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1.
J Dent Res ; 101(12): 1450-1456, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896164

ABSTRACT

The airborne transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) via respiratory fluids and droplets suggests that mouthwashes containing substances with virucidal activity can help reduce viral spread. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to assess the virucidal activity of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) mouthwashes. Outpatients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection with or without symptoms were randomized to perform washes and gargles for 1 min with 15 mL of either colored distilled water or 0.07% CPC (Vitis CPC Protect) mouthwash. The study outcomes were the SARS-CoV-2 log10 viral RNA load and the nucleocapsid protein levels, both in saliva at 1 and 3 h after the intervention. In total, 118 patients were enrolled and randomized (mean [SD], age 46 [14] y). Thirteen of 118 participants (11%) did not complete follow-up or had insufficient sample volume for testing and were excluded from the analysis. The assessment of the viral load showed no significant differences between groups at any of the investigated points. However, the levels of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein of lysed viruses were significantly higher in the CPC group compared with the control group at 1 h (adjusted difference 269.3 pg/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI], 97.1-441.5) and at 3 h postintervention (561.1 pg/mL; 95% CI, 380.0-742.2). In nonhospitalized patients with asymptomatic or mild symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, a 0.07% CPC mouthwash, compared to placebo, was associated with a significant increase of nucleocapsid protein levels in saliva, indicating enhanced disruption of viral particles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cetylpyridinium , Mouthwashes , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding , Humans , Middle Aged , Cetylpyridinium/therapeutic use , Chlorides , Double-Blind Method , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , Nucleocapsid Proteins , RNA, Viral , Virus Shedding/drug effects
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2144942, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676319

ABSTRACT

Importance: Oral anthelmintic niclosamide has potent in vitro antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. Repurposed niclosamide could be a safe and efficacious COVID-19 therapy. Objective: To investigate whether niclosamide decreased SARS-CoV-2 shedding and duration of symptoms among patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial enrolled individuals testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction with mild to moderate symptoms of COVID. All trial participants, investigators, staff, and laboratory personnel were kept blind to participant assignments. Enrollment was among individuals reporting at Tufts Medical Center and Wellforce Network in Massachusetts for outpatient COVID-19 testing. The trial opened to accrual on October 1, 2020; the last participant enrolled on April 20, 2021. Trial exclusion criteria included hospitalization at time of enrollment or use of any experimental treatment for COVID-19, including vaccination. Enrollment was stopped before attaining the planned sample size when COVID-19 diagnoses decreased precipitously in Massachusetts. Data were analyzed from July through September 2021. Interventions: In addition to receiving current standard of care, participants were randomly assigned on a 1:1 basis to receive niclosamide 2 g by mouth daily for 7 days or identically labeled placebo at the same dosing schedule. Main Outcomes and Measures: Oropharyngeal and fecal samples were self-collected for viral shedding measured by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction on days 3, 7, 10, and 14, and an additional fecal sample was collected on day 21. A telehealth platform was developed to conduct remote study visits, monitor symptoms, and coordinate sample collection via couriers. The primary end point was the proportion of participants with viral clearance in respiratory samples at day 3 based on the intention-to-treat sample. Mean times to viral clearance and symptom resolution were calculated as restricted mean survival times and accounted for censored observations. Results: Among 73 participants, 36 individuals were enrolled and randomized to niclosamide and 37 individuals to placebo. Participant characteristics were similar across treatment groups; among 34 patients receiving placebo and 33 patients receiving niclosamide in the intention-to-treat sample, mean (SD) age was 36.0 (13.3) years vs 36.8 (12.9) years and there were 21 (61.8%) men vs 20 (60.6%) men. The overall mean (SD) age was 36.4 (13.0) years. For the primary end point, 66.67% (95% CI, 50.74% to 81.81%) of participants receiving niclosamide and 55.88% (95% CI, 40.27% to 72.73%) of participants receiving placebo had oropharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 clearance at day 3 (P = .37). Among 63 participants with symptoms, niclosamide did not significantly shorten symptom duration, which was 12.01 (95% CI, 8.82 to 15.2) days in the niclosamide group vs 14.61 (95% CI, 11.25 to 17.96) days in the placebo group (mean difference, -2.6 [95% CI, -7.23 to 2.03] days). Niclosamide was well-tolerated; the most commonly reported adverse events in the placebo and niclosamide groups were headaches (11 patients [32.4%] vs 7 patients [21.2%]; P = .31) and cough (8 patients [23.5%] vs 7 patients [21.2%]; P = .82). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, there was no significant difference in oropharyngeal clearance of SARS-CoV-2 at day 3 between placebo and niclosamide groups. Confirmation in larger studies is warranted. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04399356.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Niclosamide/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Shedding/drug effects , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Massachusetts , Middle Aged , Symptom Assessment , Treatment Outcome
3.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 28, 2022 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673926

