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1.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(3): 362-365, 2020 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684002

ABSTRACT

In a family experiencing coronavirus disease 2019, the parents and 2 children aged 2 and 5 years became infected but the youngest child was not infected. Both children initially shed infectious virus, but cleared the virus after 5 to 6 days in the nasopharynx. However, viral RNA was continuously detected in the children's stool for more than 4 weeks.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Family , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Viral Load , Virus Shedding
2.
J Virol ; 94(18)2020 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640272

ABSTRACT

In recent years, nidoviruses have emerged as important respiratory pathogens of reptiles, affecting captive python populations. In pythons, nidovirus (recently reclassified as serpentovirus) infection induces an inflammation of the upper respiratory and alimentary tract which can develop into a severe, often fatal proliferative pneumonia. We observed pyogranulomatous and fibrinonecrotic lesions in organ systems other than the respiratory tract during full postmortem examinations on 30 serpentovirus reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR)-positive pythons of varying species originating from Switzerland and Spain. The observations prompted us to study whether this not yet reported wider distribution of lesions is associated with previously unknown serpentoviruses or changes in the serpentovirus genome. RT-PCR and inoculation of Morelia viridis cell cultures served to recruit the cases and obtain virus isolates. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining against serpentovirus nucleoprotein demonstrated that the virus infects not only a broad spectrum of epithelia (respiratory and alimentary epithelium, hepatocytes, renal tubules, pancreatic ducts, etc.), but also intravascular monocytes, intralesional macrophages, and endothelial cells. With next-generation sequencing we obtained a full-length genome for a novel serpentovirus species circulating in Switzerland. Analysis of viral genomes recovered from pythons showing serpentovirus infection-associated respiratory or systemic disease did not reveal sequence association to phenotypes; however, functional studies with different strains are needed to confirm this observation. The results indicate that serpentoviruses have a broad cell and tissue tropism, further suggesting that the course of infection could vary and involve lesions in a broad spectrum of tissues and organ systems as a consequence of monocyte-mediated viral systemic spread.IMPORTANCE During the last years, python nidoviruses (now reclassified as serpentoviruses) have become a primary cause of fatal disease in pythons. Serpentoviruses represent a threat to captive snake collections, as they spread rapidly and can be associated with high morbidity and mortality. Our study indicates that, different from previous evidence, the viruses do not only affect the respiratory tract, but can spread in the entire body with blood monocytes, have a broad spectrum of target cells, and can induce a variety of lesions. Nidovirales is an order of animal and human viruses that comprises important zoonotic pathogens such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2. Serpentoviruses belong to the same order as the above-mentioned human viruses and show similar characteristics (rapid spread, respiratory and gastrointestinal tropism, etc.). The present study confirms the relevance of natural animal diseases to better understand the complexity of viruses of the order Nidovirales.


Subject(s)
Nidovirales Infections/virology , Nidovirales/physiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Animal Diseases/diagnosis , Animal Diseases/virology , Animals , Biopsy , Boidae/virology , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Nidovirales/isolation & purification , Nidovirales Infections/diagnosis , Organ Specificity , Phenotype , Phylogeny , Recombination, Genetic , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Viral Tropism , Virus Shedding
3.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(9): 749-751, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745668

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was found initially in Wuhan, China in early December 2019. The pandemic has spread to 216 countries and regions, infecting more than 23310 000 people and causing over 800 000 deaths globally by Aug. 24, 2020, according to World Health Organization (https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/ novel-coronavirus-2019). Fever, cough, and dyspnea are the three common symptoms of the condition, whereas the conventional transmission route for SARS-CoV-2 is through droplets entering the respiratory tract. To date, infection control measures for COVID-19 have been focusing on the involvement of the respiratory system. However, ignoring potential faecal transmission and the gastrointestinal involvement of SARS-CoV-2 may result in mistakes in attempts to control the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Feces/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Environmental Microbiology , Humans , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Virus Shedding
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 445, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732914

