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1.
J Virol ; 96(1): e0169521, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816694

ABSTRACT

The replication of coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and the recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is closely associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of infected cells. The unfolded protein response (UPR), which is mediated by ER stress (ERS), is a typical outcome in coronavirus-infected cells and is closely associated with the characteristics of coronaviruses. However, the interaction between virus-induced ERS and coronavirus replication is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that infection with the betacoronavirus porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) induced ERS and triggered all three branches of the UPR signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, ERS suppressed PHEV replication in mouse neuro-2a (N2a) cells primarily by activating the protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK)-eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) axis of the UPR. Moreover, another eIF2α phosphorylation kinase, interferon (IFN)-induced double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), was also activated and acted cooperatively with PERK to decrease PHEV replication. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the PERK/PKR-eIF2α pathways negatively regulated PHEV replication by attenuating global protein translation. Phosphorylated eIF2α also promoted the formation of stress granules (SGs), which in turn repressed PHEV replication. In summary, our study presents a vital aspect of the host innate response to invading pathogens and reveals attractive host targets (e.g., PERK, PKR, and eIF2α) for antiviral drugs. IMPORTANCE Coronavirus diseases are caused by different coronaviruses of importance in humans and animals, and specific treatments are extremely limited. ERS, which can activate the UPR to modulate viral replication and the host innate response, is a frequent occurrence in coronavirus-infected cells. PHEV, a neurotropic betacoronavirus, causes nerve cell damage, which accounts for the high mortality rates in suckling piglets. However, it remains incompletely understood whether the highly developed ER in nerve cells plays an antiviral role in ERS and how ERS regulates viral proliferation. In this study, we found that PHEV infection induced ERS and activated the UPR both in vitro and in vivo and that the activated PERK/PKR-eIF2α axis inhibited PHEV replication through attenuating global protein translation and promoting SG formation. A better understanding of coronavirus-induced ERS and UPR activation may reveal the pathogenic mechanism of coronavirus and facilitate the development of new treatment strategies for these diseases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology , eIF-2 Kinase/metabolism , Animals , Betacoronavirus 1/metabolism , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/ultrastructure , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Mice , Phosphorylation , Protein Biosynthesis , Signal Transduction , Unfolded Protein Response
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1406, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750000

ABSTRACT

Human rhinovirus (HRV), like coronavirus (HCoV), are positive-strand RNA viruses that cause both upper and lower respiratory tract illness, with their replication facilitated by concentrating RNA-synthesizing machinery in intracellular compartments made of modified host membranes, referred to as replication organelles (ROs). Here we report a non-canonical, essential function for stimulator of interferon genes (STING) during HRV infections. While the canonical function of STING is to detect cytosolic DNA and activate inflammatory responses, HRV infection triggers the release of STIM1-bound STING in the ER by lowering Ca2+, thereby allowing STING to interact with phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) and traffic to ROs to facilitates viral replication and transmission via autophagy. Our results thus hint a critical function of STING in HRV viral replication and transmission, with possible implications for other RO-mediated RNA viruses.


Subject(s)
Enterovirus , RNA Viruses , Humans , Organelles , Rhinovirus , Virus Replication/physiology
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690219

