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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 460, 2022 01 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1651070

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant has spread rapidly worldwide. To provide data on its virological profile, we here report the first local transmission of Delta in mainland China. All 167 infections could be traced back to the first index case. Daily sequential PCR testing of quarantined individuals indicated that the viral loads of Delta infections, when they first become PCR-positive, were on average ~1000 times greater compared to lineage A/B infections during the first epidemic wave in China in early 2020, suggesting potentially faster viral replication and greater infectiousness of Delta during early infection. The estimated transmission bottleneck size of the Delta variant was generally narrow, with 1-3 virions in 29 donor-recipient transmission pairs. However, the transmission of minor iSNVs resulted in at least 3 of the 34 substitutions that were identified in the outbreak, highlighting the contribution of intra-host variants to population-level viral diversity during rapid spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , RNA-Seq/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Time Factors , Vero Cells , Viral Load/genetics , Viral Load/physiology , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/physiology , Virus Shedding/genetics , Virus Shedding/physiology
2.
JCI Insight ; 7(2)2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649048

ABSTRACT

Isolation guidelines for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are largely derived from data collected prior to the emergence of the delta variant. We followed a cohort of ambulatory patients with postvaccination breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections with longitudinal collection of nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 viral load quantification, whole-genome sequencing, and viral culture. All delta variant infections in our cohort were symptomatic, compared with 64% of non-delta variant infections. Symptomatic delta variant breakthrough infections were characterized by higher initial viral load, longer duration of virologic shedding by PCR, greater likelihood of replication-competent virus at early stages of infection, and longer duration of culturable virus compared with non-delta variants. The duration of time since vaccination was also correlated with both duration of PCR positivity and duration of detection of replication-competent virus. Nonetheless, no individuals with symptomatic delta variant infections had replication-competent virus by day 10 after symptom onset or 24 hours after resolution of symptoms. These data support US CDC isolation guidelines as of November 2021, which recommend isolation for 10 days or until symptom resolution and reinforce the importance of prompt testing and isolation among symptomatic individuals with delta breakthrough infections. Additional data are needed to evaluate these relationships among asymptomatic and more severe delta variant breakthrough infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Virus Shedding/physiology , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24183, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585792

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has restricted singing in communal worship. We sought to understand variations in droplet transmission and the impact of wearing face masks. Using rapid laser planar imaging, we measured droplets while participants exhaled, said 'hello' or 'snake', sang a note or 'Happy Birthday', with and without surgical face masks. We measured mean velocity magnitude (MVM), time averaged droplet number (TADN) and maximum droplet number (MDN). Multilevel regression models were used. In 20 participants, sound intensity was 71 dB for speaking and 85 dB for singing (p < 0.001). MVM was similar for all tasks with no clear hierarchy between vocal tasks or people and > 85% reduction wearing face masks. Droplet transmission varied widely, particularly for singing. Masks decreased TADN by 99% (p < 0.001) and MDN by 98% (p < 0.001) for singing and 86-97% for other tasks. Masks reduced variance by up to 48%. When wearing a mask, neither singing task transmitted more droplets than exhaling. In conclusion, wide variation exists for droplet production. This significantly reduced when wearing face masks. Singing during religious worship wearing a face mask appears as safe as exhaling or talking. This has implications for UK public health guidance during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Face , Masks , Singing/physiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exhalation/physiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Shedding/physiology
4.
JCI Insight ; 7(2)2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556107

ABSTRACT

Isolation guidelines for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are largely derived from data collected prior to the emergence of the delta variant. We followed a cohort of ambulatory patients with postvaccination breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections with longitudinal collection of nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 viral load quantification, whole-genome sequencing, and viral culture. All delta variant infections in our cohort were symptomatic, compared with 64% of non-delta variant infections. Symptomatic delta variant breakthrough infections were characterized by higher initial viral load, longer duration of virologic shedding by PCR, greater likelihood of replication-competent virus at early stages of infection, and longer duration of culturable virus compared with non-delta variants. The duration of time since vaccination was also correlated with both duration of PCR positivity and duration of detection of replication-competent virus. Nonetheless, no individuals with symptomatic delta variant infections had replication-competent virus by day 10 after symptom onset or 24 hours after resolution of symptoms. These data support US CDC isolation guidelines as of November 2021, which recommend isolation for 10 days or until symptom resolution and reinforce the importance of prompt testing and isolation among symptomatic individuals with delta breakthrough infections. Additional data are needed to evaluate these relationships among asymptomatic and more severe delta variant breakthrough infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Virus Shedding/physiology , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors
5.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1402-1411, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508798

