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1.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715768

ABSTRACT

Viral diseases consistently pose a substantial economic and public health burden worldwide [...].


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Viruses/classification , Viruses/drug effects , Viruses/genetics
2.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707748

ABSTRACT

In the current context of the COVID-19 pandemic, it appears that our scientific resources and the medical community are not sufficiently developed to combat rapid viral spread all over the world. A number of viruses causing epidemics have already disseminated across the world in the last few years, such as the dengue or chinkungunya virus, the Ebola virus, and other coronavirus families such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV). The outbreaks of these infectious diseases have demonstrated the difficulty of treating an epidemic before the creation of vaccine. Different antiviral drugs already exist. However, several of them cause side effects or have lost their efficiency because of virus mutations. It is essential to develop new antiviral strategies, but ones that rely on more natural compounds to decrease the secondary effects. Polysaccharides, which have come to be known in recent years for their medicinal properties, including antiviral activities, are an excellent alternative. They are essential for the metabolism of plants, microorganisms, and animals, and are directly extractible. Polysaccharides have attracted more and more attention due to their therapeutic properties, low toxicity, and availability, and seem to be attractive candidates as antiviral drugs of tomorrow.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Viruses/drug effects , Animals , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Ebolavirus/drug effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Replication/drug effects , Viruses/classification , Viruses/pathogenicity
3.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686897

ABSTRACT

Viral infections and outbreaks have become a major concern and are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The development of successful antiviral therapeutics and vaccines remains a daunting challenge. The discovery of novel antiviral agents is a public health emergency, and extraordinary efforts are underway globally to identify safe and effective treatments for different viral diseases. Alkaloids are natural phytochemicals known for their biological activities, many of which have been intensively studied for their broad-spectrum of antiviral activities against different DNA and RNA viruses. The purpose of this review was to summarize the evidence supporting the efficacy of the antiviral activity of plant alkaloids at half-maximum effective concentration (EC50) or half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) below 10 µM and describe the molecular sites most often targeted by natural alkaloids acting against different virus families. This review highlights that considering the devastating effects of virus pandemics on humans, plants, and animals, the development of high efficiency and low-toxicity antiviral drugs targeting these viruses need to be developed. Furthermore, it summarizes the current research status of alkaloids as the source of antiviral drug development, their structural characteristics, and antiviral targets. Overall, the influence of alkaloids at the molecular level suggests a high degree of specificity which means they could serve as potent and safe antiviral agents waiting for evaluation and exploitation.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/chemistry , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Viruses/drug effects , Alkaloids/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Development , Drug Discovery , Humans , Virus Replication/drug effects
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650511

ABSTRACT

International interest in metal-based antimicrobial coatings to control the spread of bacteria, fungi, and viruses via high contact human touch surfaces are growing at an exponential rate. This interest recently reached an all-time high with the outbreak of the deadly COVID-19 disease, which has already claimed the lives of more than 5 million people worldwide. This global pandemic has highlighted the major role that antimicrobial coatings can play in controlling the spread of deadly viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and scientists and engineers are now working harder than ever to develop the next generation of antimicrobial materials. This article begins with a review of three discrete microorganism-killing phenomena of contact-killing surfaces, nanoprotrusions, and superhydrophobic surfaces. The antimicrobial properties of metals such as copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and zinc (Zn) are reviewed along with the effects of combining them with titanium dioxide (TiO2) to create a binary or ternary contact-killing surface coatings. The self-cleaning and bacterial resistance of purely structural superhydrophobic surfaces and the potential of physical surface nanoprotrusions to damage microbial cells are then considered. The article then gives a detailed discussion on recent advances in attempting to combine these individual phenomena to create super-antimicrobial metal-based coatings with binary or ternary killing potential against a broad range of microorganisms, including SARS-CoV-2, for high-touch surface applications such as hand rails, door plates, and water fittings on public transport and in healthcare, care home and leisure settings as well as personal protective equipment commonly used in hospitals and in the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Metals/chemistry , Touch , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/chemical synthesis , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/transmission , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemical synthesis , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/microbiology , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Surface Properties , Viruses/drug effects
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 1558860, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622112

