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1.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 121(12): 2617-2625, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2131478

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is common in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and is associated with worse outcomes. However, reports on CAPA and its impact on treatment outcomes in Asian populations are limited. METHODS: Patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) were retrospectively enrolled in this observational study. The incidence rate of CAPA during ICU admission was investigated. The clinical factors associated with CAPA, including corticosteroid exposure, were analyzed. The impact of CAPA on the treatment outcomes and SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding were explored. RESULTS: A total of 72 ICU-admitted patients with COVID-19 were included in the analysis. The incidence rate of CAPA was 15.3% (11/72) in all patients and 23% (11/48) in the mechanically ventilated patients. The median time from ICU admission to CAPA diagnosis was 15 days. A lower fibrinogen level (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.983; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.967-0.999) was independently associated with CAPA. The patients with CAPA had a higher in-hospital mortality rate (55% vs. 13%, p = 0.001) and a longer SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding time (22 days vs. 16 days, p = 0.037) than those without CAPA. CONCLUSION: Lower serum fibrinogen levels was independently associated with CAPA among the ICU-admitted patients with COVID-19. The patients with CAPA had a higher in-hospital mortality rate and a longer SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding time than those without CAPA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Virus Shedding , Hospital Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Intensive Care Units , Fibrinogen
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 967716, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142002

ABSTRACT

Background: The Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant has spread quickly worldwide due to its effects on virus transmission and vaccine effectiveness. Interferon(IFN) has been shown to have a protective effect against SARS-CoV because of its broad antiviral activity. This study aimed to analyze the treatment effects of IFN α-2b spray in virus clearance of the Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant. Methods: We examined the effectiveness and safety of IFN α-2b spray in Shanghai, China, with participants infected with the Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant in an open, prospective cohort study from April 16th to May 5th, 2022. Results: A total of 871 confirmed patients were enrolled in this study. Four hundred and thirteen patients were allocated to the IFN α-2b spray group, and 458 patients were allocated to the control group. The viral shedding time was significantly different between experimental group and control group (11.90 vs.12.58, P <0.05). In the experimental group, the median administration time since the first positive test for SARS-CoV-2 was three days, ranging from 0 to 15 days. There was no obvious adverse effect associated with the spray of IFN α-2b. The univariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the administration time since the first positive test ≤3 days was a protective factor associated with viral shedding time (HR 0.81 95% CI 0.74-0.87, P <0.05). Subgroup analysis showed that the viral shedding time was 10.41 (4.00-16.00) days in the ≤3 days group, which was significantly less than that in the control group (12.58, 95% CI: 7.00-19.15, P <0.0001) and in the >3 days group (13.56, 95%CI: 7.00-22.25, P <0.0001). Conclusions: IFN α-2b spray shortened the viral shedding time of the Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant when administrated within three days since the first positive test for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , China , Humans , Interferon alpha-2/pharmacology , Interferon-alpha/pharmacology , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Virus Shedding
3.
J Clin Virol ; 157: 105319, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105315

