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1.
Bioorg Chem ; 129: 106185, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060449

ABSTRACT

The evolving SARS-CoV-2 epidemic buffets the world, and the concerted efforts are needed to explore effective drugs. Mpro is an intriguing antiviral target for interfering with viral RNA replication and transcription. In order to get potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents, we established an enzymatic assay using a fluorogenic substrate to screen the inhibitors of Mpro. Fortunately, Acriflavine (ACF) and Proflavine Hemisulfate (PRF) with the same acridine scaffold were picked out for their good inhibitory activity against Mpro with IC50 of 5.60 ± 0.29 µM and 2.07 ± 0.01 µM, respectively. Further evaluation of MST assay and enzymatic kinetics experiment in vitro showed that they had a certain affinity to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and were both non-competitive inhibitors. In addition, they inhibited about 90 % HCoV-OC43 replication in BHK-21 cells at 1 µM. Both compounds showed nano-molar activities against SARS-CoV-2 virus, which were superior to GC376 for anti-HCoV-43, and equivalent to the standard molecule remdesivir. Our study demonstrated that ACF and PRF were inhibitors of Mpro, and ACF has been previously reported as a PLpro inhibitor. Taken together, ACF and PRF might be dual-targeted inhibitors to provide protection against infections of coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Acriflavine , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors , Proflavine , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Protease Inhibitors , Acriflavine/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Proflavine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Viral Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Mesocricetus , Animals , Cricetinae , Cell Line , Virus Replication/drug effects
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(30): e2123065119, 2022 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947760

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, undergoes continuous evolution, highlighting an urgent need for development of novel antiviral therapies. Here we show a quantitative mass spectrometry-based succinylproteomics analysis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Caco-2 cells, revealing dramatic reshape of succinylation on host and viral proteins. SARS-CoV-2 infection promotes succinylation of several key enzymes in the TCA, leading to inhibition of cellular metabolic pathways. We demonstrated that host protein succinylation is regulated by viral nonstructural protein (NSP14) through interaction with sirtuin 5 (SIRT5); overexpressed SIRT5 can effectively inhibit virus replication. We found succinylation inhibitors possess significant antiviral effects. We also found that SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and membrane proteins underwent succinylation modification, which was conserved in SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Collectively, our results uncover a regulatory mechanism of host protein posttranslational modification and cellular pathways mediated by SARS-CoV-2, which may become antiviral drug targets against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Caco-2 Cells , Exoribonucleases/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sirtuins/metabolism , Succinates/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(26): e2122897119, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890411

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) evolves rapidly under the pressure of host immunity, as evidenced by waves of emerging variants despite effective vaccinations, highlighting the need for complementing antivirals. We report that targeting a pyrimidine synthesis enzyme restores inflammatory response and depletes the nucleotide pool to impede SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 deploys Nsp9 to activate carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase, aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase (CAD) that catalyzes the rate-limiting steps of the de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Activated CAD not only fuels de novo nucleotide synthesis but also deamidates RelA. While RelA deamidation shuts down NF-κB activation and subsequent inflammatory response, it up-regulates key glycolytic enzymes to promote aerobic glycolysis that provides metabolites for de novo nucleotide synthesis. A newly synthesized small-molecule inhibitor of CAD restores antiviral inflammatory response and depletes the pyrimidine pool, thus effectively impeding SARS-CoV-2 replication. Targeting an essential cellular metabolic enzyme thus offers an antiviral strategy that would be more refractory to SARS-CoV-2 genetic changes.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Aspartate Carbamoyltransferase , COVID-19 , Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Glutamine-Hydrolyzing) , Dihydroorotase , Enzyme Inhibitors , Pyrimidines , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Aspartate Carbamoyltransferase/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Glutamine-Hydrolyzing)/antagonists & inhibitors , Dihydroorotase/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Mice , Pyrimidines/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrimidines/biosynthesis , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transcription Factor RelA/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
4.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820426