ABSTRACT

Increasing outbreaks of new pathogenic viruses have promoted the exploration of novel alternatives to time-consuming vaccines. Thus, it is necessary to develop a universal approach to halt the spread of new and unknown viruses as they are discovered. One such promising approach is to target lipid membranes, which are common to all viruses and bacteria. The ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has reaffirmed the importance of interactions between the virus envelope and the host cell plasma membrane as a critical mechanism of infection. Metadichol®, a nanolipid emulsion of long-chain alcohols, has been demonstrated as a strong candidate that inhibits the proliferation of SARS-CoV-2. Naturally derived substances, such as long-chain saturated lipid alcohols, reduce viral infectivity, including that of coronaviruses (such as SARS-CoV-2) by modifying their lipid-dependent attachment mechanism to human host cells. The receptor ACE2 mediates the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the host cells, whereas the serine protease TMPRSS2 primes the viral S protein. In this study, Metadichol® was found to be 270 times more potent an inhibitor of TMPRSS2 (EC50 = 96 ng/mL) than camostat mesylate (EC50 = 26000 ng/mL). Additionally, it inhibits ACE with an EC50 of 71 ng/mL, but it is a very weak inhibitor of ACE2 at an EC50 of 31 µg/mL. Furthermore, the live viral assay performed in Caco-2 cells revealed that Metadichol® inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication at an EC90 of 0.16 µg/mL. Moreover, Metadichol® had an EC90 of 0.00037 µM, making it 2081 and 3371 times more potent than remdesivir (EC50 = 0.77 µM) and chloroquine (EC50 = 1.14 µM), respectively.


Subject(s)
Fatty Alcohols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viruses/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Esters/pharmacology , Guanidines/pharmacology , Humans , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Lipids/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/drug effects , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Serine Proteases/metabolism , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Attachment/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects
6.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580407

ABSTRACT

Only a mere fraction of the huge variety of human pathogenic viruses can be targeted by the currently available spectrum of antiviral drugs. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has highlighted the urgent need for molecules that can be deployed quickly to treat novel, developing or re-emerging viral infections. Sulfated polysaccharides are found on the surfaces of both the susceptible host cells and the majority of human viruses, and thus can play an important role during viral infection. Such polysaccharides widely occurring in natural sources, specifically those converted into sulfated varieties, have already proved to possess a high level and sometimes also broad-spectrum antiviral activity. This antiviral potency can be determined through multifold molecular pathways, which in many cases have low profiles of cytotoxicity. Consequently, several new polysaccharide-derived drugs are currently being investigated in clinical settings. We reviewed the present status of research on sulfated polysaccharide-based antiviral agents, their structural characteristics, structure-activity relationships, and the potential of clinical application. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of sulfated polysaccharides involved in viral infection or in antiviral activity, respectively, are discussed, together with a focus on the emerging methodology contributing to polysaccharide-based drug development.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Viruses/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Biological Products/chemical synthesis , Biological Products/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin/chemical synthesis , Heparin/chemistry , Heparin/pharmacology , Humans , Polysaccharides/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Structure-Activity Relationship , Sulfates/chemistry , Sulfates/pharmacology , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Viruses/pathogenicity
7.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574265

ABSTRACT

Modulation of the antiviral innate immune response has been proposed as a putative cellular target for the development of novel pan-viral therapeutic strategies. The Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway is especially relevant due to its essential role in the regulation of local and systemic inflammation in response to viral infections, being, therefore, a putative therapeutic target. Here, we review the extraordinary diversity of strategies that viruses have evolved to interfere with JAK-STAT signaling, stressing the relevance of this pathway as a putative antiviral target. Moreover, due to the recent remarkable progress on the development of novel JAK inhibitors (JAKi), the current knowledge on its efficacy against distinct viral infections is also discussed. JAKi have a proven efficacy against a broad spectrum of disorders and exhibit safety profiles comparable to biologics, therefore representing good candidates for drug repurposing strategies, including viral infections.