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA is completed through reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) from either oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal swabs, critically important for diagnostics but also from an infection control lens. Recent studies have suggested that COVID-19 patients can demonstrate prolonged viral shedding with immunosuppression as a key risk factor. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of an immunocompromised patient with SARS-CoV-2 infection demonstrating prolonged infectious viral shedding for 189 days with virus cultivability and clinical relapse with an identical strain based on whole genome sequencing, requiring a multi-modal therapeutic approach. We correlated clinical parameters, PCR cycle thresholds and viral culture until eventual resolution. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully demonstrate resolution of viral shedding, administration of COVID-19 vaccination and maintenance of viral clearance. This case highlights implications in the immunosuppressed patient towards infection prevention and control that should consider those with prolonged viral shedding and may require ancillary testing to fully elucidate viral activity. Furthermore, this case raises several stimulating questions around complex COVID-19 patients around the role of steroids, effect of antiviral therapies in absence of B-cells, role for vaccination and the requirement of a multi-modal approach to eventually have successful clearance of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Rituximab/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Shedding/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
4.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1402-1411, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508798

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 may be recurrence positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA after being cured and discharged from the hospital. The aim of this study was to explore independent influencing factors as markers for predicting positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA recurrence. The study included 601 COVID-19 patients who were cured and discharged from the Public and Health Clinic Centre of Chengdu from January 2020 to March 2021, and the recurrence positive of patients within 6 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 RNA turned negative was followed up. We used propensity score matching to eliminate the influence of confounding factors, and multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent influencing factors for positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA recurrence. Multivariate Logistic regression showed that the elevated serum potassium (odds ratio [OR] = 6.537, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.864-22.931, p = 0.003), elevated blood chlorine (OR = 1.169, 95% CI: 1.032-1.324, p = 0.014) and elevated CD3+ CD4+ count (OR = 1.003, 95% CI: 1.001-1.004, p < 0.001) were identified as independent risk factors for positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA recurrence (p < 0.05). The difference in virus shedding duration (OR = 1.049, 95% CI: 1.000-1.100, p = 0.05) was borderline statistically significant. For sensitivity analysis, we included virus shedding duration as a categorical variable in the model again and found that the OR value related to recurrence positively increased with delayed virus shedding duration, and the trend test showed a statistical difference (P trend = 0.03). Meanwhile, shortening of activated partial prothrombinase time (OR = 0.908, 95% CI: 0.824-1.000, p = 0.049) was identified as an independent protection factor for SARS-CoV-2 RNA recurrence positive. We have identified independent factors that affect the recurrence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive. It is recommended that doctors pay attention to these indicators when first admitted to the hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Shedding/physiology , Adult , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Virus Shedding/drug effects
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18120, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406410

ABSTRACT

Isolation, contact tracing and restrictions on social movement are being globally implemented to prevent and control onward spread of SARS-CoV-2, even though the infection risk modelled on RNA detection by RT-qPCR remains biased as viral shedding and infectivity are not discerned. Thus, we aimed to develop a rapid viability RT-qPCR procedure to infer SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in clinical specimens and environmental samples. We screened monoazide dyes and platinum compounds as viability molecular markers on five SARS-CoV-2 RNA targets. A platinum chloride-based viability RT-qPCR was then optimized using genomic RNA, and inactivated SARS-CoV-2 particles inoculated in buffer, stool, and urine. Our results were finally validated in nasopharyngeal swabs from persons who tested positive for COVID-19 and in wastewater samples positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. We established a rapid viability RT-qPCR that selectively detects potentially infectious SARS-CoV-2 particles in complex matrices. In particular, the confirmed positivity of nasopharyngeal swabs following the viability procedure suggests their potential infectivity, while the complete prevention of amplification in wastewater indicated either non-infectious particles or free RNA. The viability RT-qPCR approach provides a more accurate ascertainment of the infectious viruses detection and it may complement analyses to foster risk-based investigations for the prevention and control of new or re-occurring outbreaks with a broad application spectrum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Platinum Compounds/pharmacology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Contact Tracing/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Virus Shedding/drug effects
6.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(6): 1096-1104, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404664