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2, SARS2) remains a great global health threat and demands identification of more effective and SARS2-targeted antiviral drugs, even with successful development of anti-SARS2 vaccines. Viral replicons have proven to be a rapid, safe, and readily scalable platform for high-throughput screening, identification, and evaluation of antiviral drugs against positive-stranded RNA viruses. In the study, we report a unique robust HIV long terminal repeat (LTR)/T7 dual-promoter-driven and dual-reporter firefly luciferase (fLuc) and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing SARS2 replicon. The genomic organization of the replicon was designed with quite a few features that were to ensure the replication fidelity of the replicon, to maximize the expression of the full-length replicon, and to offer the monitoring flexibility of the replicon replication. We showed the success of the construction of the replicon and expression of reporter genes fLuc and GFP and SARS structural N from the replicon DNA or the RNA that was in vitro transcribed from the replicon DNA. We also showed detection of the negative-stranded genomic RNA (gRNA) and subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) intermediates, a hallmark of replication of positive-stranded RNA viruses from the replicon. Lastly, we showed that expression of the reporter genes, N gene, gRNA, and sgRNA from the replicon was sensitive to inhibition by Remdesivir. Taken together, our results support use of the replicon for identification of anti-SARS2 drugs and development of new anti-SARS strategies targeted at the step of virus replication.


Subject(s)
Replicon , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Genes, Reporter , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , Luciferases, Firefly/genetics , Luciferases, Firefly/metabolism , Promoter Regions, Genetic , RNA, Guide , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects
5.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820410

ABSTRACT

New strategies to rapidly develop broad-spectrum antiviral therapies are urgently required for emerging and re-emerging viruses. Host-targeting antivirals (HTAs) that target the universal host factors necessary for viral replication are the most promising approach, with broad-spectrum, foresighted function, and low resistance. We and others recently identified that host dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is one of the universal host factors essential for the replication of many acute-infectious viruses. DHODH is a rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing the fourth step in de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Therefore, it has also been developed as a therapeutic target for many diseases relying on cellular pyrimidine resources, such as cancers, autoimmune diseases, and viral or bacterial infections. Significantly, the successful use of DHODH inhibitors (DHODHi) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection further supports the application prospects. This review focuses on the advantages of HTAs and the antiviral effects of DHODHi with clinical applications. The multiple functions of DHODHi in inhibiting viral replication, stimulating ISGs expression, and suppressing cytokine storms make DHODHi a potent strategy against viral infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Pyrimidines , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Replication/drug effects , Viruses/drug effects
6.
Virology ; 571: 21-33, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783830

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the deadly novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the current COVID-19 pandemic. To date, vaccines are available in the developed countries to prevent the infection of this virus; however, medicines are necessary to help control COVID-19. Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) causes the common cold. The main protease (Mpro) is an essential enzyme required for the multiplication of these two viruses in the host cells, and thus is an appropriate candidate to screen potential medicinal compounds. Flavonols and dihydroflavonols are two groups of plant flavonoids. In this study, we report docking simulation with two Mpro enzymes and five flavonols and three dihydroflavonols, in vitro inhibition of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, and in vitro inhibition of the HCoV 229E replication. The docking simulation results predicted that (+)-dihydrokaempferol, (+)- dihydroquercetin, (+)-dihydromyricetin, kaempferol, quercetin, myricentin, isoquercitrin, and rutin could bind to at least two subsites (S1, S1', S2, and S4) in the binding pocket and inhibit the activity of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Their affinity scores ranged from -8.8 to -7.4 (kcal/mol). Likewise, these compounds were predicted to bind and inhibit the HCoV-229E Mpro activity with affinity scores ranging from -7.1 to -7.8 (kcal/mol). In vitro inhibition assays showed that seven available compounds effectively inhibited the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro activity and their IC50 values ranged from 0.125 to 12.9 µM. Five compounds inhibited the replication of HCoV-229E in Huh-7 cells. These findings indicate that these antioxidative flavonols and dihydroflavonols are promising candidates for curbing the two viruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Flavonols , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Flavonols/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
8.
Eur J Med Chem ; 229: 114046, 2022 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768050