Subject(s)
Janus Kinases/metabolism , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Viruses/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/immunology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/drug effects
8.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need for new antivirals with powerful therapeutic potential and tolerable side effects. METHODS: Here, we tested the antiviral properties of interferons (IFNs), alone and with other drugs in vitro. RESULTS: While IFNs alone were insufficient to completely abolish replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), IFNα, in combination with remdesivir, EIDD-2801, camostat, cycloheximide, or convalescent serum, proved to be more effective. Transcriptome and metabolomic analyses revealed that the IFNα-remdesivir combination suppressed SARS-CoV-2-mediated changes in Calu-3 cells and lung organoids, although it altered the homeostasis of uninfected cells and organoids. We also demonstrated that IFNα combinations with sofosbuvir, telaprevir, NITD008, ribavirin, pimodivir, or lamivudine were effective against HCV, HEV, FLuAV, or HIV at lower concentrations, compared to monotherapies. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our results indicated that IFNα can be combined with drugs that affect viral RNA transcription, protein synthesis, and processing to make synergistic combinations that can be attractive targets for further pre-clinical and clinical development against emerging and re-emerging viral infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Interferon-alpha/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Cell Line , Drug Synergism , Humans , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Metabolome/drug effects , Organoids , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , RNA, Viral/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Transcriptome/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Viruses/classification , Viruses/drug effects
9.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538532

ABSTRACT

Over the course of human history, billions of people worldwide have been infected by various viruses. Despite rapid progress in the development of biomedical techniques, it is still a significant challenge to find promising new antiviral targets and drugs. In the past, antiviral drugs mainly targeted viral proteins when they were used as part of treatment strategies. Since the virus mutation rate is much faster than that of the host, such drugs feature drug resistance and narrow-spectrum antiviral problems. Therefore, the targeting of host molecules has gradually become an important area of research for the development of antiviral drugs. In recent years, rapid advances in high-throughput sequencing techniques have enabled numerous genetic studies (such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS), clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) screening, etc.) for human diseases, providing valuable genetic and evolutionary resources. Furthermore, it has been revealed that successful drug targets exhibit similar genetic and evolutionary features, which are of great value in identifying promising drug targets and discovering new drugs. Considering these developments, in this article the authors propose a host-targeted antiviral drug discovery strategy based on knowledge of genetics and evolution. We first comprehensively summarized the genetic, subcellular location, and evolutionary features of the human genes that have been successfully used as antiviral targets. Next, the summarized features were used to screen novel druggable antiviral targets and to find potential antiviral drugs, in an attempt to promote the discovery of new antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/drug effects , Viruses/genetics , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Drug Discovery , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Viruses/metabolism
10.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538529

ABSTRACT

Viruses are obligate parasites that depend on a host cell for replication and survival. Consequently, to fully understand the viral processes involved in infection and replication, it is fundamental to study them in the cellular context. Often, viral infections induce significant changes in the subcellular organization of the host cell due to the formation of viral factories, alteration of cell cytoskeleton and/or budding of newly formed particles. Accurate 3D mapping of organelle reorganization in infected cells can thus provide valuable information for both basic virus research and antiviral drug development. Among the available techniques for 3D cell imaging, cryo-soft X-ray tomography stands out for its large depth of view (allowing for 10 µm thick biological samples to be imaged without further thinning), its resolution (about 50 nm for tomographies, sufficient to detect viral particles), the minimal requirements for sample manipulation (can be used on frozen, unfixed and unstained whole cells) and the potential to be combined with other techniques (i.e., correlative fluorescence microscopy). In this review we describe the fundamentals of cryo-soft X-ray tomography, its sample requirements, its advantages and its limitations. To highlight the potential of this technique, examples of virus research performed at BL09-MISTRAL beamline in ALBA synchrotron are also presented.


Subject(s)
Tomography, X-Ray/methods , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Tomography, X-Ray/instrumentation , Virus Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Viruses/chemistry , Viruses/drug effects
11.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1864(2): 183821, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1519618

ABSTRACT

Membrane-enveloped viruses are a major cause of global health challenges, including recent epidemics and pandemics. This mini-review covers the latest efforts to develop membrane-targeting antiviral peptides that inhibit enveloped viruses by 1) preventing virus-cell fusion or 2) disrupting the viral membrane envelope. The corresponding mechanisms of antiviral activity are discussed along with peptide engineering strategies to modulate membrane-peptide interactions in terms of potency and selectivity. Application examples are presented demonstrating how membrane-targeting antiviral peptides are useful therapeutics and prophylactics in animal models, while a stronger emphasis on biophysical concepts is proposed to refine mechanistic understanding and support potential clinical translation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Peptide Fragments/pharmacology , Virus Internalization , Viruses/drug effects , Animals , Humans
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512372