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study data about SARS-CoV-2 virus shedding and clarify the risk factors for prolonged virus shedding. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from adults hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in Wuhan Union Hospital. We compared clinical features among patients with prolonged (a positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA on day 23 after illness onset) and short virus shedding and evaluated risk factors associated with prolonged virus shedding by multivariate regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 238 patients, the median age was 55.5 years, 57.1% were female, 92.9% (221/238) were administered with arbidol, 58.4% (139/238) were given arbidol in combination with interferon. The median duration of SARS-CoV-2 virus shedding was 23 days (IQR, 17.8-30 days) with a longest one of 51 days. The patients with prolonged virus shedding had higher value of D-dimer (P=0.002), IL-6 (P<0.001), CRP (P=0.005) and more lobes lung lesion (P=0.014) on admission, as well as older age (P=0.017) and more patients with hypertension (P=0.044) than in those the virus shedding less than 23 days. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that prolonged viral shedding was significantly associated with initiation arbidol >8 days after symptom onset [OR: 2.447, 95% CI (1.351-4.431)], ≥3 days from onset of symptoms to first medical visitation [OR: 1.880, 95% CI (1.035-3.416)], illness onset before Jan. 31, 2020 [OR: 3.289, 95% CI (1.474-7.337)]. Arbidol in combination with interferon was also significantly associated with shorter virus shedding [OR: 0.363, 95% CI (0.191-0.690)]. CONCLUSION: Duration of SARS-CoV-2 virus shedding was long. Early initiation of arbidol and arbidol in combination with interferon as well as consulting doctor timely after illness onset were helpful for SARS-CoV-2 clearance.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Indoles/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Interferons/administration & dosage , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Virus Shedding/drug effects
7.
Clin Dermatol ; 38(6): 750-756, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385291

ABSTRACT

Pemphigus and its variants, viz., vulgaris, foliaceous, vegetans, Ig A pemphigus, paraneoplastic pemphigus and Senear-Usher syndrome are rare autoimmune blistering diseases of the skin and/or mucous membranes. The autoantibodies involved in the pathogenesis of pemphigus against desmoglein result in the breach of the skin and mucosal barrier, which acts as the first line of defence against pathogens. In this paper we underscore the importance of the integumentary system as a shield against the acquisition as well as transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virion. We have also made an attempt to delineate the various treatment modalities available and the viral-drug dynamics involved in choosing the optimum therapeutic modality.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/transmission , Pemphigus/drug therapy , Virus Shedding , Administration, Oral , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Feces/virology , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Mouth Mucosa/virology , Pemphigus/complications , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding/drug effects
8.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(9): e23923, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1353465

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The dynamic alteration and comparative study of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA shedding pattern during treatment are limited. This study explores the potential risk factors influencing prolonged viral shedding in COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 126 COVID-19 patients were enrolled in this retrospective longitudinal study. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to estimate the potential risk factors. RESULTS: 38.1% (48/126) cases presented prolonged respiratory tract viral shedding, and 30 (23.8%) cases presented prolonged rectal swab viral shedding. Obesity (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.08-10.09), positive rectal swab (OR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.53-7.7), treatment by lopinavir/ritonavir with chloroquine phosphate (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.04-6.03), the interval from onset to antiviral treatment more than 7 days (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.04-4.93), lower CD4+ T cell (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86-0.99) and higher NK cells (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.02-1.20) were significantly associated with prolonged respiratory tract viral shedding. CD3-CD56+ NK cells (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.76-0.99) were related with prolonged fecal shedding. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity, delayed antiviral treatment, and positive SARS-CoV-2 for stool were independent risk factors for prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding of the respiratory tract. A combination of LPV/r and abidol as the initial antiviral regimen was effective in shortening the duration of viral shedding compared with LPV/r combined with chloroquine phosphate. CD4+ T cell and NK cells were significantly associated with prolonged viral shedding, and further studies are to be warranted to determine the mechanism of immunomodulatory response in virus clearance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Feces/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Shedding/physiology , Adult , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Chloroquine/analogs & derivatives , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Longitudinal Studies , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lynx , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Respiratory System/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Virus Shedding/drug effects
9.
Life Sci Alliance ; 4(10)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1342114