ABSTRACT

A new type of coronavirus-induced pneumonia eventually termed "coronavirus disease 2019" (COVID-19) was diagnosed in patients in Wuhan (Hubei Province, China) in December 2019, and soon spread worldwide. To improve the detection rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), we analyzed the results of viral nucleic acid and serum-specific antibody tests on clinical samples from 20 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosed at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University in China. By comparing various sample types collected from COVID-19 patients, we revealed multiple pathways for SARS-CoV-2 shedding, and a prolonged detectable period for viral nucleic acid test in sputum specimens, demonstrating that the timeline of the viral shedding is of great value in determining the time of release from quarantine or discharge from hospital. We also recommend for the application of serological test to assist in confirming SARS-CoV-2 infection judged by viral nucleic acid test, especially when COVID-19-related symptoms have appeared and the viral nucleic acid test was negative. Our findings are critical for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and for determining deadline of restriction measures to prevent transmission caused by convalescent patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Feces/virology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Sputum/virology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests , Virus Shedding
7.
Trials ; 21(1): 743, 2020 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-731238

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to explore the effectiveness and safety of high dose dexamethasone treatment for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome secondary to SARS-Cov-2 pneumonia. TRIAL DESIGN: Multicentre, randomized clinical trial, controlled, open label, parallel group, to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of high dose dexamethasone in adult patients with confirmed COVID-19, with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. PARTICIPANTS: We will include patients with SARS-Cov-2 pneumonia who develop acute respiratory distress syndrome, in several intensive care units (ICU) in Buenos Aires, Argentina (CEMIC, Clinica Bazterrica, Sanatorio Sagrado Corazon) Inclusion criteria: Men and women, age ≥ 18 years old. Confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, by RT-PCR. Diagnosis of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (hypoxemic respiratory failure not explained by cardiac disease + PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 300 with a Positive End-Expiratory Pressure ≥ 5 cm H2O + bilateral pulmonary infiltrates) Length of mechanical ventilation of at least 72 hours Informed consent (next of kin / legal guardian) Exclusion criteria: Pregnant or breast-feeding women. Terminal disease (advanced cancer; under palliative care; cardiovascular, respiratory, or renal disease with a life expectancy less ≤ 1 year). Therapeutic limitation (advance directives or do not resuscitate order) Severe immunosuppression (HIV infection, long-term use of immunosuppressive agents, active cancer). Patients under chronic treatment with glucocorticoids for other diseases (≥ 8 mg prednisone, or equivalent) Participation in another randomized clinical trial. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Eligible patients will be randomized to receive standard ICU patient care (group 1) or standard ICU patient care plus high dose dexamethasone (group 2). Group 1: dexamethasone up to 6 mg/24 hours for up to 10 days + ventilatory, hemodynamic, nutritional, and antimicrobial support according to international guidelines. Group 2: dexamethasone 16 mg/24 hours for 5 days followed by dexamethasone 8 mg/24 hours for 5 days + ventilatory, hemodynamic, nutritional, and antimicrobial support according to international guidelines. MAIN OUTCOME: The main result is ventilator-free days at 28 days (Days without ventilator support in the first 28 days following randomization). Secondary outcomes are 28-days and 90-days mortality, frequency of nosocomial infections in the first 28 days after randomization, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score variation and prone position in the first 10-days, viral shedding 28-days after randomization, and delirium and muscle weakness at ICU discharge. RANDOMISATION: Treatment will be assigned according to site stratified randomization by permuted random blocks sequence 1:1 generated with a table in R language concealed in a randomization tool in REDCap (Research Electronic Data CAPture) platform. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open trial, so no masking of treatment assignment will be used. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): Assuming a 3 days difference in ventilator-free days between treatment groups, with a mean of 9 days, and a standard deviation of 9 days; the necessary sample size would be 284 subjects (142 per group), with a power of 80% and a two-tailed alpha error of 0.05. TRIAL STATUS: The protocol with code 1264, version 3.0 on date: May 13, 2020 is approved by the local Ethics Committee. The trial is in the recruitment phase. Recruitment began May 22, 2020 and is anticipated to be complete by the end of December 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered under the title "Dexamethasone for COVID-19 Related ARDS: a Multicenter, Randomized Clinical Trial" with ClinicalTrials number NCT04395105, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04395105 , registered on 20 May 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/drug therapy , Argentina , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Delirium/epidemiology , Humans , Mortality , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pandemics , Patient Positioning , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/etiology , Virus Shedding
8.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 71(2): 150-152, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729244