ABSTRACT

Botany-derived antimicrobial peptides (BAMPs), a class of small, cysteine-rich peptides produced in plants, are an important component of the plant immune system. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments have demonstrated their powerful antimicrobial activity. Besides in plants, BAMPs have cross-kingdom applications in human health, with toxic and/or inhibitory effects against a variety of tumor cells and viruses. With their diverse molecular structures, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, multiple mechanisms of action, and low cytotoxicity, BAMPs provide ideal backbones for drug design, and are potential candidates for plant protection and disease treatment. Lots of original research has elucidated the properties and antimicrobial mechanisms of BAMPs, and characterized their surface receptors and in vivo targets in pathogens. In this paper, we review and introduce five kinds of representative BAMPs belonging to the pathogenesis-related protein family, dissect their antifungal, antiviral, and anticancer mechanisms, and forecast their prospects in agriculture and global human health. Through the deeper understanding of BAMPs, we provide novel insights for their applications in broad-spectrum and durable plant disease prevention and control, and an outlook on the use of BAMPs in anticancer and antiviral drug design.


Subject(s)
/genetics , /pharmacology , Agriculture , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Design/methods , Humans , Plant Immunity/drug effects , Plants/drug effects , Viruses/drug effects
13.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502533

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has deeply influenced sanitization procedures, and high-level disinfection has been massively used to prevent SARS-CoV-2 spread, with potential negative impact on the environment and on the threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Aiming to overcome these concerns, yet preserving the effectiveness of sanitization against enveloped viruses, we assessed the antiviral properties of the Probiotic Cleaning Hygiene System (PCHS), an eco-sustainable probiotic-based detergent previously proven to stably abate pathogen contamination and AMR. PCHS (diluted 1:10, 1:50 and 1:100) was tested in comparison to common disinfectants (70% ethanol and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite), in suspension and carrier tests, according with the European UNI EN 14476:2019 and UNI EN 16777:2019 standards. Human alpha- and beta-coronaviruses hCoV-229E and SARS-CoV-2, human herpesvirus type 1, human and animal influenza viruses, and vaccinia virus were included in the study. The results showed that PCHS was able to inactivate 99.99% of all tested viruses within 1-2 h of contact, both in suspension and on surface. Notably, while control disinfectants became inactive within 2 h after application, the PCHS antiviral action persisted up to 24 h post-application, suggesting that its use may effectively allow a continuous prevention of virus spread via contaminated environment, without worsening environmental pollution and AMR concern.


Subject(s)
Disinfection/methods , Probiotics/pharmacology , Sanitation/methods , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Viruses/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Environmental Microbiology , Herpesvirus 1, Human/drug effects , Humans , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vaccinia virus/drug effects , Virus Diseases/virology
14.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488757

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for the research community to develop a better understanding of viruses, in particular their modes of infection and replicative lifecycles, to aid in the development of novel vaccines and much needed anti-viral therapeutics. Several viruses express proteins capable of forming pores in host cellular membranes, termed "Viroporins". They are a family of small hydrophobic proteins, with at least one amphipathic domain, which characteristically form oligomeric structures with central hydrophilic domains. Consequently, they can facilitate the transport of ions through the hydrophilic core. Viroporins localise to host membranes such as the endoplasmic reticulum and regulate ion homeostasis creating a favourable environment for viral infection. Viroporins also contribute to viral immune evasion via several mechanisms. Given that viroporins are often essential for virion assembly and egress, and as their structural features tend to be evolutionarily conserved, they are attractive targets for anti-viral therapeutics. This review discusses the current knowledge of several viroporins, namely Influenza A virus (IAV) M2, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 Viral protein U (Vpu), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) p7, Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-16 E5, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) Open Reading Frame (ORF)3a and Polyomavirus agnoprotein. We highlight the intricate but broad immunomodulatory effects of these viroporins and discuss the current antiviral therapies that target them; continually highlighting the need for future investigations to focus on novel therapeutics in the treatment of existing and future emergent viruses.