ABSTRACT

The duration of viral shedding is determined by a balance between de novo infection and removal of infected cells. That is, if infection is completely blocked with antiviral drugs (100% inhibition), the duration of viral shedding is minimal and is determined by the length of virus production. However, some mathematical models predict that if infected individuals are treated with antiviral drugs with efficacy below 100%, viral shedding may last longer than without treatment because further de novo infections are driven by entry of the virus into partially protected, uninfected cells at a slower rate. Using a simple mathematical model, we quantified SARS-CoV-2 infection dynamics in non-human primates and characterized the kinetics of viral shedding. We counterintuitively found that treatments initiated early, such as 0.5 d after virus inoculation, with intermediate to relatively high efficacy (30-70% inhibition of virus replication) yield a prolonged duration of viral shedding (by about 6.0 d) compared with no treatment.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Virus Shedding/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Lung/virology , Macaca mulatta , Models, Theoretical , Nose/virology , Pharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Time Factors , Viral Load/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
10.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 498-510, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, only monoclonal antibodies have been shown to be effective for outpatients with COVID-19. Interferon lambda-1 is a type III interferon involved in innate antiviral responses with activity against respiratory pathogens. We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of peginterferon lambda in the treatment of outpatients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, outpatients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were randomly assigned to a single subcutaneous injection of peginterferon lambda 180 µg or placebo within 7 days of symptom onset or first positive swab if asymptomatic. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) using a computer-generated randomisation list created with a randomisation schedule in blocks of four. At the time of administration, study nurses received a sealed opaque envelope with the treatment allocation number. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who were negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA on day 7 after the injection, analysed by a χ2 test following an intention-to-treat principle. Prespecified analysis of the primary endpoint, adjusted for baseline viral load, using bivariate logistic regression was done. The trial is now complete. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04354259. FINDINGS: Between May 18, and Sept 4, 2020, we recruited 30 patients per group. The decline in SARS-CoV-2 RNA was greater in those treated with peginterferon lambda than placebo from day 3 onwards, with a difference of 2·42 log copies per mL at day 7 (p=0·0041). By day 7, 24 (80%) participants in the peginterferon lambda group had an undetectable viral load, compared with 19 (63%) in the placebo group (p=0·15). After controlling for baseline viral load, patients in the peginterferon lambda group were more likely to have undetectable virus by day 7 than were those in the placebo group (odds ratio [OR] 4·12 [95% CI 1·15-16·73; p=0·029). Of those with baseline viral load above 106 copies per mL, 15 (79%) of 19 patients in the peginterferon lambda group had undetectable virus on day 7, compared with six (38%) of 16 in the placebo group (OR 6·25 [95% CI 1·49-31·06]; p=0·012). Peginterferon lambda was well tolerated, and adverse events were similar between groups with mild and transient aminotransferase, concentration increases more frequently observed in the peginterferon lambda group. Two individuals met the threshold of grade 3 increase, one in each group, and no other grade 3 or 4 laboratory adverse events were reported. INTERPRETATION: Peginterferon lambda accelerated viral decline in outpatients with COVID-19, increasing the proportion of patients with viral clearance by day 7, particularly in those with high baseline viral load. Peginterferon lambda has potential to prevent clinical deterioration and shorten duration of viral shedding. FUNDING: The Toronto COVID-19 Action Initiative, University of Toronto, and the Ontario First COVID-19 Rapid Research Fund, Toronto General & Western Hospital Foundation.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/methods , COVID-19 , Interleukins , Polyethylene Glycols , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load/drug effects , Virus Shedding/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Humans , Intention to Treat Analysis , Interleukins/administration & dosage , Interleukins/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Polyethylene Glycols/administration & dosage , Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
11.
J Infect Dis ; 223(12): 2020-2028, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246725