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 may be recurrence positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA after being cured and discharged from the hospital. The aim of this study was to explore independent influencing factors as markers for predicting positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA recurrence. The study included 601 COVID-19 patients who were cured and discharged from the Public and Health Clinic Centre of Chengdu from January 2020 to March 2021, and the recurrence positive of patients within 6 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 RNA turned negative was followed up. We used propensity score matching to eliminate the influence of confounding factors, and multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent influencing factors for positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA recurrence. Multivariate Logistic regression showed that the elevated serum potassium (odds ratio [OR] = 6.537, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.864-22.931, p = 0.003), elevated blood chlorine (OR = 1.169, 95% CI: 1.032-1.324, p = 0.014) and elevated CD3+ CD4+ count (OR = 1.003, 95% CI: 1.001-1.004, p < 0.001) were identified as independent risk factors for positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA recurrence (p < 0.05). The difference in virus shedding duration (OR = 1.049, 95% CI: 1.000-1.100, p = 0.05) was borderline statistically significant. For sensitivity analysis, we included virus shedding duration as a categorical variable in the model again and found that the OR value related to recurrence positively increased with delayed virus shedding duration, and the trend test showed a statistical difference (P trend = 0.03). Meanwhile, shortening of activated partial prothrombinase time (OR = 0.908, 95% CI: 0.824-1.000, p = 0.049) was identified as an independent protection factor for SARS-CoV-2 RNA recurrence positive. We have identified independent factors that affect the recurrence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive. It is recommended that doctors pay attention to these indicators when first admitted to the hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Shedding/physiology , Adult , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Virus Shedding/drug effects
6.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470999

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the infectivity of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) in individuals who re-tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA after recovering from their primary illness. We investigated 295 individuals with re-positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test results and 836 of their close contacts. We attempted virus isolation in individuals with re-positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results using cell culture and confirmed the presence of neutralizing antibodies using serological tests. Viral culture was negative in all 108 individuals with re-positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results in whom viral culture was performed. Three new cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified among household contacts using PCR. Two of the three new cases had had contact with the index patient during their primary illness, and all three had antibody evidence of past infection. Thus, there was no laboratory evidence of viral shedding and no epidemiological evidence of transmission among individuals with re-positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Shedding/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reinfection/immunology , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(43)2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462067

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global threat to human health and life. A useful pathological animal model accurately reflecting human pathology is needed to overcome the COVID-19 crisis. In the present study, COVID-19 cynomolgus monkey models including monkeys with underlying diseases causing severe pathogenicity such as metabolic disease and elderly monkeys were examined. Cynomolgus macaques with various clinical conditions were intranasally and/or intratracheally inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 was found in mucosal swab samples, and a higher level and longer period of viral RNA was detected in elderly monkeys than in young monkeys. Pneumonia was confirmed in all of the monkeys by computed tomography images. When monkeys were readministrated SARS-CoV-2 at 56 d or later after initial infection all of the animals showed inflammatory responses without virus detection in swab samples. Surprisingly, in elderly monkeys reinfection showed transient severe pneumonia with increased levels of various serum cytokines and chemokines compared with those in primary infection. The results of this study indicated that the COVID-19 cynomolgus monkey model reflects the pathophysiology of humans and would be useful for elucidating the pathophysiology and developing therapeutic agents and vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Macaca fascicularis/immunology , Primate Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Macaca fascicularis/virology , Male , Primate Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Virus Shedding/immunology , Virus Shedding/physiology
9.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(9): e23923, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1353465