Subject(s)
Immunomodulation , Ion Channels/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Viruses/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Autophagy , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Human Immunodeficiency Virus Proteins/chemistry , Human Immunodeficiency Virus Proteins/metabolism , Immune Evasion , Inflammasomes/immunology , Oncogene Proteins, Viral/chemistry , Oncogene Proteins, Viral/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/chemistry , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism , Viral Structural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Structural Proteins/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/chemistry , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/drug effects , Viruses/immunology , Viruses/pathogenicity
15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(43): 17891-17909, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483091

ABSTRACT

The emergence of multi-drug-resistant pathogens threatens the healthcare systems world-wide. Recent advances in phototherapy (PT) approaches mediated by photo-antimicrobials (PAMs) provide new opportunities for the current serious antibiotic resistance. During the PT treatment, reactive oxygen species or heat produced by PAMs would react with the cell membrane, consequently leaking cytoplasm components and effectively eradicating different pathogens like bacteria, fungi, viruses, and even parasites. This Perspective will concentrate on the development of different organic photo-antimicrobials (OPAMs) and their application as practical therapeutic agents into therapy for local infections, wound dressings, and removal of biofilms from medical devices. We also discuss how to design highly efficient OPAMs by modifying the chemical structure or conjugating with a targeting component. Moreover, this Perspective provides a discussion of the general challenges and direction for OPAMs and what further needs to be done. It is hoped that through this overview, OPAMs can prosper and will be more widely used for microbial infections in the future, especially at a time when the global COVID-19 epidemic is getting more serious.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Drug Design , Phototherapy/methods , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Biofilms/radiation effects , Coloring Agents/chemistry , Coloring Agents/pharmacology , Equipment and Supplies/microbiology , Equipment and Supplies/virology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/physiology , Eye Diseases/drug therapy , Eye Diseases/pathology , Fungi/drug effects , Graphite/chemistry , Light , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/toxicity , Photosensitizing Agents/chemistry , Photosensitizing Agents/pharmacology , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , Quantum Theory , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Viruses/drug effects
16.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 20(11): 915-962, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging viral zoonotic diseases are one of the major obstacles to secure the "One Health" concept under the current scenario. Current prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches often associated with certain limitations and thus proved to be insufficient for customizing rapid and efficient combating strategy against the highly transmissible pathogenic infectious agents leading to the disastrous socio-economic outcome. Moreover, most of the viral zoonoses originate from the wildlife and poor knowledge about the global virome database renders it difficult to predict future outbreaks. Thus, alternative management strategy in terms of improved prophylactic vaccines and their delivery systems; rapid and efficient diagnostics and effective targeted therapeutics are the need of the hour. METHODS: Structured literature search has been performed with specific keywords in bibliographic databases for the accumulation of information regarding current nanomedicine interventions along with standard books for basic virology inputs. RESULTS: Multi-arrayed applications of nanomedicine have proved to be an effective alternative in all the aspects regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and control of zoonotic viral diseases. The current review is focused to outline the applications of nanomaterials as anti-viral vaccines or vaccine/drug delivery systems, diagnostics and directly acting therapeutic agents in combating the important zoonotic viral diseases in the recent scenario along with their potential benefits, challenges and prospects to design successful control strategies. CONCLUSION: This review provides significant introspection towards the multi-arrayed applications of nanomedicine to combat several important zoonotic viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Viral Zoonoses/diagnosis , Viral Zoonoses/prevention & control , Viral Zoonoses/therapy , Viruses/drug effects , Animals , Animals, Wild , Biosensing Techniques , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Drug Compounding , Drug Liberation , Humans , Nanomedicine , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Polymers/metabolism , Transfection , Viruses/metabolism
17.
Biocontrol Sci ; 26(3): 177-180, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438814

ABSTRACT

Ethanol is an effective disinfectant against the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. However, its effective concentration has not been shown, and we therefore analyzed the effects of different concentrations of ethanol on SARS-CoV-2. When SARS-CoV-2 was treated with varying ethanol concentrations and examined for changes in infectivity, the ethanol concentration at which 99% of the infectious titers were reduced was 24.1% (w/w) [29.3% (v/v)]. For reference, ethanol susceptibility was also examined with other envelope viruses, including influenza virus, vesicular stomatitis virus in the family Rhabdoviridae, and Newcastle disease virus in the family Paramyxoviridae, and the 99% inhibitory concentrations were found to be 28.8%(w/w) [34.8% (v/v)], 24.0% (w/w) [29.2% (v/v)], and 13.3% (w/w) [16.4% (v/v)], respectively. Some differences from SARS-CoV-2 were observed, but the differences were not significant. It was concluded that ethanol at a concentration of 30%(w/w) [36.2% (v/v)] almost completely inactivates SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Disinfectants/analysis , Ethanol/analysis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Viruses/drug effects , Viruses/growth & development
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 189: 785-791, 2021 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409445