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends 5-10 days of isolation for patients with COVID-19, depending on symptom duration and severity. However, in clinical practice, an individualized approach is required. We thus developed a clinical scoring system to predict viable viral shedding. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to a hospital or community isolation facility between February 2020 and January 2022. Daily dense respiratory samples were obtained, and genomic RNA viral load assessment and viral culture were performed. Clinical predictors of negative viral culture results were identified using survival analysis and multivariable analysis. RESULTS: Among 612 samples from 121 patients including 11 immunocompromised patients (5 organ transplant recipients, 5 with hematologic malignancy, and 1 receiving immunosuppressive agents) with varying severity, 154 (25%) revealed positive viral culture results. Multivariable analysis identified symptom onset day, viral copy number, disease severity, organ transplant recipient, and vaccination status as independent predictors of culture-negative rate. We developed a 4-factor predictive model based on viral copy number (-3 to 3 points), disease severity (1 point for moderate to critical disease), organ transplant recipient (2 points), and vaccination status (-2 points for fully vaccinated). Predicted culture-negative rates were calculated through the symptom onset day and the score of the day the sample was collected. CONCLUSIONS: Our clinical scoring system can provide the objective probability of a culture-negative state in a patient with COVID-19 and is potentially useful for implementing personalized de-isolation policies beyond the simple symptom-based isolation strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , United States , Adult , Humans , Virus Shedding , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Viral Load
5.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(9): 1064-1065, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096292
7.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(39): e289, 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with hematologic malignancies may produce replication-competent virus beyond 20 days of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, data regarding the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from patients with prolonged viral shedding is limited. METHODS: In May 2022, four additional cases of COVID-19 were reported in a hematologic ward at a tertiary care hospital in South Korea, after an 8-week isolation of a patient with prolonged viral shedding. We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of SARS-CoV-2 to evaluate the possibility of post-isolation transmission from this prolonged viral shedding. RESULTS: A patient (case 1) with acute myeloid leukemia was released from isolation 54 days after the diagnosis of COVID-19 based on rising Ct value of up to 29.3, and moved to a six-patient room. On days 10 and 11 post-isolation, his doctor (case 2) and 2 patients who were his roommates (case 3, 4) had positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR results. Additionally, 16 days post-isolation, another patient (case 5) in a remote room had positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR result. All the three patients were hospitalized for ≥ 14 days when they were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Except for case 3, the remaining 4 cases were available for WGS, which revealed that case 1 exhibited a 7 nucleotides difference in comparison to cases 4 and 5 and case 2 displayed a 20 nucleotides difference compared with case 1, while sequences of cases 4 and 5 were identical. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the possibility of transmission from the patient with prolonged viral shedding, no evidence of the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from the patient with prolonged positive RT-PCR using WGS was found.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitals , Humans , Nucleotides , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Shedding
8.
BMJ ; 378: o2188, 2022 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038283
9.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(12): 4011-4017, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035054

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, many reports have indicated that children shed the virus longer than adults in stool, and that most of the children had mild or even asymptomatic infections, which increased the potential risk for feces to be a source of contamination and may play an important role in the spread of the virus. In this review, we collected relevant literature to summarize the duration of fecal viral shedding in children with COVID-19. We found that in about 60% of the cases, the fecal shedding time was between 28 and 42 days, which was much longer than that of adults. We further explored the possible reason for prolonged shedding and its the potential impact. The poor hand hygiene practices of children, their tendency to swallow sputum and/or saliva, the significant difference in expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in intestine between children and adults, and the variance in immune status and intestinal microbiome could be considered as potential casual agents of longer fecal viral shedding duration of children.   Conclusion: Children with COVID-19 show prolonged fecal shedding compared to adults. Several mechanisms may be involved in the longer fecal viral shedding. Viral shedding in the stool could be contributing to a possible route of transmission. Therefore, we think that further preventive measures in children should be taken to reduce the spread of the disease. What is Known: • Children with COVID-19 are more likely to have asymptomatic infections and to experience mild symptoms. • Some patients continue to shed the virus in feces, despite respiratory samples testing negative. What is New: • Children with COVID-19 carried a longer-term fecal viral shedding than adults. • The poor hand hygiene practices of children, their tendency to swallow sputum and/or saliva, the difference in expression of ACE2 in intestine between children and adults, and the variance in immune status and intestinal microbiome could be considered as potential casual agents of longer fecal viral shedding duration of children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Adult , Humans , Virus Shedding , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , SARS-CoV-2 , Asymptomatic Infections , RNA, Viral , Feces
10.
Res Vet Sci ; 152: 524-529, 2022 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031670

ABSTRACT

Infection with feline coronavirus (FCoV) is a major problem in multiple-cat households, where many cats are kept together in a small space such as catteries and shelters. Sixty cats from 19 breeding catteries included in the study were evaluated for their shedding persistency and intensity patterns using qPCR identification of FCoV in feces. Cats were identified based on shedding persistency as non-shedders (NS) if all four samples negative, intermittent shedders (IS) when at least one positive and one negative sampling followed by another positive sampling, persistent shedders (PS) if all four samples positive and shedders with unclear status (US) if the shedding patterns could not be determined based on only 4 samples. There were 11 NS (18%), 15 IS (25%) and 15 PS (25%) and in 19/60 cats (32%), the shedding patterns could not be determined based only on four samplings. The intensity of shedding was evaluated based on the total number of FCoV particles shed during the 12 months of the study. There were 11 non-shedders (18%), 2 very low intensity shedders (3%), 9 low intensity shedders (15%), 25 medium intensity shedders (42%) and 13 high intensity shedders (22%). Intermittent shedders were shedding significantly lower FCoV particles compared to the persistent shedders (p = 0.0082). Permanent shedders represent the most important source of FCoV infection in multi-cat households and identifying permanent shedders in is the key to minimize the viral load in the environment to control FCoV in a shelters and breeding catteries.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus, Feline , Feline Infectious Peritonitis , Cats , Animals , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Virus Shedding , Feces , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology
11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 2423-2432, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028961