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The dynamic alteration and comparative study of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA shedding pattern during treatment are limited. This study explores the potential risk factors influencing prolonged viral shedding in COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 126 COVID-19 patients were enrolled in this retrospective longitudinal study. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to estimate the potential risk factors. RESULTS: 38.1% (48/126) cases presented prolonged respiratory tract viral shedding, and 30 (23.8%) cases presented prolonged rectal swab viral shedding. Obesity (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.08-10.09), positive rectal swab (OR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.53-7.7), treatment by lopinavir/ritonavir with chloroquine phosphate (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.04-6.03), the interval from onset to antiviral treatment more than 7 days (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.04-4.93), lower CD4+ T cell (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86-0.99) and higher NK cells (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.02-1.20) were significantly associated with prolonged respiratory tract viral shedding. CD3-CD56+ NK cells (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.76-0.99) were related with prolonged fecal shedding. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity, delayed antiviral treatment, and positive SARS-CoV-2 for stool were independent risk factors for prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding of the respiratory tract. A combination of LPV/r and abidol as the initial antiviral regimen was effective in shortening the duration of viral shedding compared with LPV/r combined with chloroquine phosphate. CD4+ T cell and NK cells were significantly associated with prolonged viral shedding, and further studies are to be warranted to determine the mechanism of immunomodulatory response in virus clearance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Feces/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Shedding/physiology , Adult , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Chloroquine/analogs & derivatives , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Longitudinal Studies , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lynx , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Respiratory System/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Virus Shedding/drug effects
10.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal (NPS)/oropharyngeal swabs is the gold standard for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and viral load monitoring. Oral fluid (OF) is an alternate clinical sample, easy and safer to collect and could be useful for COVID-19 diagnosis, monitoring viral load and shedding. METHODS: Optimal assay conditions and analytical sensitivity were established for the commercial Simplexa™ COVID-19 Direct assay adapted to OF matrix. The assay was used to test 337 OF and NPS specimens collected in parallel from 164 hospitalized patients; 50 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from a subgroup of severe COVID-19 cases were also analysed. RESULTS: Using Simplexa™ COVID-19 Direct on OF matrix, 100% analytical detection down to 1 TCID50/mL (corresponding to 4 × 103 copies (cp)/mL) was observed. No crossreaction with other viruses transmitted through the respiratory toute was observed. Parallel testing of 337 OF and NPS samples showed highly concordant results (κ = 0.831; 95 % CI = 0.771-0.891), and high correlation of Ct values (r = 0.921; p < 0.0001). High concordance and elevated correlation was observed also between OF and BAL. Prolonged viral RNA shedding was observed up to 100 days from symptoms onset (DSO), with 32% and 29% positivity observed in OF and NPS samples, respectively, collected between 60 and 100 DSO. CONCLUSIONS: Simplexa™ COVID-19 Direct assays on OF have high sensitivity and specificity to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA and provide an alternative to NPS for diagnosis and monitoring SARS-CoV-2 shedding.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Virus Shedding/physiology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Body Fluids/virology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Pandemics , Pharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling , Viral Load
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4570-4575, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263108

ABSTRACT

Inpatient coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases present enormous costs to patients and health systems in the United States. Many hospitalized patients may continue testing COVID-19 positive even after the resolution of symptoms. Thus, a pressing concern for clinicians is the safety of discharging these asymptomatic patients if they have any remaining infectivity. This case report explores the viral viability in a patient with persistent COVID-19 over the course of a 2-month hospitalization. Positive nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected and isolated in the laboratory and analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR), and serology was tested for neutralizing antibodies throughout the hospitalization period. The patient experienced waning symptoms by hospital day 40 and had no viable virus growth by hospital day 41, suggesting no risk of infectivity, despite positive RT-PCR results which prolonged his hospital stay. Notably, this case showed infectivity for at least 24 days after disease onset, which is longer than the discontinuation of transmission-based precautions recommended by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Thus, our findings suggest that the timeline for discontinuing transmission-based precautions may need to be extended for patients with severe and prolonged COVID-19 disease. Additional large-scale studies are needed to draw definitive conclusions on the appropriate clinical management for these patients. ​.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Virus Shedding/physiology , Aged , Asymptomatic Infections , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1156-1168, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249264

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTThe risk of secondary infection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus is becoming a practical problem that must be addressed as the flu season merges with the COVID-19 pandemic. As SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus have been found in patients, understanding the in vivo characteristics of the secondary infection between these two viruses is a high priority. Here, hACE2 transgenic mice were challenged with the H1N1 virus at a nonlethal dose during the convalescent stage on 7 and 14 days post SARS-CoV-2 infection, and importantly, subsequent H1N1 infection showed enhanced viral shedding and virus tissue distribution. Histopathological observation revealed an extensive pathological change in the lungs related to H1N1 infection in mice recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection, with severe inflammation infiltration and bronchiole disruption. Moreover, upon H1N1 exposure on 7 and 14 dpi of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the lymphocyte population activated at a lower level with T cell suppressed in both PBMC and lung. These findings will be valuable for evaluating antiviral therapeutics and vaccines as well as guiding public health work.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/pathology , Acute Lung Injury/virology , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Coinfection/pathology , Coinfection/virology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Lung/pathology , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes/immunology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Virus Replication/physiology , Virus Shedding/physiology
13.
mSphere ; 6(3)2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236421