ABSTRACT

Effective clinical intervention strategies for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are urgently needed. Although several clinical trials have evaluated use of convalescent plasma containing virus-neutralizing antibodies, levels of neutralizing antibodies are usually not assessed and the effectiveness has not been proven. We show that hamsters treated prophylactically with a 1:2560 titer of human convalescent plasma or a 1:5260 titer of monoclonal antibody were protected against weight loss, had a significant reduction of virus replication in the lungs, and showed reduced pneumonia. Interestingly, this protective effect was lost with a titer of 1:320 of convalescent plasma. These data highlight the importance of screening plasma donors for high levels of neutralizing antibodies. Our data show that prophylactic administration of high levels of neutralizing antibody, either monoclonal or from convalescent plasma, prevent severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in a hamster model, and could be used as an alternative or complementary to other antiviral treatments for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Lung/drug effects , Virus Shedding/drug effects , Weight Loss/drug effects
12.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227067

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal shedding contributes to the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic. Among 3271 COVID-19 patients treated at the Hospital University Institute Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France from 3 March to 27 April 2020, tested at least twice by qRT-PCR, the median SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal shedding duration was 6 days (range 2-54 days). Compared with short shedders (qRT-PCR positivity < 10 days), 34 (1.04%) persistent shedders (qRT-PCR positivity ≥ 17 days; mean ± SD: 23.3 ± 3.8 days) were significantly older, with associated comorbidities, exhibiting lymphopenia, eosinopenia, increased D-dimer and increased troponin (p < 0.05), and were hospitalized in intensive care unit in 17.7% vs. 1.1% of cases (p < 0.0001). Viral culture was positive in six persistent shedders after day 10, including in one patient after day 17, and no viral co-pathogen was detected in 33 tested patients. Persistent shedders received azithromycin plus hydroxychloroquine ≥ 3 days in 26/34 (76.5%) patients, a figure significantly lower than in short shedders (86.6%) (p = 0.042). Accordingly, mortality was 14.7% vs. 0.5% (p < 0.0001). Persistent shedding was significantly associated with persistent dyspnea and anosmia/ageusia (p < 0.05). In the context of COVID-19 treatment, including treatment with azithromycin plus hydroxychloroquine, the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal shedding was a rare event, most frequently encountered in elderly patients with comorbidities and lacking azithromycin plus hydroxychloroquine treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Virus Shedding/drug effects , Adult , Aged , Azithromycin/metabolism , Azithromycin/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Comorbidity , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(1): 472-480, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206789

ABSTRACT

During the early stages of the pandemic, some coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients were misdiagnosed as having influenza, which aroused the concern that some deaths attributed to influenza were actually COVID-19-related. However, little is known about whether coinfection with influenza contributes to severity of COVID-19 pneumonia, and the optimal therapeutic strategy for these patients. We retrospectively studied 128 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. All patients were positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 positive by nucleic acid detection. Sixty-four cases were coinfected with influenza A/B and the other 64 were influenza negative, matched by age, sex, and days from onset of symptoms. Among the 64 coinfected patients, 54 (84.4%) were coinfected with influenza A, and 10 (15.6%) with influenza B. The median duration of viral shedding time from admission was longer for patients with influenza coinfection (17.0 days) than for those without influenza coinfection (12.0 days) (P < .001). The multivariable Cox proportional hazards model showed that the hazards ratio of resolution in lung involvement was 1.878 (P = .020) for patients administered lopinavir/ritonavir, compared with those not administered lopinavir/ritonavir (95% confidence interval: 1.103-3.196). Among influenza coinfected patients, those treated with lopinavir/ritonavir exhibited faster pneumonia resolution within 2 weeks after symptom onset (37% vs 1%; P = .001). There was no difference in lung involvement between influenza coinfected and noninfected groups. Lopinavir/ritonavir eliminated the difference of lung involvement between influenza coinfected and noninfected groups, indicating that lopinavir/ritonavir is associated with pneumonia resolution in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coinfection/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Shedding/drug effects
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1766-1769, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196474