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to investigate differences in viral shedding in respiratory and fecal samples from children with novel coronavirus disease 19. We searched PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase, and Web of Science databases to identify pediatric studies comparing the pattern of fecal and respiratory shedding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA. Summary estimates were calculated using random-effects models. Four studies reporting data from 36 children were included. A higher proportion of children had viral shedding in stools after 14 days of symptoms onset compared to respiratory samples (risk ratio = 3.2, 95% confidence interval 1.2-8.9, I2 = 51%). Viral RNA shedding was longer in fecal samples with a mean difference of approximately 9 days (mean difference = 8.6, 95% confidence interval 1.7-15.4, I2 = 77%) compared with respiratory samples. SARS-CoV-2 shedding seems to be present in feces for a longer time than in the respiratory tract of children. Although fecal SARS-CoV-2 presence in feces do not confirm its transmissibility, the high and fast spread of the novel coronavirus disease 19 worldwide indicate other transmission routes are also plausible.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Feces/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral , Virus Shedding , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiratory System/virology
9.
Virol J ; 17(1): 125, 2020 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-719595

ABSTRACT

We recently reported the development of the first African green monkey (AGM) model for COVID-19 based on a combined liquid intranasal (i.n.) and intratracheal (i.t.) exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we followed up on this work by assessing an i.n. particle only route of exposure using the LMA mucosal atomization device (MAD). Six AGMs were infected with SARS-CoV-2; three animals were euthanized near the peak stage of virus replication (day 5) and three animals were euthanized during the early convalescence period (day 34). All six AGMs supported robust SARS-CoV-2 replication and developed respiratory disease. Evidence of coagulation dysfunction as noted by a transient increases in aPTT and circulating levels of fibrinogen was observed in all AGMs. The level of SARS-CoV-2 replication and lung pathology was not quite as pronounced as previously reported with AGMs exposed by the combined i.n. and i.t. routes; however, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in nasal swabs of some animals as late as day 15 and rectal swabs as late as day 28 after virus challenge. Of particular importance to this study, all three AGMs that were followed until the early convalescence stage of COVID-19 showed substantial lung pathology at necropsy as evidenced by multifocal chronic interstitial pneumonia and increased collagen deposition in alveolar walls despite the absence of detectable SARS-CoV-2 in any of the lungs of these animals. These findings are consistent with human COVID-19 further demonstrating that the AGM faithfully reproduces the human condition.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Lung Injury/pathology , Lung Injury/virology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Seroconversion , Viral Load , Virus Shedding
10.
Euro Surveill ; 25(32)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717669

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viral load in the upper respiratory tract peaks around symptom onset and infectious virus persists for 10 days in mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease (n = 324 samples analysed). RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values correlate strongly with cultivable virus. Probability of culturing virus declines to 8% in samples with Ct > 35 and to 6% 10 days after onset; it is similar in asymptomatic and symptomatic persons. Asymptomatic persons represent a source of transmissible virus.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Virus Shedding/physiology , Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , England/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serologic Tests , Viral Load , Virus Shedding/genetics
11.
J Infect Dis ; 222(5): 734-745, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-711823