ABSTRACT

Omicron variant is circulating in the presence of a globally acquired immunity unlike the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 isolate. Herein, we investigated the normalized viral load dynamics and viral culture status in 44 fully vaccinated healthcare workers (HCWs) infected with the Omicron BA.1 variant. Viral load dynamics of 38 unvaccinated HCWs infected with the 20A variant during the first pandemic wave was also studied. We then explored the impact of Omicron infection on pre-existing immunity assessing anti-RBD IgG levels, neutralizing antibody titres against 19A, Delta and Omicron isolates, as well as IFN-γ release following cell stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 peptides. We reported that two weeks after diagnosis a greater proportion of HCWs infected with 20A (78.9%, 15/19) than with Omicron BA.1 (44.7%, 17/38; p = 0.02) were still positive by RT-qPCR. We found that Omicron breakthrough infections led to an overall enhancement of vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immunity as soon as a median [interquartile range] of 8 [7-9] days post symptom onset. Among samples with similar high viral loads, non-culturable samples exhibited higher neutralizing antibody titres and anti-RBD IgG levels than culturable samples. Additionally, Omicron infection led to an enhancement of antibodies neutralization capacity against other SARS-CoV-2 isolates. Taken together, the results suggest that Omicron BA.1 vaccine breakthrough infection is associated with a faster viral clearance than that of the ancestral SARS-CoV-2, in addition this new variant leads to a rapid enhancement of the humoral response against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants, and of the cellular response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Shedding , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Neutralizing
12.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(9): e1010802, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021984

ABSTRACT

The impact of vaccination on SARS-CoV-2 infectiousness is not well understood. We compared longitudinal viral shedding dynamics in unvaccinated and fully vaccinated adults. SARS-CoV-2-infected adults were enrolled within 5 days of symptom onset and nasal specimens were self-collected daily for two weeks and intermittently for an additional two weeks. SARS-CoV-2 RNA load and infectious virus were analyzed relative to symptom onset stratified by vaccination status. We tested 1080 nasal specimens from 52 unvaccinated adults enrolled in the pre-Delta period and 32 fully vaccinated adults with predominantly Delta infections. While we observed no differences by vaccination status in maximum RNA levels, maximum infectious titers and the median duration of viral RNA shedding, the rate of decay from the maximum RNA load was faster among vaccinated; maximum infectious titers and maximum RNA levels were highly correlated. Furthermore, amongst participants with infectious virus, median duration of infectious virus detection was reduced from 7.5 days (IQR: 6.0-9.0) in unvaccinated participants to 6 days (IQR: 5.0-8.0) in those vaccinated (P = 0.02). Accordingly, the odds of shedding infectious virus from days 6 to 12 post-onset were lower among vaccinated participants than unvaccinated participants (OR 0.42 95% CI 0.19-0.89). These results indicate that vaccination had reduced the probability of shedding infectious virus after 5 days from symptom onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , RNA, Viral/genetics , Vaccination , Virus Shedding
13.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0226322, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019798