ABSTRACT

The development of prophylactic agents against the SARS-CoV-2 virus is a public health priority in the search for new surrogate markers of active virus replication. Early detection markers are needed to follow disease progression and foresee patient negativization. Subgenomic RNA transcripts (with a focus on sgN) were evaluated in oro/nasopharyngeal swabs from COVID-19-affected patients with an analysis of 315 positive samples using qPCR technology. Cut-off Cq values for sgN (Cq < 33.15) and sgE (Cq < 34.06) showed correlations to high viral loads. The specific loss of sgN in home-isolated and hospitalized COVID-19-positive patients indicated negativization of patient condition, 3-7 days from the first swab, respectively. A new detection kit for sgN, gene E, gene ORF1ab, and gene RNAse P was developed recently. In addition, in vitro studies have shown that 2'-O-methyl antisense RNA (related to the sgN sequence) can impair SARS-CoV-2 N protein synthesis, viral replication, and syncytia formation in human cells (i.e., HEK-293T cells overexpressing ACE2) upon infection with VOC Alpha (B.1.1.7)-SARS-CoV-2 variant, defining the use that this procedure might have for future therapeutic actions against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/physiology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/analysis , Giant Cells/drug effects , Giant Cells/virology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Limit of Detection , Nasopharynx/virology , Phosphoproteins/analysis , Phosphoproteins/genetics , RNA, Antisense/pharmacology , RNA, Viral , Ribonuclease P/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Social Isolation , Viral Load , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication/drug effects
4.
Cytokine ; 143: 155525, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1628419

ABSTRACT

Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is a crucial cytokine in host immune response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This study aimed to determine whether a functional polymorphism +874T/A in IFN-γ gene linked to high and low producer phenotypes [IFN-γ (+874Thigh â†’ Alow)] may alter the outcomes of chronic HBV infection in Tunisian population. The +874T/A was analysed by ARMS-PCR method in the group of 200 patients chronically infected with HBV and 200 healthy controls. We observed that minor +874A allele, minor +874AA and +874TA genotypes were significantly more frequent in the chronic hepatitis B group in comparison to the control group [49 vs. 31%, P < 10-4; 24 vs. 13%, P < 10-4; 52 vs. 38%, P < 10-4; respectively]. Besides, they were associated with susceptibility to hepatitis B infection [OR = 2.15, 3.87 and 2.84, respectively]. The minor +874A allele and +874AA genotype were statistically more representative in the sub-group of patients with high viral DNA load when compared with the sub-group of patients with low HBV DNA load [(57% vs. 43%, P = 0.003, OR = 1.79); (33% vs. 14%, P = 0.003, OR = 3.59), respectively]. Collectively, our study suggests an association between the IFN-γ +874T/A SNP and persistence of HBV by the enhancement of HBV DNA replication.


Subject(s)
DNA Replication , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Hepatitis B virus/physiology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/genetics , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Virus Replication/physiology , Adult , Alleles , Case-Control Studies , DNA, Viral/genetics , Female , Gene Frequency/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/virology , Humans , Male , Viral Load/genetics
5.
J Virol ; 96(6): e0000222, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673349

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has the largest RNA genome, approximately 30 kb, among RNA viruses. The DDX DEAD box RNA helicase is a multifunctional protein involved in all aspects of RNA metabolism. Therefore, host RNA helicases may regulate and maintain such a large viral RNA genome. In this study, I investigated the potential role of several host cellular RNA helicases in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Notably, DDX21 knockdown markedly accumulated intracellular viral RNA and viral production, as well as viral infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, indicating that DDX21 strongly restricts the SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition, MOV10 RNA helicase also suppressed the SARS-CoV-2 infection. In contrast, DDX1, DDX5, and DDX6 RNA helicases were required for SARS-CoV-2 replication. Indeed, SARS-CoV-2 infection dispersed the P-body formation of DDX6 and MOV10 RNA helicases as well as XRN1 exonuclease, while the viral infection did not induce stress granule formation. Accordingly, the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein interacted with DDX1, DDX3, DDX5, DDX6, DDX21, and MOV10 and disrupted the P-body formation, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 N hijacks DDX6 to carry out viral replication. Conversely, DDX21 and MOV10 restricted SARS-CoV-2 infection through an interaction of SARS-CoV-2 N with host cellular RNA helicases. Altogether, host cellular RNA helicases seem to regulate the SARS-CoV-2 infection. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 has a large RNA genome, of approximately 30 kb. To regulate and maintain such a large viral RNA genome, host RNA helicases may be involved in SARS-CoV-2 replication. In this study, I have demonstrated that DDX21 and MOV10 RNA helicases limit viral infection and replication. In contrast, DDX1, DDX5, and DDX6 are required for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Interestingly, SARS-CoV-2 infection disrupted P-body formation and attenuated or suppressed stress granule formation. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 seems to hijack host cellular RNA helicases to play a proviral role by facilitating viral infection and replication and by suppressing the host innate immune system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , DEAD-box RNA Helicases/genetics , DEAD-box RNA Helicases/metabolism , Humans , RNA Helicases/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/physiology
6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 460, 2022 01 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1651070