ABSTRACT

Clinical manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vary from asymptomatic virus shedding, nonspecific pharyngitis, to pneumonia with silent hypoxia and respiratory failure. Dendritic cells and macrophages are sentinel cells for innate and adaptive immunity that affect the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). The interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and these cell types remains unknown. We investigated infection and host responses of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) and macrophages (MDMs) infected by SARS-CoV-2. MoDCs and MDMs were permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection and protein expression but did not support productive virus replication. Importantly, SARS-CoV-2 launched an attenuated interferon response in both cell types and triggered significant proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression in MDMs but not moDCs. Investigations suggested that this attenuated immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in moDCs was associated with viral antagonism of STAT1 phosphorylation. These findings may explain the mild and insidious course of COVID-19 until late deterioration.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Interferons/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , STAT1 Transcription Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Chemokines/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/virology , Humans , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/virology , Monocytes/virology , Pandemics , Phosphorylation , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , STAT1 Transcription Factor/immunology , STAT1 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/physiology , Virus Shedding
14.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(8): 628-636, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, there are no drugs that have been proven to be effective against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Because of its broad antiviral activity, interferon (IFN) should be evaluated as a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially while COVID-19-specific therapies are still under development. METHODS: Confirmed COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University in Hangzhou, China, from January 19 to February 19, 2020 were enrolled in a retrospective study. The patients were separated into an IFN group and a control group according to whether they received initial IFN-α2b inhalation treatment after admission. Propensity-score matching was used to balance the confounding factors. RESULTS: A total of 104 confirmed COVID-19 patients, 68 in the IFN group and 36 in the control group, were enrolled. Less hypertension (27.9% vs. 55.6%, P=0.006), dyspnea (8.8% vs. 25.0%, P=0.025), or diarrhea (4.4% vs. 19.4%, P=0.030) was observed in the IFN group. Lower levels of albumin and C-reactive protein and higher level of sodium were observed in the IFN group. Glucocorticoid dosage was lower in the IFN group (median, 40 vs. 80 mg/d, P=0.025). Compared to the control group, fewer patients in the IFN group were ventilated (13.2% vs. 33.3%, P=0.015) and admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) (16.2% vs. 44.4%, P=0.002). There were also fewer critical patients in the IFN group (7.4% vs. 25.0%, P=0.017) upon admission. Although complications during admission process were comparable between groups, the discharge rate (85.3% vs. 66.7%, P=0.027) was higher and the hospitalization time (16 vs. 21 d, P=0.015) was shorter in the IFN group. When other confounding factors were not considered, virus shedding time (10 vs. 13 d, P=0.014) was also shorter in the IFN group. However, when the influence of other factors was eliminated using propensity score matching, virus shedding time was not significantly shorter than that of the control group (12 vs. 15 d, P=0.206). CONCLUSIONS: IFN-α2b spray inhalation did not shorten virus shedding time of SARS-CoV-2 in hospitalized patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Interferon alpha-2/administration & dosage , Nasal Sprays , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Virus Shedding/drug effects , Albumins/analysis , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Case-Control Studies , China , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Sodium/blood
15.
J Infect Dis ; 222(6): 910-918, 2020 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the ongoing spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), knowledge about factors affecting prolonged viral excretion is limited. METHODS: In this study, we retrospectively collected data from 99 hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) between 19 January and 17 February 2020 in Zhejiang Province, China. We classified them into 2 groups based on whether the virus test results eventually became negative. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate factors associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) shedding. RESULTS: Among 99 patients, 61 patients had SARS-CoV-2 clearance (virus-negative group), but 38 patients had sustained positive results (virus-positive group). The median duration of SARS-CoV-2 excretion was 15 (interquartile range, 12-19) days among the virus-negative patients. The shedding time was significantly increased if the fecal SARS-CoV-2 RNA test result was positive. Male sex (hazard ratio [HR], 0.58 [95% confidence interval {CI}, .35-.98]), immunoglobulin use (HR, 0.42 [95% CI, .24-.76]), APACHE II score (HR, 0.89 [95% CI, .84-.96]), and lymphocyte count (HR, 1.81 [95% CI, 1.05-3.1]) were independent factors associated with a prolonged duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding. Antiviral therapy and corticosteroid treatment were not independent factors. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance time was associated with sex, disease severity, and lymphocyte function. The current antiviral protocol and low-to-moderate dosage of corticosteroid had little effect on the duration of viral excretion.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Virus Shedding , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , China , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Lymphocytes , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Time Factors
18.
Zool Res ; 41(5): 517-526, 2020 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-671953