ABSTRACT

Asymptomatic and convalescent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) subjects may carry severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) for months in their upper respiratory ways. Desiring to permanently clean the mucosal surfaces, we investigated the chemical agents that fit to rapidly degrade the virus. Among these, hydrogen peroxide, initially tested by two of us for tolerability, showed both good performance and acceptable side effects (burning sensation for 15-20 s). We contacted circles of family physicians and the ATS Milano (Territorial Assistance and Prevention Service), and we tested this procedure on eight persistent carriers of SARS-CoV-2, performing swabs before the procedure and after it until the reappearance of the virus or until 14 days (the incubation period), keeping the surfaces clean with a hypertonic solution. Our patients had a median time from exposure or symptom onset of 111 days, and three had relapsed after being declared "cured" (two consecutive negative swabs after quarantine). One patient had a baseline negative swab and was excluded, and two successfully ended the 14 days' course, four suppressed viral elimination for 72 h, and one for 48 h, all rebounding to weak positive (cycle thresholds above 24). Although temporarily effective, such measures may have some place in the control of viral shedding to protect the most fragile subjects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Carrier State/drug therapy , Hydrogen Peroxide/therapeutic use , Oxidants/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Carrier State/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome , Virus Shedding/drug effects
15.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1538-1547, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196473

ABSTRACT

Steroids may play a critical role in the current pandemic of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), given the dearth of specific therapeutic options. This review was conducted to evaluate the impact of glucocorticoid therapy in patients with COVID-19 based on the publications reported to date. A comprehensive screening was conducted using electronic databases up to August 19, 2020. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies evaluating the effectiveness and safety of steroids in patients with COVID-19 are included for the meta-analyses. Our search retrieved twelve studies, including two RCTs and 10 cohort studies, with a total of 15,754 patients. In patients with COVID-19, the use of systemic glucocorticoid neither reduce mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-3.4, I2 = 96%), nor the duration of hospital stay (mean difference [MD] = 1.18 days, 95% CI: -1.28 to 3.64, I2 = 93%) and period of viral shedding (MD = 1.42 days, 95% CI: -0.52 to 3.37, I2 = 0%). Systemic steroid therapy may not be effective for reducing mortality, duration of hospitalization, and period of viral shedding. Studies are mostly heterogeneous. Further RCTs are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Length of Stay , Treatment Outcome , Virus Shedding/drug effects
16.
Res Vet Sci ; 130: 222-229, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761807

ABSTRACT

Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is common among cats living indoors in groups. In about 10% of infected cats, a potentially lethal disease, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) occurs. Virus transmission is faecal-oral. Mutian® Xraphconn (Mutian X) is a product marketed to treat cats with FIP but is also being used to stop virus shedding, although no clear guidelines exist for its use for this purpose. The aim of this study was to establish the minimum dose and treatment duration required to ensure viral clearance from the faeces of asymptomatic virus-shedding cats. In five multicat households, 29 cats naturally infected with FCoV and actively shedding virus in the faeces were given Mutian X pills. Virus shedding was monitored using reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) controlled for faecal inhibitors to ensure sensitivity. Mutian X given orally cleared the virus in 29 cats; although four cats required a repeated course to finally stop virus shedding. A dose of 4 mg/kg q24 h for four days was found to be the optimal treatment protocol: 2 mg/kg cleared only 80% of cats. Post-treatment using a sensitive RT-qPCR test was essential to ensure that virus clearance had been achieved, since failure to clear even one cat can result in re-infection of the others. Records of virus shedding by cats before treatment provided a retrospective control: significantly more cats stopped shedding virus after Mutian X than recovered from infection during the control period (p < .00001). This is the first report of the successful elimination of faecal FCoV shedding in chronically infected cats.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus, Feline/drug effects , Feline Infectious Peritonitis/drug therapy , Virus Shedding/drug effects , Administration, Oral , Animals , Cats , Feces/virology , Retrospective Studies
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1967, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159789