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant has spread rapidly worldwide. To provide data on its virological profile, we here report the first local transmission of Delta in mainland China. All 167 infections could be traced back to the first index case. Daily sequential PCR testing of quarantined individuals indicated that the viral loads of Delta infections, when they first become PCR-positive, were on average ~1000 times greater compared to lineage A/B infections during the first epidemic wave in China in early 2020, suggesting potentially faster viral replication and greater infectiousness of Delta during early infection. The estimated transmission bottleneck size of the Delta variant was generally narrow, with 1-3 virions in 29 donor-recipient transmission pairs. However, the transmission of minor iSNVs resulted in at least 3 of the 34 substitutions that were identified in the outbreak, highlighting the contribution of intra-host variants to population-level viral diversity during rapid spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , RNA-Seq/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Time Factors , Vero Cells , Viral Load/genetics , Viral Load/physiology , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/physiology , Virus Shedding/genetics , Virus Shedding/physiology
7.
Elife ; 112022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634530

ABSTRACT

Despite an unprecedented global research effort on SARS-CoV-2, early replication events remain poorly understood. Given the clinical importance of emergent viral variants with increased transmission, there is an urgent need to understand the early stages of viral replication and transcription. We used single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridisation (smFISH) to quantify positive sense RNA genomes with 95% detection efficiency, while simultaneously visualising negative sense genomes, subgenomic RNAs, and viral proteins. Our absolute quantification of viral RNAs and replication factories revealed that SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA is long-lived after entry, suggesting that it avoids degradation by cellular nucleases. Moreover, we observed that SARS-CoV-2 replication is highly variable between cells, with only a small cell population displaying high burden of viral RNA. Unexpectedly, the B.1.1.7 variant, first identified in the UK, exhibits significantly slower replication kinetics than the Victoria strain, suggesting a novel mechanism contributing to its higher transmissibility with important clinical implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops/genetics , RNA/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology
8.
J Virol ; 96(1): e0169521, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621996

ABSTRACT

The replication of coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and the recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is closely associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of infected cells. The unfolded protein response (UPR), which is mediated by ER stress (ERS), is a typical outcome in coronavirus-infected cells and is closely associated with the characteristics of coronaviruses. However, the interaction between virus-induced ERS and coronavirus replication is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that infection with the betacoronavirus porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) induced ERS and triggered all three branches of the UPR signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, ERS suppressed PHEV replication in mouse neuro-2a (N2a) cells primarily by activating the protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK)-eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) axis of the UPR. Moreover, another eIF2α phosphorylation kinase, interferon (IFN)-induced double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), was also activated and acted cooperatively with PERK to decrease PHEV replication. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the PERK/PKR-eIF2α pathways negatively regulated PHEV replication by attenuating global protein translation. Phosphorylated eIF2α also promoted the formation of stress granules (SGs), which in turn repressed PHEV replication. In summary, our study presents a vital aspect of the host innate response to invading pathogens and reveals attractive host targets (e.g., PERK, PKR, and eIF2α) for antiviral drugs. IMPORTANCE Coronavirus diseases are caused by different coronaviruses of importance in humans and animals, and specific treatments are extremely limited. ERS, which can activate the UPR to modulate viral replication and the host innate response, is a frequent occurrence in coronavirus-infected cells. PHEV, a neurotropic betacoronavirus, causes nerve cell damage, which accounts for the high mortality rates in suckling piglets. However, it remains incompletely understood whether the highly developed ER in nerve cells plays an antiviral role in ERS and how ERS regulates viral proliferation. In this study, we found that PHEV infection induced ERS and activated the UPR both in vitro and in vivo and that the activated PERK/PKR-eIF2α axis inhibited PHEV replication through attenuating global protein translation and promoting SG formation. A better understanding of coronavirus-induced ERS and UPR activation may reveal the pathogenic mechanism of coronavirus and facilitate the development of new treatment strategies for these diseases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology , eIF-2 Kinase/metabolism , Animals , Betacoronavirus 1/metabolism , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/ultrastructure , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Mice , Phosphorylation , Protein Biosynthesis , Signal Transduction , Unfolded Protein Response
9.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(4)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614505