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to pose a global threat to the human population. Identifying animal species susceptible to infection with the SARS-CoV-2/ HCoV-19 pathogen is essential for controlling the outbreak and for testing valid prophylactics or therapeutics based on animal model studies. Here, different aged Chinese tree shrews (adult group, 1 year old; old group, 5-6 years old), which are close relatives to primates, were infected with SARS-CoV-2. X-ray, viral shedding, laboratory, and histological analyses were performed on different days post-inoculation (dpi). Results showed that Chinese tree shrews could be infected by SARS-CoV-2. Lung infiltrates were visible in X-ray radiographs in most infected animals. Viral RNA was consistently detected in lung tissues from infected animals at 3, 5, and 7 dpi, along with alterations in related parameters from routine blood tests and serum biochemistry, including increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Histological analysis of lung tissues from animals at 3 dpi (adult group) and 7 dpi (old group) showed thickened alveolar septa and interstitial hemorrhage. Several differences were found between the two different aged groups in regard to viral shedding peak. Our results indicate that Chinese tree shrews have the potential to be used as animal models for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Tupaiidae/physiology , Age Factors , Animals , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Lung/virology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Tupaiidae/virology , Virus Shedding/physiology
19.
AIDS Res Ther ; 17(1): 46, 2020 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-671088

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 has been a severe pandemic all around the world. Nowadays the patient with co-infection of HIV and SARS-CoV-2 was rarely reported. Here we reported a special case with HIV and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection, which showed a prolonged viral shedding duration. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was infected with HIV 8 years ago through sexual transmission and had the normal CD4+T cell count. She was found SARS-CoV-2 positive using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) during the epidemic. Most importantly, the patient had a prolonged viral shedding duration of SARS-CoV-2 about 28 days. CONCLUSION: The viral shedding duration may be prolonged in people living with HIV. The 14 days isolation strategy might not be long enough for them. The isolation or discharge of these patients needs further confirmation for preventing epidemics.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Virus Shedding , Benzoxazines/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Chills , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Fatigue , Female , Fever , HIV/growth & development , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Lamivudine/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pharyngitis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sputum/virology , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Virus Shedding/immunology , Zidovudine/administration & dosage
20.
Curr Opin Urol ; 30(5): 735-739, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-669954

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the plethora of publications discussing the severe respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), evidence of viral secretion in urine is sparse. RECENT FINDINGS: We could identify 34 publications including a total of 2172 patients. Among those, 549 patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2 secretion in urine, which was detected in only 38 patients (6.9%). Within the seven studies displaying positive results, the majority of positive patients (86.8%) was from not yet peer-reviewed studies including weak data and heterogeneous techniques for sample testing. Furthermore, none of the studies available in the literature addressed the virulence of detected viral RNA in urine. SUMMARY: Overall, only seven studies were able to detect SARS-CoV-2 secretion in urine, all of them with a considerably low rate of positivity. However, these studies were of rather low quality considering their methodology. Despite this, as SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in urine, it is of importance to discuss safety and urinary hygiene protocols. Until further research provides valid data on viral shedding and virulence in urine, potential risk of transmission through urine cannot be ruled out. Therefore, safety and hygiene measures need to be discussed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/urine , Pneumonia, Viral/urine , Virus Shedding , Humans , Pandemics
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