ABSTRACT

Severe diseases such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the previous SARS and MERS outbreaks, are the result of coronavirus infections and have demonstrated the urgent need for antiviral drugs to combat these deadly viruses. Due to its essential role in viral replication and function, 3CLpro (main coronaviruses cysteine-protease) has been identified as a promising target for the development of antiviral drugs. Previously reported SARS-CoV 3CLpro non-covalent inhibitors were used as a starting point for the development of covalent inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. We report herein our efforts in the design and synthesis of submicromolar covalent inhibitors when the enzymatic activity of the viral protease was used as a screening platform.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Drug Design , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , Virus Replication/drug effects
9.
J Biol Chem ; 297(6): 101362, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751075

ABSTRACT

The Nsp9 replicase is a conserved coronaviral protein that acts as an essential accessory component of the multi-subunit viral replication/transcription complex. Nsp9 is the predominant substrate for the essential nucleotidylation activity of Nsp12. Compounds specifically interfering with this viral activity would facilitate its study. Using a native mass-spectrometry-based approach to screen a natural product library for Nsp9 binders, we identified an ent-kaurane natural product, oridonin, capable of binding to purified SARS-CoV-2 Nsp9 with micromolar affinities. By determining the crystal structure of the Nsp9-oridonin complex, we showed that oridonin binds through a conserved site near Nsp9's C-terminal GxxxG-helix. In enzymatic assays, oridonin's binding to Nsp9 reduces its potential to act as substrate for Nsp12's Nidovirus RdRp-Associated Nucleotidyl transferase (NiRAN) domain. We also showed using in vitro cellular assays oridonin, while cytotoxic at higher doses has broad antiviral activity, reducing viral titer following infection with either SARS-CoV-2 or, to a lesser extent, MERS-CoV. Accordingly, these preliminary findings suggest that the oridonin molecular scaffold may have the potential to be developed into an antiviral compound to inhibit the function of Nsp9 during coronaviral replication.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diterpenes, Kaurane/pharmacology , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites/drug effects , Biological Products/chemistry , Biological Products/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Diterpenes, Kaurane/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , RNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2505, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747189

ABSTRACT

Mpro, the main protease of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is essential for the viral life cycle. Accordingly, several groups have performed in silico screens to identify Mpro inhibitors that might be used to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections. We selected more than five hundred compounds from the top-ranking hits of two very large in silico screens for on-demand synthesis. We then examined whether these compounds could bind to Mpro and inhibit its protease activity. Two interesting chemotypes were identified, which were further evaluated by characterizing an additional five hundred synthesis on-demand analogues. The compounds of the first chemotype denatured Mpro and were considered not useful for further development. The compounds of the second chemotype bound to and enhanced the melting temperature of Mpro. The most active compound from this chemotype inhibited Mpro in vitro with an IC50 value of 1 µM and suppressed replication of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in tissue culture cells. Its mode of binding to Mpro was determined by X-ray crystallography, revealing that it is a non-covalent inhibitor. We propose that the inhibitors described here could form the basis for medicinal chemistry efforts that could lead to the development of clinically relevant inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , Humans , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nitriles/chemistry , Nitriles/metabolism , Nitriles/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Quinazolines/chemistry , Quinazolines/metabolism , Quinazolines/pharmacology , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects
11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 841459, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731786