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus contains a single linear RNA segment that serves as a template for transcription and replication, leading to the synthesis of positive and negative-stranded viral RNA (vRNA) in infected cells. Tools to visualize vRNA directly in infected cells are critical to analyze the viral replication cycle, screen for therapeutic molecules, or study infections in human tissue. Here, we report the design, validation, and initial application of FISH probes to visualize positive or negative RNA of SARS-CoV-2 (CoronaFISH). We demonstrate sensitive visualization of vRNA in African green monkey and several human cell lines, in patient samples and human tissue. We further demonstrate the adaptation of CoronaFISH probes to electron microscopy. We provide all required oligonucleotide sequences, source code to design the probes, and a detailed protocol. We hope that CoronaFISH will complement existing techniques for research on SARS-CoV-2 biology and COVID-19 pathophysiology, drug screening, and diagnostics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence/methods , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication/genetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , In Situ Hybridization/methods , Microscopy, Electron/methods , RNA, Viral/ultrastructure , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Vero Cells , Virus Release/drug effects , Virus Release/genetics , Virus Release/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/physiology
10.
Vet Microbiol ; 264: 109271, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593985

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (SEZ) is a commensal bacterium of horses and causes infections in mammalian species, including humans. Historically, virulent strains of SEZ caused high mortality in pigs in China and Indonesia, while disease in the U.S. was infrequent. More recently, high mortality events in sows were attributed to SEZ in North America. The SEZ isolates from these mortality events have high genetic similarity to an isolate from an outbreak in China. Taken together, this may indicate SEZ is an emerging threat to swine health. To generate a disease model and evaluate the susceptibility of healthy, conventionally raised pigs to SEZ, we challenged sows and five-month-old pigs with an isolate from a 2019 mortality event. Pigs were challenged with a genetically similar guinea pig isolate or genetically distinct horse isolate to evaluate comparative virulence. The swine isolate caused severe systemic disease in challenged pigs with 100 % mortality. Disease manifestation in sows was similar to field reports: lethargy/depression, fever, reluctance to rise, and high mortality. The guinea pig isolate also caused severe systemic disease; however, most five-month-old pigs recovered. In contrast, the horse isolate did not cause disease and was readily cleared from the respiratory tract. In conclusion, we were able to replicate disease reported in the field. The results indicate differences in virulence between isolates, with the highest virulence associated with the swine isolate. Additionally, we generated a challenge model that can be used in future research to evaluate virulence factors and disease prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
Horse Diseases , Streptococcal Infections , Streptococcus equi , Swine Diseases , Virus Replication , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Guinea Pigs , Horse Diseases/virology , Horses , Streptococcal Infections/veterinary , Streptococcal Infections/virology , Streptococcus equi/physiology , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Virus Replication/physiology
11.
PLoS Biol ; 19(12): e3001065, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594053

