here, we provide evidence that CD302 limits HCV infection of human liver cells, likely by inhibiting a viral cell entry step. We confirm that the dominant liver-expressed transcript variant, as well as naturally occurring coding variants of CD302, maintain the capacity to restrict HCV. We further show that the CTLD of the protein is critical for the anti-HCV activity and that overexpressed CD302 limits HEV infection. Thus, CD302 likely contributes to human liver-intrinsic antiviral defenses.


Subject(s)
Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Asialoglycoprotein Receptor/metabolism , Hepacivirus/physiology , Hepatitis C/metabolism , Hepatocytes , Humans , Lectins, C-Type/genetics , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Mice , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Virus Replication
17.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744920

ABSTRACT

Involvement of macrophages in the SARS-CoV-2-associated cytokine storm, the excessive secretion of inflammatory/anti-viral factors leading to the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients, is unclear. In this study, we sought to characterize the interplay between the virus and primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). MDM were stimulated with recombinant IFN-α and/or infected with either live or UV-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 or with two reassortant influenza viruses containing external genes from the H1N1 PR8 strain and heterologous internal genes from a highly pathogenic avian H5N1 or a low pathogenic human seasonal H1N1 strain. Virus replication was monitored by qRT-PCR for the E viral gene for SARS-CoV-2 or M gene for influenza and TCID50 or plaque assay, and cytokine levels were assessed semiquantitatively with qRT-PCR and a proteome cytokine array. We report that MDM are not susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 whereas both influenza viruses replicated in MDM, albeit abortively. We observed a modest cytokine response in SARS-CoV-2 exposed MDM with notable absence of IFN-ß induction, which was instead strongly induced by the influenza viruses. Pre-treatment of MDM with IFN-α enhanced proinflammatory cytokine expression upon exposure to virus. Together, the findings concur that the hyperinflammation observed in SARS-CoV-2 infection is not driven by macrophages.


Subject(s)
Inflammation/virology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Replication/genetics , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/immunology , Interferon-alpha/pharmacology , Macrophages/drug effects , Male , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
18.
J Virol ; 96(7): e0151621, 2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744134

ABSTRACT

ADP-ribosylation is a highly dynamic posttranslational modification frequently studied in stress response pathways with recent attention given to its role in response to viral infection. Notably, the alphaviruses encode catalytically active macrodomains capable of ADP-ribosylhydrolase (ARH) activities, implying a role in remodeling the cellular ADP-ribosylome. This report decouples mono- and poly-ARH contributions to macrodomain function using a newly engineered Sindbis virus (SINV) mutant with attenuated poly-ARH activity. Our findings indicate that viral poly-ARH activity is uniquely required for high titer replication in mammalian systems. Despite translating incoming genomic RNA as efficiently as WT virus, mutant viruses have a reduced capacity to establish productive infection, offering a more complete understanding of the kinetics and role of the alphavirus macrodomain with important implications for broader ADP-ribosyltransferase biology. IMPORTANCE Viral macrodomains have drawn attention in recent years due to their high degree of conservation in several virus families (e.g., coronaviruses and alphaviruses) and their potential druggability. These domains erase mono- or poly-ADP-ribose, posttranslational modifications written by host poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) proteins, from undetermined host or viral proteins to enhance replication. Prior work determined that efficient alphavirus replication requires catalytically active macrodomains; however, which form of the modification requires removal and from which protein(s) had not been determined. Here, we present evidence for the specific requirement of poly-ARH activity to ensure efficient productive infection and virus replication.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose , Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose/metabolism , Animals , Coronavirus/genetics , Mammals/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/genetics
19.
EMBO Mol Med ; 14(4): e15811, 2022 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1743028

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need to bring new antivirals to SARS-CoV-2 to the market. Indeed, in the last 3 months, we have seen at least two new antivirals approved, molnupiravir and paxlovid. Both are older established antivirals that show some efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. The work by Chang et al (2022) in the current issue of EMBO Molecular Medicine explores the use of short interfering RNAs to directly target SARS-CoV-2 and shows that RNAi is an effective approach to reducing, or even eliminating viral replication, depending on the experimental setting. This antiviral effect results in significant prevention of infection-related pathology in animals. The key feature of this approach, besides its simplicity as naked siRNAs, is that all current variants are covered by this treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/pharmacology , RNA, Small Interfering/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication
20.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742729

ABSTRACT

We extend our established agent-based multiscale computational model of infection of lung tissue by SARS-CoV-2 to include pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models of remdesivir. We model remdesivir treatment for COVID-19; however, our methods are general to other viral infections and antiviral therapies. We investigate the effects of drug potency, drug dosing frequency, treatment initiation delay, antiviral half-life, and variability in cellular uptake and metabolism of remdesivir and its active metabolite on treatment outcomes in a simulated patch of infected epithelial tissue. Non-spatial deterministic population models which treat all cells of a given class as identical can clarify how treatment dosage and timing influence treatment efficacy. However, they do not reveal how cell-to-cell variability affects treatment outcomes. Our simulations suggest that for a given treatment regime, including cell-to-cell variation in drug uptake, permeability and metabolism increase the likelihood of uncontrolled infection as the cells with the lowest internal levels of antiviral act as super-spreaders within the tissue. The model predicts substantial variability in infection outcomes between similar tissue patches for different treatment options. In models with cellular metabolic variability, antiviral doses have to be increased significantly (>50% depending on simulation parameters) to achieve the same treatment results as with the homogeneous cellular metabolism.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Epithelium , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
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