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, COVID-19 emerged in Wuhan, China. Currently, it is an ongoing global health threat stressing the need for therapeutic compounds. Linking the virus life cycle and its interaction with cell receptors and internal cellular machinery is key to developing therapies based on the control of infectivity and inflammation. In this framework, we evaluate the combination of cannabidiol (CBD), as an anti-inflammatory molecule, and terpenes, by their anti-microbiological properties, in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. Our group settled six formulations combining CBD and terpenes purified from Cannabis sativa L, Origanum vulgare, and Thymus mastichina. The formulations were analyzed by HPLC and GC-MS and evaluated for virucide and antiviral potential by in vitro studies in alveolar basal epithelial, colon, kidney, and keratinocyte human cell lines. Conclusions and Impact: We demonstrate the virucide effectiveness of CBD and terpene-based formulations. F2TC reduces the infectivity by 17%, 24%, and 99% for CaCo-2, HaCat, and A549, respectively, and F1TC by 43%, 37%, and 29% for Hek293T, HaCaT, and Caco-2, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first approach that tackles the combination of CBD with a specific group of terpenes against SARS-CoV-2 in different cell lines. The differential effectiveness of formulations according to the cell line can be relevant to understanding the pattern of virus infectivity and the host inflammation response, and lead to new therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cannabidiol/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Terpenes/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cannabidiol/chemistry , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Drug Synergism , Humans , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Terpenes/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 820131, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731776

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently a worldwide emergency caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In observational clinical studies, statins have been identified as beneficial to hospitalized patients with COVID-19. However, experimental evidence of underlying statins protection against SARS-CoV-2 remains elusive. Here we reported for the first-time experimental evidence of the protective effects of simvastatin treatment both in vitro and in vivo. We found that treatment with simvastatin significantly reduced the viral replication and lung damage in vivo, delaying SARS-CoV-2-associated physiopathology and mortality in the K18-hACE2-transgenic mice model. Moreover, simvastatin also downregulated the inflammation triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection in pulmonary tissue and in human neutrophils, peripheral blood monocytes, and lung epithelial Calu-3 cells in vitro, showing its potential to modulate the inflammatory response both at the site of infection and systemically. Additionally, we also observed that simvastatin affected the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection through displacing ACE2 on cell membrane lipid rafts. In conclusion, our results show that simvastatin exhibits early protective effects on SARS-CoV-2 infection by inhibiting virus cell entry and inflammatory cytokine production, through mechanisms at least in part dependent on lipid rafts disruption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Membrane Microdomains/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Simvastatin/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Virus Replication/drug effects
13.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726021

ABSTRACT

The ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) signals an urgent need for an expansion in treatment options. In this study, we investigated the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities of 22 antiviral agents with known broad-spectrum antiviral activities against coronaviruses and/or other viruses. They were first evaluated in our primary screening in VeroE6 cells and then the most potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 antiviral agents were further evaluated using viral antigen expression, viral load reduction, and plaque reduction assays. In addition to remdesivir, lopinavir, and chloroquine, our primary screening additionally identified types I and II recombinant interferons, 25-hydroxycholesterol, and AM580 as the most potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents among the 22 antiviral agents. Betaferon (interferon-ß1b) exhibited the most potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity in viral antigen expression, viral load reduction, and plaque reduction assays among the recombinant interferons. The lipogenesis modulators 25-hydroxycholesterol and AM580 exhibited EC50 at low micromolar levels and selectivity indices of >10.0. Combinational use of these host-based antiviral agents with virus-based antivirals to target different processes of the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle should be evaluated in animal models and/or clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Animals , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Lipogenesis/drug effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Vero Cells , Viral Load/drug effects , Viral Plaque Assay , Virus Replication/drug effects
14.
Sci Adv ; 8(8): eabi6110, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714330

ABSTRACT

The spread of SARS-CoV-2 and ongoing COVID-19 pandemic underscores the need for new treatments. Here we report that cannabidiol (CBD) inhibits infection of SARS-CoV-2 in cells and mice. CBD and its metabolite 7-OH-CBD, but not THC or other congeneric cannabinoids tested, potently block SARS-CoV-2 replication in lung epithelial cells. CBD acts after viral entry, inhibiting viral gene expression and reversing many effects of SARS-CoV-2 on host gene transcription. CBD inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in part by up-regulating the host IRE1α RNase endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response and interferon signaling pathways. In matched groups of human patients from the National COVID Cohort Collaborative, CBD (100 mg/ml oral solution per medical records) had a significant negative association with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests. This study highlights CBD as a potential preventative agent for early-stage SARS-CoV-2 infection and merits future clinical trials. We caution against use of non-medical formulations including edibles, inhalants or topicals as a preventative or treatment therapy at the present time.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cannabidiol/pharmacology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cannabidiol/chemistry , Cannabidiol/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/drug effects , Endoribonucleases/genetics , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Mice , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
15.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707748