ABSTRACT

The pandemic spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), represents an ongoing international health crisis. A key symptom of SARS-CoV-2 infection is the onset of fever, with a hyperthermic temperature range of 38 to 41°C. Fever is an evolutionarily conserved host response to microbial infection that can influence the outcome of viral pathogenicity and regulation of host innate and adaptive immune responses. However, it remains to be determined what effect elevated temperature has on SARS-CoV-2 replication. Utilizing a three-dimensional (3D) air-liquid interface (ALI) model that closely mimics the natural tissue physiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the respiratory airway, we identify tissue temperature to play an important role in the regulation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Respiratory tissue incubated at 40°C remained permissive to SARS-CoV-2 entry but refractory to viral transcription, leading to significantly reduced levels of viral RNA replication and apical shedding of infectious virus. We identify tissue temperature to play an important role in the differential regulation of epithelial host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection that impact upon multiple pathways, including intracellular immune regulation, without disruption to general transcription or epithelium integrity. We present the first evidence that febrile temperatures associated with COVID-19 inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in respiratory epithelia. Our data identify an important role for tissue temperature in the epithelial restriction of SARS-CoV-2 independently of canonical interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral immune defenses.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/immunology , Hot Temperature , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Interferons/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Replication/immunology , Adolescent , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Interferons/genetics , Interferons/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , RNA-Seq/methods , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tissue Culture Techniques , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/physiology
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 412-423, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585244

ABSTRACT

Although frequently reported since the beginning of the pandemic, questions remain regarding the impact of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) interaction with circulating respiratory viruses in coinfected patients. We here investigated dual infections involving early-pandemic SARS-CoV-2 and the Alpha variant and three of the most prevalent respiratory viruses, rhinovirus (RV) and Influenza A and B viruses (IAV and IBV), in reconstituted respiratory airway epithelial cells cultured at air-liquid interface. We found that SARS-CoV-2 replication was impaired by primary, but not secondary, rhino- and influenza virus infection. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 had no effect on the replication of these seasonal respiratory viruses. Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 correlated better with immune response triggered by RV, IAV and IBV than the virus entry. Using neutralizing antibody against type I and III interferons, SARS-CoV-2 blockade in dual infections could be partly prevented. Altogether, these data suggested that SARS-CoV-2 interaction with seasonal respiratory viruses would be modulated by interferon induction and could impact SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology when circulation of other respiratory viruses is restored.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/virology , Influenza A virus/physiology , Influenza B virus/physiology , Respiratory System/virology , Rhinovirus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/physiology , Coinfection/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferons/physiology
13.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580411

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) quickly spread worldwide following its emergence in Wuhan, China, and hit pandemic levels. Its tremendous incidence favoured the emergence of viral variants. The current genome diversity of SARS-CoV-2 has a clear impact on epidemiology and clinical practice, especially regarding transmission rates and the effectiveness of vaccines. In this study, we evaluated the replication of different SARS-CoV-2 isolates representing different virus genotypes which have been isolated throughout the pandemic. We used three distinct cell lines, including Vero E6 cells originating from monkeys; Caco-2 cells, an intestinal epithelium cell line originating from humans; and Calu-3 cells, a pulmonary epithelium cell line also originating from humans. We used RT-qPCR to replicate different SARS-CoV-2 genotypes by quantifying the virus released in the culture supernatant of infected cells. We found that the different viral isolates replicate similarly in Caco-2 cells, but show very different replicative capacities in Calu-3 cells. This was especially highlighted for the lineages B.1.1.7, B.1.351 and P.1, which are considered to be variants of concern. These results underscore the importance of the evaluation and characterisation of each SARS-CoV-2 isolate in order to establish the replication patterns before performing tests, and of the consideration of the ideal SARS-CoV-2 genotype-cell type pair for each assay.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Genotype , Humans , Intestines/cytology , Lung/cytology , Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Tropism/physiology
14.
Int Immunol ; 33(10): 541-545, 2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575598