ABSTRACT

We investigated the distribution, virulence, and pathogenic characteristics of mutated SARS-CoV-2 to clarify the association between virulence and the viral spreading ability of current and future circulating strains. Chinese rhesus macaques were infected with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain GD108 and Beta variant B.1.351 (B.1.351) and assessed for clinical signs, viral distribution, pathological changes, and pulmonary inflammation. We found that GD108 replicated more efficiently in the upper respiratory tract, whereas B.1.351 replicated more efficiently in the lower respiratory tract and lung tissue, implying a reduced viral shedding and spreading ability of B.1.351 compared with that of GD108. Importantly, B.1.351 caused more severe lung injury and dramatically elevated the level of inflammatory cytokines compared with those observed after infection with GD108. Moreover, both B.1.351 and GD108 induced spike-specific T-cell responses at an early stage of infection, with higher levels of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the B.1.351 group and higher levels of interleukin 17 (IL-17) in the GD108 group, indicating a divergent pattern in the T-cell-mediated inflammatory "cytokine storm." This study provides a basis for exploring the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) and establishes an applicable animal model for evaluating the efficacy and safety of vaccines and drugs. IMPORTANCE One of the priorities of the current SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and drug research strategy is to determine the changes in transmission ability, virulence, and pathogenic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 variants. In addition, nonhuman primates (NHPs) are suitable animal models for the study of the pathogenic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and could contribute to the understanding of pathogenicity and transmission mechanisms. As SARS-CoV-2 variants continually emerge and the viral biological characteristics change frequently, the establishment of NHP infection models for different VOCs is urgently needed. In the study, the virulence and tissue distribution of B.1.351 and GD108 were comprehensively studied in NHPs. We concluded that the B.1.351 strain was more virulent but exhibited less viral shedding than the latter. This study provides a basis for determining the pathogenic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and establishes an applicable animal model for evaluating the efficacy and safety of vaccines and drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Interleukin-17 , Virus Shedding , Virulence , COVID-19 Vaccines , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Macaca mulatta , Interferon-gamma , Disease Models, Animal
14.
J Virol ; 96(18): e0103422, 2022 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019727

ABSTRACT

The duration of SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA shedding is much longer than that of infectious SARS-CoV-2 in most COVID-19 patients. It is very important to determine the relationship between test results and infectivity for efficient isolation, contact tracing, and post-isolation. We characterized the duration of viable SARS-CoV-2, viral genomic and subgenomic RNA (gRNA and sgRNA), and rapid antigen test positivity in nasal washes, oropharyngeal swabs, and feces of experimentally infected Syrian hamsters. The duration of viral genomic RNA shedding is longer than that of viral subgenomic RNA, and far longer than those of rapid antigen test (RAgT) and viral culture positivity. The rapid antigen test results were strongly correlated with the viral culture results. The trend of subgenomic RNA is similar to that of genomic RNA, and furthermore, the subgenomic RNA load is highly correlated with the genomic RNA load. IMPORTANCE Our findings highlight the high correlation between rapid antigen test and virus culture results. The rapid antigen test would be an important supplement to real-time reverse transcription-RCR (RT-PCR) in early COVID-19 screening and in shortening the isolation period of COVID-19 patients. Because the subgenomic RNA load can be predicted from the genomic RNA load, measuring sgRNA does not add more benefit to determining infectivity than a threshold determined for gRNA based on viral culture.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Cricetinae , Feces/virology , Genomics , Humans , Mesocricetus , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Shedding
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(39): e2204624119, 2022 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017031

ABSTRACT

The high transmissibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a primary driver of the COVID-19 pandemic. While existing interventions prevent severe disease, they exhibit mixed efficacy in preventing transmission, presumably due to their limited antiviral effects in the respiratory mucosa, whereas interventions targeting the sites of viral replication might more effectively limit respiratory virus transmission. Recently, intranasally administered RNA-based therapeutic interfering particles (TIPs) were reported to suppress SARS-CoV-2 replication, exhibit a high barrier to resistance, and prevent serious disease in hamsters. Since TIPs intrinsically target the tissues with the highest viral replication burden (i.e., respiratory tissues for SARS-CoV-2), we tested the potential of TIP intervention to reduce SARS-CoV-2 shedding. Here, we report that a single, postexposure TIP dose lowers SARS-CoV-2 nasal shedding, and at 5 days postinfection, infectious virus shed is below detection limits in 4 out of 5 infected animals. Furthermore, TIPs reduce shedding of Delta variant or WA-1 from infected to uninfected hamsters. Cohoused "contact" animals exposed to infected, TIP-treated animals exhibited significantly lower viral loads, reduced inflammatory cytokines, no severe lung pathology, and shortened shedding duration compared to animals cohoused with untreated infected animals. TIPs may represent an effective countermeasure to limit SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Small Interfering , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Cricetinae , RNA, Messenger/administration & dosage , RNA, Small Interfering/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
17.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273150, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002321