ABSTRACT

In the current context of the COVID-19 pandemic, it appears that our scientific resources and the medical community are not sufficiently developed to combat rapid viral spread all over the world. A number of viruses causing epidemics have already disseminated across the world in the last few years, such as the dengue or chinkungunya virus, the Ebola virus, and other coronavirus families such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV). The outbreaks of these infectious diseases have demonstrated the difficulty of treating an epidemic before the creation of vaccine. Different antiviral drugs already exist. However, several of them cause side effects or have lost their efficiency because of virus mutations. It is essential to develop new antiviral strategies, but ones that rely on more natural compounds to decrease the secondary effects. Polysaccharides, which have come to be known in recent years for their medicinal properties, including antiviral activities, are an excellent alternative. They are essential for the metabolism of plants, microorganisms, and animals, and are directly extractible. Polysaccharides have attracted more and more attention due to their therapeutic properties, low toxicity, and availability, and seem to be attractive candidates as antiviral drugs of tomorrow.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Viruses/drug effects , Animals , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Ebolavirus/drug effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Replication/drug effects , Viruses/classification , Viruses/pathogenicity
16.
J Med Chem ; 65(4): 2880-2904, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705973

ABSTRACT

Starting from the MLPCN probe compound ML300, a structure-based optimization campaign was initiated against the recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) main protease (3CLpro). X-ray structures of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro enzymes in complex with multiple ML300-based inhibitors, including the original probe ML300, were obtained and proved instrumental in guiding chemistry toward probe compound 41 (CCF0058981). The disclosed inhibitors utilize a noncovalent mode of action and complex in a noncanonical binding mode not observed by peptidic 3CLpro inhibitors. In vitro DMPK profiling highlights key areas where further optimization in the series is required to obtain useful in vivo probes. Antiviral activity was established using a SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero E6 cell viability assay and a plaque formation assay. Compound 41 demonstrates nanomolar activity in these respective assays, comparable in potency to remdesivir. These findings have implications for antiviral development to combat current and future SARS-like zoonotic coronavirus outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Peptidomimetics/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/isolation & purification , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Glutamine/chemistry , Glutamine/pharmacology , Humans , Ketones/chemistry , Ketones/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Models, Molecular , Molecular Structure , Peptidomimetics/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
17.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 154, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699831

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has an exonuclease-based proofreader, which removes nucleotide inhibitors such as Remdesivir that are incorporated into the viral RNA during replication, reducing the efficacy of these drugs for treating COVID-19. Combinations of inhibitors of both the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the exonuclease could overcome this deficiency. Here we report the identification of hepatitis C virus NS5A inhibitors Pibrentasvir and Ombitasvir as SARS-CoV-2 exonuclease inhibitors. In the presence of Pibrentasvir, RNAs terminated with the active forms of the prodrugs Sofosbuvir, Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Molnupiravir and AT-527 were largely protected from excision by the exonuclease, while in the absence of Pibrentasvir, there was rapid excision. Due to its unique structure, Tenofovir-terminated RNA was highly resistant to exonuclease excision even in the absence of Pibrentasvir. Viral cell culture studies also demonstrate significant synergy using this combination strategy. This study supports the use of combination drugs that inhibit both the SARS-CoV-2 polymerase and exonuclease for effective COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Exonucleases/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Amino Acid Sequence , Anilides/pharmacology , Animals , Base Sequence , Benzimidazoles/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Synergism , Exonucleases/genetics , Exonucleases/metabolism , Humans , Proline/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Valine/pharmacology , Vero Cells , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/genetics
18.
J Med Chem ; 65(5): 3706-3728, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699705