ABSTRACT

Immunoglobulin yolk (IgY) is therapeutic antibodies presented in yolk eggs of birds, reptiles, and amphibians. These proteins produced by the immune system of the animal, are capable of neutralizing antigenic molecules, including viral antigens, fulfilling a role in the body defense. The specificity of these antibodies and the facility for their production, make these molecules capable of being used as tools for diagnosis and immunotherapy. Regarding this last aspect, it is common knowledge that the field of virology, is racing against time in the development of new drugs and vaccines to try to contain pandemics and local epidemics and, in counterproposal, avian antibodies are neutralizing molecules that can help in the control and spread of disease. These molecules have been explored for years and currently chicken eggs are produced in large quantities from the animal's immunization against a specific pathogen. Thus, on this subject, this review made a survey of these researches and presents a summary of all the successful cases and perspectives in the use of IgYs as tools for viral immunization.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Immunoglobulins/pharmacology , Animals , Humans , Immunization , Immunoglobulins/chemistry , Immunoglobulins/isolation & purification , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/therapy , Viruses/drug effects , Viruses/immunology
19.
Eur J Med Chem ; 215: 113220, 2021 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385485

ABSTRACT

In current scenario, various heterocycles have come up exhibiting crucial role in various medicinal agents which are valuable for mankind. Out of diverse range of heterocycle, quinoline scaffold have been proved to play an important role in broad range of biological activities. Several drug molecules bearing a quinoline molecule with useful anticancer, antibacterial activities etc have been marketed such as chloroquine, saquinavir etc. Owing to their broad spectrum biological role, various synthetic strategies such as Skraup reaction, Combes reaction etc. has been developed by the researchers all over the world. But still the synthetic methods are associated with various limitations as formation of side products, use of expensive metal catalysts. Thus, several efforts to develop an efficient and cost effective synthetic protocol are still carried out till date. Moreover, quinoline scaffold displays remarkable antiviral activity. Therefore, in this review we have made an attempt to describe recent synthetic protocols developed by various research groups along with giving a complete explanation about the role of quinoline derivatives as antiviral agent. Quinoline derivatives were found potent against various strains of viruses like zika virus, enterovirus, herpes virus, human immunodeficiency virus, ebola virus, hepatitis C virus, SARS virus and MERS virus etc.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Quinolines/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Viruses/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Quinolines/chemical synthesis , Quinolines/pharmacology
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 140: 111596, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385083

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids are natural phytochemicals known for their antiviral activity. The flavonoids acts at different stages of viral infection, such as viral entrance, replication and translation of proteins. Viruses cause various diseases such as SARS, Hepatitis, AIDS, Flu, Herpes, etc. These, and many more viral diseases, are prevalent in the world, and some (i.e. SARS-CoV-2) are causing global chaos. Despite much struggle, effective treatments for these viral diseases are not available. The flavonoid class of phytochemicals has a vast number of medicinally active compounds, many of which are studied for their potential antiviral activity against different DNA and RNA viruses. Here, we reviewed many flavonoids that showed antiviral activities in different testing environments such as in vitro, in vivo (mice model) and in silico. Some flavonoids had stronger inhibitory activities, showed no toxicity & the cell proliferation at the tested doses are not affected. Some of the flavonoids used in the in vivo studies also protected the tested mice prophylactically from lethal doses of virus, and effectively prevented viral infection. The glycosides of some of the flavonoids increased the solubility of some flavonoids, and therefore showed increased antiviral activity as compared to the non-glycoside form of that flavonoid. These phytochemicals are active against different disease-causing viruses, and inhibited the viruses by targeting the viral infections at multiple stages. Some of the flavonoids showed more potent antiviral activity than the market available drugs used to treat viral infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Viruses/drug effects , Animals , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Glycosides/metabolism , Humans , Virus Diseases/metabolism
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