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the clinical characteristics of patients with asymptomatic novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and compare them with those of patients with mild disease. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Multiple medical centers in Wuhan, Hubei, China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3,263 patients with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) infection between February 4, 2020, and April 15, 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient demographic characteristics, medical history, vital signs, and laboratory and chest computed tomography (CT) findings. RESULTS: A total of 3,173 and 90 patients with mild and moderate, and asymptomatic COVID-19, respectively, were included. A total of 575 (18.2%) symptomatic patients and 4 (4.4%) asymptomatic patients developed the severe illness. All asymptomatic patients recovered; no deaths were observed in this group. The median duration of viral shedding in asymptomatic patients was 17 (interquartile range, 9.25-25) days. Patients with higher levels of ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (odds ratio [OR] = 1.025, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.04), lower red blood cell volume distribution width (OR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.51-0.88), lower creatine kinase Isoenzyme(0.94, 0.89-0.98) levels, or lower lesion ratio (OR = 0.01, 95% CI 0.00-0.33) at admission were more likely than their counterparts to have asymptomatic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with younger ages and fewer comorbidities are more likely to be asymptomatic. Asymptomatic patients had similar laboratory characteristics and longer virus shedding time than symptomatic patients; screen and isolation during their infection were helpful to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , China/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding
18.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271756, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974320

ABSTRACT

To assess morbidity and mortality of parainfluenza virus (PIV) infections in immunocompromised patients, we analysed PIV infections in a hematology and stem cell transplantation (SCT) unit over the course of three years. Isolated PIV strains were characterized by sequence analysis and nosocomial transmission was assessed including phylogenetic analysis of viral strains. 109 cases of PIV infection were identified, 75 in the setting of SCT. PIV type 3 (n = 68) was the most frequent subtype. PIV lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) was observed in 47 patients (43%) with a mortality of 19%. Severe leukopenia, prior steroid therapy and presence of co-infections were significant risk factors for development of PIV-LRTI in multivariate analysis. Prolonged viral shedding was frequently observed with a median duration of 14 days and up to 79 days, especially in patients after allogeneic SCT and with LRTI. Nosocomial transmission occurred in 47 patients. Phylogenetic analysis of isolated PIV strains and combination with clinical data enabled the identification of seven separate clusters of nosocomial transmission. In conclusion, we observed significant morbidity and mortality of PIV infection in hematology and transplant patients. The clinical impact of co-infections, the possibility of long-term viral shedding and frequent nosocomial transmission should be taken into account when designing infection control strategies.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Cross Infection , Hematologic Neoplasms , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Respiratory Tract Infections , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human/genetics , Phylogeny , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Virus Shedding
19.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(8): e1009997, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974225

ABSTRACT

The relationship between transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the amount of virus present in the proximity of a susceptible host is not understood. Here, we developed a within-host and aerosol mathematical model and used it to determine the relationship between viral kinetics in the upper respiratory track, viral kinetics in the aerosols, and new transmissions in golden hamsters challenged with SARS-CoV-2. We determined that infectious virus shedding early in infection correlates with transmission events, shedding of infectious virus diminishes late in the infection, and high viral RNA levels late in the infection are a poor indicator of transmission. We further showed that viral infectiousness increases in a density dependent manner with viral RNA and that their relative ratio is time-dependent. Such information is useful for designing interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cricetinae , Humans , RNA, Viral , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Virus Shedding
20.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969516

ABSTRACT

Formulating termination of isolation (de-isolation) policies requires up-to-date knowledge about viral shedding dynamics. However, current de-isolation policies are largely based on viral load data obtained before the emergence of Omicron variant. In this retrospective cohort study involving adult patients hospitalised for COVID-19 between January and February 2022, we sought to determine SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding kinetics and to investigate the risk factors associated with slow viral decline during the 2022 Omicron wave. A total of 104 patients were included. The viral load was highest (Ct value was lowest) on days 1 post-symptom-onset (PSO) and gradually declined. Older age, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and chronic kidney disease were associated with slow viral decline in the univariate analysis on both day 7 and day 10 PSO, while incomplete or no vaccination was associated with slow viral decline on day 7 PSO only. However, older age was the only risk factor that remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis. In conclusion, older age is an independent risk factor associated with slow viral decline in this study conducted during the Omicron-dominant 2022 COVID-19 wave. Transmission-based precaution guidelines should take age into consideration when determining the timing of de-isolation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Load , Virus Shedding , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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