ABSTRACT

Type III interferons have been touted as promising therapeutics in outpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial (NCT04331899) in 120 outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19 to determine whether a single, 180 mcg subcutaneous dose of Peginterferon Lambda-1a (Lambda) within 72 hours of diagnosis could shorten the duration of viral shedding (primary endpoint) or symptoms (secondary endpoint). In both the 60 patients receiving Lambda and 60 receiving placebo, the median time to cessation of viral shedding was 7 days (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56 to 1.19). Symptoms resolved in 8 and 9 days in Lambda and placebo, respectively, and symptom duration did not differ significantly between groups (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.64 to 1.39). Both Lambda and placebo were well-tolerated, though liver transaminase elevations were more common in the Lambda vs. placebo arm (15/60 vs 5/60; p = 0.027). In this study, a single dose of subcutaneous Peginterferon Lambda-1a neither shortened the duration of SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding nor improved symptoms in outpatients with uncomplicated COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukins/administration & dosage , Polyethylene Glycols/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Single-Blind Method , Treatment Failure , Virus Shedding/drug effects , Young Adult
18.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 110(2): 321-333, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103289

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral loads change rapidly following symptom onset, so to assess antivirals it is important to understand the natural history and patient factors influencing this. We undertook an individual patient-level meta-analysis of SARS-CoV-2 viral dynamics in humans to describe viral dynamics and estimate the effects of antivirals used to date. This systematic review identified case reports, case series, and clinical trial data from publications between January 1, 2020, and May 31, 2020, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards (Cox-PH) regression model of time to viral clearance was fitted to respiratory and stool samples. A simplified four parameter nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) model was fitted to viral load trajectories in all sampling sites and covariate modeling of respiratory viral dynamics was performed to quantify time-dependent drug effects. Patient-level data from 645 individuals (age 1 month to 100 years) with 6,316 viral loads were extracted. Model-based simulations of viral load trajectories in samples from the upper and lower respiratory tract, stool, blood, urine, ocular secretions, and breast milk were generated. Cox-PH modeling showed longer time to viral clearance in older patients, men, and those with more severe disease. Remdesivir was associated with faster viral clearance (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) = 9.19, P < 0.001), as well as interferon, particularly when combined with ribavirin (AHR = 2.2, P = 0.015; AHR = 6.04, P = 0.006). Combination therapy should be further investigated. A viral dynamic dataset and NLME model for designing and analyzing antiviral trials has been established.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Viral Load/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Interferons/pharmacology , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Shedding/drug effects
19.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(1): 24-30, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082574

ABSTRACT

The role of corticosteroids in the treatment of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of adjuvant corticosteroids treatment on the outcome of patients with COVID-19 (n=966), using Propensity Score Matching to adjust for potential differences between the corticosteroids group (n=289) and the non-corticosteroids group (n=677). Analysis of data without adjusting differences in baseline characteristics indicated that the proportion of mechanical ventilation and the mortality was higher in the corticosteroids treatment group in total or severe/critical patients. The duration of viral shedding was longer in the non-corticosteroids treatment group in total or general/mild patients. After adjusting the difference between the corticosteroids and non-corticosteroids treatment group, the analysis revealed that the use of corticosteroids had no effect on the duration of viral shedding, in-hospital mortality or 28-day mortality.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Aged , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Shedding/drug effects
20.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(1): e1008470, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058291

ABSTRACT

Finding medications or vaccines that may decrease the infectious period of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) could potentially reduce transmission in the broader population. We developed a computational model of the U.S. simulating the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and the potential clinical and economic impact of reducing the infectious period duration. Simulation experiments found that reducing the average infectious period duration could avert a median of 442,852 [treating 25% of symptomatic cases, reducing by 0.5 days, reproductive number (R0) 3.5, and starting treatment when 15% of the population has been exposed] to 44.4 million SARS-CoV-2 cases (treating 75% of all infected cases, reducing by 3.5 days, R0 2.0). With R0 2.5, reducing the average infectious period duration by 0.5 days for 25% of symptomatic cases averted 1.4 million cases and 99,398 hospitalizations; increasing to 75% of symptomatic cases averted 2.8 million cases. At $500/person, treating 25% of symptomatic cases saved $209.5 billion (societal perspective). Further reducing the average infectious period duration by 3.5 days averted 7.4 million cases (treating 25% of symptomatic cases). Expanding treatment to 75% of all infected cases, including asymptomatic infections (R0 2.5), averted 35.9 million cases and 4 million hospitalizations, saving $48.8 billion (societal perspective and starting treatment after 5% of the population has been exposed). Our study quantifies the potential effects of reducing the SARS-CoV-2 infectious period duration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Models, Biological , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Virus Shedding/drug effects
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