ABSTRACT

Information regarding the infectivity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in asymptomatic carriers is scarce. In order to determine the duration of infectivity and its correlation with reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) results and time since initial positive PCR test in this population, we evaluated SARS-CoV-2 cell infectivity in nasopharyngeal samples longitudinally obtained from asymptomatic carriers who disembarked from a cruise ship during a COVID-19 outbreak. Of 166 nasopharyngeal samples collected from 39 asymptomatic carriers every 48 h until two consecutive negative PCR test results were obtained, SARS-CoV-2 was successfully isolated from 9 PCR-positive samples which were obtained from 7 persons (18%; 7/39). Viable viruses were isolated predominantly within 7 days after the initial positive PCR test, except for one person who shed viable virus until day 15. The median crossing point (Cp) value of RT-PCR of culture-positive samples was 24.6 (interquartile range [IQR], 20.4 to 25.8; range, 17.9 to 30.3), and Cp values were significantly associated with isolation of viable virus (odds ratio, 0.496; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.329 to 0.747; P value, 0.001), which was consistent with existing data for symptomatic patients. Genome sequence analysis of SARS-CoV-2 samples consecutively obtained from a person who shed viable virus for 15 days identified the emergence of two novel single nucleotide variants (C8626T transition and C18452T transition) in the sample collected on day 15, with the latter corresponding to an amino acid substitution in nonstructural protein 14. The impact of these mutations on prolonged viable-virus shedding is unclear. These findings underscore the potential role of asymptomatic carriers in transmission.IMPORTANCE A growing number of studies suggest the potential role of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers as a major driver of the COVID-19 pandemic; however, virological assessment of asymptomatic infection has largely been limited to reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), which can be persistently positive without necessarily indicating the presence of viable virus (e.g., replication-competent virus). Here, we evaluated the infectivity of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers by detecting SARS-CoV-2-induced cytopathic effects on Vero cells using longitudinally obtained nasopharyngeal samples from asymptomatic carriers. We show that asymptomatic carriers can shed viable virus until 7 days after the initial positive PCR test, with one outlier shedding until day 15. The crossing point (Cp) value of RT-PCR was the leading predictive factor for virus viability. These findings provide additional insights into the role of asymptomatic carriers as a source of transmission and highlight the importance of universal source control measures, along with isolation policy for asymptomatic carriers.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Virus Shedding/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Cell Line , Child , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells , Whole Genome Sequencing , Young Adult
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(1): 506-512, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206794

ABSTRACT

To investigate the factors associated with the duration of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA shedding in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A retrospective cohort of COVID-19 patients admitted to a designated hospital in Beijing was analyzed to study the factors affecting the duration of viral shedding. The median duration of viral shedding was 11 days (IQR, 8-14.3 days) as measured from illness onset. Univariate regression analysis showed that disease severity, corticosteroid therapy, fever (temperature>38.5°C), and time from onset to hospitalization were associated with prolonged duration of viral shedding (P < .05). Multivariate regression analysis showed that fever (temperature>38.5°C) (OR, 5.1, 95%CI: 1.5-18.1), corticosteroid therapy (OR, 6.3, 95%CI: 1.5-27.8), and time from onset to hospitalization (OR, 1.8, 95%CI: 1.19-2.7) were associated with increased odds of prolonged duration of viral shedding. Corticosteroid treatment, fever (temperature>38.5°C), and longer time from onset to hospitalization were associated with prolonged viral shedding in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Shedding/physiology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Risk Factors , Time Factors
16.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(1): e1008609, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110076

ABSTRACT

A key parameter in epidemiological modeling which characterizes the spread of an infectious disease is the generation time, or more generally the distribution of infectiousness as a function of time since infection. There is increasing evidence supporting a prolonged viral shedding window for COVID-19, but the transmissibility in this phase is unclear. Based on this, we develop a generalized Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Resistant (SEIR) model including an additional compartment of chronically infected individuals who can stay infectious for a longer duration than the reported generation time, but with infectivity reduced to varying degrees. Using the incidence and fatality data from different countries, we first show that such an assumption also yields a plausible model in explaining the data observed prior to the easing of the lockdown measures (relaxation). We then test the predictive power of this model for different durations and levels of prolonged infectiousness using the incidence data after the introduction of relaxation in Switzerland, and compare it with a model without the chronically infected population to represent the models conventionally used. We show that in case of a gradual easing on the lockdown measures, the predictions of the model including the chronically infected population vary considerably from those obtained under a model in which prolonged infectiousness is not taken into account. Although the existence of a chronically infected population still remains largely hypothetical, we believe that our results provide tentative evidence to consider a chronically infected population as an alternative modeling approach to better interpret the transmission dynamics of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Models, Statistical , Virus Shedding/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Computational Biology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland
17.
Eur J Cancer ; 147: 154-160, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077873