ABSTRACT

The spatial organization of chromatin is known to be highly dynamic in response to environmental stress. However, it remains unknown how chromatin dynamics contributes to or modulates the pathogenesis of immune and infectious diseases. Influenza virus is a single-stranded RNA virus, and transcription and replication of the virus genome occur in the nucleus. Since viral infection is generally associated with virus-driven hijack of the host cellular machineries, influenza virus may utilize and/or affect the nuclear system. In this review article, we focus on recent studies showing that the three-dimensional structure of chromatin changes with influenza virus infection, which affects the pathology of infection. Also, we discuss studies showing the roles of epigenetics in influenza virus infection. Understanding how this affects immune responses may lead to novel strategies to combat immune and infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Chromatin/metabolism , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/metabolism , Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone/metabolism , Histone Code/physiology , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Neoplasms/pathology , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Replication/physiology
15.
J Mol Biol ; 434(2): 167357, 2022 01 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574441

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus pandemic is exerting a tremendously detrimental impact on global health. The Spike proteins of coronaviruses, responsible for cell receptor binding and viral internalization, possess multiple and frequently conserved disulfide bonds raising the question about their role in these proteins. Here, we present a detailed structural and functional investigation of the disulfide bonds of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD). Molecular dynamics simulations of the RBD predict increased flexibility of the surface loops when the four disulfide bonds of the domain are reduced. This flexibility is particularly prominent for the disulfide bond-containing surface loop (residues 456-490) that participates in the formation of the interaction surface with the Spike cell receptor ACE2. In vitro, disulfide bond reducing agents affect the RBD secondary structure, lower its melting temperature from 52 °C to 36-39 °C and decrease its binding affinity to ACE2 by two orders of magnitude at 37 °C. Consistent with these in vitro findings, the reducing agents tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) and dithiothreitol (DTT) were able to inhibit viral replication at low millimolar levels in cell-based assays. Our research demonstrates the mechanism by which the disulfide bonds contribute to the molecular structure of the RBD of the Spike protein, allowing the RBD to execute its viral function.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Disulfides/chemistry , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Binding Sites , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Circular Dichroism/methods , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pandemics , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Thermodynamics , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication/physiology
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7276, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575708

ABSTRACT

Double membrane vesicles (DMVs) serve as replication organelles of plus-strand RNA viruses such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) and SARS-CoV-2. Viral DMVs are morphologically analogous to DMVs formed during autophagy, but lipids driving their biogenesis are largely unknown. Here we show that production of the lipid phosphatidic acid (PA) by acylglycerolphosphate acyltransferase (AGPAT) 1 and 2 in the ER is important for DMV biogenesis in viral replication and autophagy. Using DMVs in HCV-replicating cells as model, we found that AGPATs are recruited to and critically contribute to HCV and SARS-CoV-2 replication and proper DMV formation. An intracellular PA sensor accumulated at viral DMV formation sites, consistent with elevated levels of PA in fractions of purified DMVs analyzed by lipidomics. Apart from AGPATs, PA is generated by alternative pathways and their pharmacological inhibition also impaired HCV and SARS-CoV-2 replication as well as formation of autophagosome-like DMVs. These data identify PA as host cell lipid involved in proper replication organelle formation by HCV and SARS-CoV-2, two phylogenetically disparate viruses causing very different diseases, i.e. chronic liver disease and COVID-19, respectively. Host-targeting therapy aiming at PA synthesis pathways might be suitable to attenuate replication of these viruses.


Subject(s)
Hepacivirus/genetics , Phosphatidic Acids/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication/physiology , 1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase , Acyltransferases , Autophagosomes/metabolism , Autophagy , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Dengue Virus , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Membrane Proteins , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Viral Proteins , Zika Virus
17.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol ; 23(1): 21-39, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537322