ABSTRACT

Glucose, the primary substrate for ATP synthesis, is catabolized during glycolysis to generate ATP and precursors for the synthesis of other vital biomolecules. Opportunistic viruses and cancer cells often hijack this metabolic machinery to obtain energy and components needed for their replication and proliferation. One way to halt such energy-dependent processes is by interfering with the glycolytic pathway. 2-Deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) is a synthetic glucose analogue that can inhibit key enzymes in the glycolytic pathway. The efficacy of 2-DG has been reported across an array of diseases and disorders, thereby demonstrating its broad therapeutic potential. Recent approval of 2-DG in India as a therapeutic approach for the management of the COVID-19 pandemic has brought renewed attention to this molecule. The purpose of this perspective is to present updated therapeutic avenues as well as a variety of chemical synthetic strategies for this medically useful sugar derivative, 2-DG.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Deoxyglucose/chemistry , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Deoxyglucose/metabolism , Deoxyglucose/pharmacology , Deoxyglucose/therapeutic use , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Epilepsy/pathology , Glycolysis/drug effects , Humans , Isotope Labeling , Mitochondria/metabolism , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/pathology , Positron-Emission Tomography , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Virus Replication/drug effects
19.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 719, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692616

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for potent and selective antivirals against SARS-CoV-2. Pfizer developed PF-07321332 (PF-332), a potent inhibitor of the viral main protease (Mpro, 3CLpro) that can be dosed orally and that is in clinical development. We here report that PF-332 exerts equipotent in vitro activity against the four SARS-CoV-2 variants of concerns (VoC) and that it can completely arrest replication of the alpha variant in primary human airway epithelial cells grown at the air-liquid interface. Treatment of Syrian Golden hamsters with PF-332 (250 mg/kg, twice daily) completely protected the animals against intranasal infection with the beta (B.1.351) and delta (B.1.617.2) SARS-CoV-2 variants. Moreover, treatment of SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.617.2) infected animals with PF-332 completely prevented transmission to untreated co-housed sentinels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Lactams/administration & dosage , Leucine/administration & dosage , Nitriles/administration & dosage , Proline/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Protease Inhibitors/administration & dosage , A549 Cells , Administration, Oral , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Cricetinae , Humans , Lactams/pharmacokinetics , Leucine/pharmacokinetics , Mesocricetus , Nitriles/pharmacokinetics , Proline/pharmacokinetics , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Viral Protease Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Virus Replication/drug effects
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690219

ABSTRACT

The development of prophylactic agents against the SARS-CoV-2 virus is a public health priority in the search for new surrogate markers of active virus replication. Early detection markers are needed to follow disease progression and foresee patient negativization. Subgenomic RNA transcripts (with a focus on sgN) were evaluated in oro/nasopharyngeal swabs from COVID-19-affected patients with an analysis of 315 positive samples using qPCR technology. Cut-off Cq values for sgN (Cq < 33.15) and sgE (Cq < 34.06) showed correlations to high viral loads. The specific loss of sgN in home-isolated and hospitalized COVID-19-positive patients indicated negativization of patient condition, 3-7 days from the first swab, respectively. A new detection kit for sgN, gene E, gene ORF1ab, and gene RNAse P was developed recently. In addition, in vitro studies have shown that 2'-O-methyl antisense RNA (related to the sgN sequence) can impair SARS-CoV-2 N protein synthesis, viral replication, and syncytia formation in human cells (i.e., HEK-293T cells overexpressing ACE2) upon infection with VOC Alpha (B.1.1.7)-SARS-CoV-2 variant, defining the use that this procedure might have for future therapeutic actions against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/physiology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/analysis , Giant Cells/drug effects , Giant Cells/virology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Limit of Detection , Nasopharynx/virology , Phosphoproteins/analysis , Phosphoproteins/genetics , RNA, Antisense/pharmacology , RNA, Viral , Ribonuclease P/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Social Isolation , Viral Load , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication/drug effects
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