ABSTRACT

The worldwide spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the associated infectious coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has posed a unique challenge to medical staff, patients and their families. Patients with cancer, particularly those with haematologic malignancies, have been identified to be at high risk to develop severe COVID-19. Since publication of our previous guideline on evidence-based management of COVID-19 in patients with cancer, research efforts have continued and new relevant data has come to light, maybe most importantly in the field of vaccination studies. Therefore, an update of our guideline on several clinically important topics is warranted. Here, we provide a concise update of evidence-based recommendations for rapid diagnostics, viral shedding, vaccination and therapy of COVID-19 in patients with cancer. This guideline update was prepared by the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society for Haematology and Medical Oncology by critically reviewing the currently available data on these topics applying evidence-based medicine criteria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/standards , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Neoplasms , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Shedding/physiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Evidence-Based Medicine/standards , Evidence-Based Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Germany/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Hematology/organization & administration , Hematology/standards , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunization, Passive/standards , Infectious Disease Medicine/organization & administration , Infectious Disease Medicine/standards , Medical Oncology/organization & administration , Medical Oncology/standards , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Societies, Medical/standards , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/standards
18.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(5): 701-706, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075452

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presented the field of reproductive medicine with many challenges due to an absence of data to guide clinical decision-making and inform patient counseling and management in the early days of the pandemic. Epidemiological studies rapidly filled key gaps in our understanding of the susceptibility of reproductive-aged women to the virus, transmission dynamics during pregnancy and lactation, and the effect of infection during the prenatal, pregnancy, and postpartum periods. This data guided the development of clinical guidelines written by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine as patients and clinicians navigated reproductive decisions during a time of uncertainty. We present a review of epidemiologic studies published between March and December 2020 that have directly informed prenatal and fertility care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite a significant increase in our knowledge base over the past year, many questions remain about the impact of COVID-19 on conception, pregnancy, fetal development, and lactation. In the future, a commitment toward inclusion of pregnant persons and those attempting pregnancy in the design of observational and interventional trials is necessary to gain earlier insights about outcomes and assist providers and patients in making data-driven decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Breast Feeding , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prenatal Care , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding/physiology , Young Adult
19.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244269, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Various factors may determine the duration of viral shedding (the time from infection to viral RNA-negative conversion or recovery) in COVID-19 patients. Understanding the average duration of recovery and its predictors is crucial in formulating preventive measures and optimizing treatment options. Therefore, evidence showing the duration of recovery from COVID-19 in different contexts and settings is necessary for tailoring appropriate treatment and prevention measures. This study aimed to investigate the average duration and the predictors of recovery from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among COVID-19 patients. METHOD: A hospital-based prospective cohort study was conducted at Eka Kotebe General Hospital, COVID-19 Isolation and Treatment Center from March 18 to June 27, 2020. The Center was the first hospital designated to manage COVID-19 cases in Ethiopia. The study participants were all COVID-19 adult patients who were admitted to the center during the study period. Follow up was done for the participants from the first date of diagnosis to the date of recovery (negative Real-time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCT) test of throat swab). RESULT: A total of 306 COVID-19 cases were followed up to observe the duration of viral clearance by rRT-PCR. Participants' mean age was 34 years (18-84 years) and 69% were male. The median duration of viral clearance from each participant's body was 19 days, but the range was wide: 2 to 71 days. Cough followed by headache was the leading sign of illness among the 67 symptomatic COVID-19 patients; and nearly half of those with comorbidities were known cancer and HIV/AIDS patients on clinical follow up. The median duration of recovery from COVID-19 was different for those with and without previous medical conditions or comorbidities. The rate of recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection was 36% higher in males than in females (p = 0.043, CI: 1.01, 1.85). The rate of recovery was 93% higher in those with at least one comorbidity than in those without any comorbidity. The risk of delayed recovery was not influenced by blood type, BMI and presence of signs or symptoms. The findings showed that study participants without comorbidities recovered more quickly than those with at least one comorbidity. Therefore, isolation and treatment centers should be prepared to manage the delayed stay of patients having comorbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Virus Shedding/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Ethiopia , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
20.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 169: 100-117, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966180

ABSTRACT

To address the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been an unprecedented global effort to advance potent neutralizing mAbs against SARS-CoV-2 as therapeutics. However, historical efforts to advance antiviral monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the treatment of other respiratory infections have been met with categorical failures in the clinic. By investigating the mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 and similar viruses spread within the lung, along with available biodistribution data for systemically injected mAb, we highlight the challenges faced by current antiviral mAbs for COVID-19. We summarize some of the leading mAbs currently in development, and present the evidence supporting inhaled delivery of antiviral mAb as an early intervention against COVID-19 that could prevent important pulmonary morbidities associated with the infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/metabolism , Protein Structure, Secondary , Protein Structure, Tertiary , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Virus Shedding/drug effects , Virus Shedding/physiology
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