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has killed millions of people and continues to cause massive global upheaval. Coronaviruses are positive-strand RNA viruses with an unusually large genome of ~30 kb. They express an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and a cohort of other replication enzymes and supporting factors to transcribe and replicate their genomes. The proteins performing these essential processes are prime antiviral drug targets, but drug discovery is hindered by our incomplete understanding of coronavirus RNA synthesis and processing. In infected cells, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase must coordinate with other viral and host factors to produce both viral mRNAs and new genomes. Recent research aiming to decipher and contextualize the structures, functions and interplay of the subunits of the SARS-CoV-2 replication and transcription complex proteins has burgeoned. In this Review, we discuss recent advancements in our understanding of the molecular basis and complexity of the coronavirus RNA-synthesizing machinery. Specifically, we outline the mechanisms and regulation of RNA translation, replication and transcription. We also discuss the composition of the replication and transcription complexes and their suitability as targets for antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Design , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transcription, Genetic , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , Humans , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6761, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526072

ABSTRACT

Viral proteins make extensive use of short peptide interaction motifs to hijack cellular host factors. However, most current large-scale methods do not identify this important class of protein-protein interactions. Uncovering peptide mediated interactions provides both a molecular understanding of viral interactions with their host and the foundation for developing novel antiviral reagents. Here we describe a viral peptide discovery approach covering 23 coronavirus strains that provides high resolution information on direct virus-host interactions. We identify 269 peptide-based interactions for 18 coronaviruses including a specific interaction between the human G3BP1/2 proteins and an ΦxFG peptide motif in the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein. This interaction supports viral replication and through its ΦxFG motif N rewires the G3BP1/2 interactome to disrupt stress granules. A peptide-based inhibitor disrupting the G3BP1/2-N interaction dampened SARS-CoV-2 infection showing that our results can be directly translated into novel specific antiviral reagents.


Subject(s)
Integration Host Factors/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , DNA Helicases/metabolism , Humans , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/metabolism , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6612, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521738

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is not always confined to the respiratory system, as it impacts people on a broad clinical spectrum from asymptomatic to severe systemic manifestations resulting in death. Further, accumulation of intra-host single nucleotide variants during prolonged SARS-CoV-2 infection may lead to emergence of variants of concern (VOCs). Still, information on virus infectivity and intra-host evolution across organs is sparse. We report a detailed virological analysis of thirteen postmortem coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases that provides proof of viremia and presence of replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 in extrapulmonary organs of immunocompromised patients, including heart, kidney, liver, and spleen (NCT04366882). In parallel, we identify organ-specific SARS-CoV-2 genome diversity and mutations of concern N501Y, T1027I, and Y453F, while the patient had died long before reported emergence of VOCs. These mutations appear in multiple organs and replicate in Vero E6 cells, highlighting their infectivity. Finally, we show two stages of fatal disease evolution based on disease duration and viral loads in lungs and plasma. Our results provide insights about the pathogenesis and intra-host evolution of SARS-CoV-2 and show that COVID-19 treatment and hygiene measures need to be tailored to specific needs of immunocompromised patients, even when respiratory symptoms cease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Autopsy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Genome, Viral , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Specificity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6610, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521737

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 typically manifests as a respiratory illness, but several clinical reports have described gastrointestinal symptoms. This is particularly true in children in whom gastrointestinal symptoms are frequent and viral shedding outlasts viral clearance from the respiratory system. These observations raise the question of whether the virus can replicate within the stomach. Here we generate gastric organoids from fetal, pediatric, and adult biopsies as in vitro models of SARS-CoV-2 infection. To facilitate infection, we induce reverse polarity in the gastric organoids. We find that the pediatric and late fetal gastric organoids are susceptible to infection with SARS-CoV-2, while viral replication is significantly lower in undifferentiated organoids of early fetal and adult origin. We demonstrate that adult gastric organoids are more susceptible to infection following differentiation. We perform transcriptomic analysis to reveal a moderate innate antiviral response and a lack of differentially expressed genes belonging to the interferon family. Collectively, we show that the virus can efficiently infect the gastric epithelium, suggesting that the stomach might have an active role in fecal-oral SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stomach/virology , Virus Replication/physiology , Aborted Fetus , Aged , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Child , Child, Preschool , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Infant , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Middle Aged , Organoids/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stomach/pathology
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