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2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 997851, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115356

ABSTRACT

The immune system is highly networked and complex, which is continuously changing as encountering old and new pathogens. However, reductionism-based researches do not give a systematic understanding of the molecular mechanism of the immune response and viral pathogenesis. Here, we present HUMPPI-2022, a high-quality human protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, containing > 11,000 protein-coding genes with > 78,000 interactions. The network topology and functional characteristics analyses of the immune-related genes (IRGs) reveal that IRGs are mostly located in the center of the network and link genes of diverse biological processes, which may reflect the gene pleiotropy phenomenon. Moreover, the virus-human interactions reveal that pan-viral targets are mostly hubs, located in the center of the network and enriched in fundamental biological processes, but not for coronavirus. Finally, gene age effect was analyzed from the view of the host network for IRGs and virally-targeted genes (VTGs) during evolution, with IRGs gradually became hubs and integrated into host network through bridging functionally differentiated modules. Briefly, HUMPPI-2022 serves as a valuable resource for gaining a better understanding of the composition and evolution of human immune system, as well as the pathogenesis of viruses.


Subject(s)
Viruses , Humans , Viruses/genetics , Protein Interaction Maps , Immune System
3.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110280

ABSTRACT

Viral respiratory infections contribute to significant morbidity and mortality in children. Currently, there are limited reports on the composition and abundance of the normal commensal respiratory virome in comparison to those in severe acute respiratory infections (SARIs) state. This study characterised the respiratory RNA virome in children ≤ 5 years with (n = 149) and without (n = 139) SARI during the summer and winter of 2020/2021 seasons in South Africa. Nasopharyngeal swabs were, collected, pooled, enriched for viral RNA detection, sequenced using Illumina MiSeq, and analysed using the Genome Detective bioinformatic tool. Overall, Picornaviridae, Paramoxyviridae, Pneumoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Totiviridae, and Retroviridae families were the most abundant viral population in both groups across both seasons. Human rhinovirus and endogenous retrovirus K113 were detected in most pools, with exclusive detection of Pneumoviridae in SARI pools. Generally, higher viral diversity/abundance was seen in children with SARI and in the summer pools. Several plant/animal viruses, eukaryotic viruses with unclear pathogenicity including a distinct rhinovirus A type, were detected. This study provides remarkable data on the respiratory RNA virome in children with and without SARI with a degree of heterogeneity of known viruses colonizing their respiratory tract. The implication of the detected viruses in the dynamics/progression of SARI requires further investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Child , Animals , Humans , Virome , South Africa/epidemiology , Seasons , RNA , Pandemics , Viruses/genetics , Respiratory System
4.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 20(5): 253, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1849594
5.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 41(12): 1445-1449, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085399

ABSTRACT

With the COVID-19 pandemic still ongoing, the annual season of influenza and other respiratory virus epidemics has arrived. Specimens from patients suspected of respiratory viruses infection were collected. Viral detection was performed following RNA extraction and real-time RT-PCR. During the study period, we received and tested a total of 606 specimens. Rhinovirus virus was the viral type most prevalent, detected in 186 (45.47%) specimens. The age range of patients positive for influenza A, influenza A (H1N1), and influenza B was 18 days to 13 years. With female prevalence for this viral type, cough and asthma were the main clinical manifestations presented by this viral type. Our results indicate that rhinoviruses, adenoviruses, metapneumoviruses, and influenza are among the most important agents of ARI in pediatrics. The epidemic period of respiratory infections observed in Goiânia can be useful for planning and implementing some prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Child , Humans , Female , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Prevalence , Pandemics , Viruses/genetics , Rhinovirus/genetics
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 792, 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079396

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infections have a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations whose causes are not completely understood. Some human conditions predispose to severe outcome, like old age or the presence of comorbidities, but many other facets, including coinfections with other viruses, remain poorly characterized. METHODS: In this study, the eukaryotic fraction of the respiratory virome of 120 COVID-19 patients was characterized through whole metagenomic sequencing. RESULTS: Genetic material from respiratory viruses was detected in 25% of all samples, whereas human viruses other than SARS-CoV-2 were found in 80% of them. Samples from hospitalized and deceased patients presented a higher prevalence of different viruses when compared to ambulatory individuals. Small circular DNA viruses from the Anneloviridae (Torque teno midi virus 8, TTV-like mini virus 19 and 26) and Cycloviridae families (Human associated cyclovirus 10), Human betaherpesvirus 6, were found to be significantly more abundant in samples from deceased and hospitalized patients compared to samples from ambulatory individuals. Similarly, Rotavirus A, Measles morbillivirus and Alphapapilomavirus 10 were significantly more prevalent in deceased patients compared to hospitalized and ambulatory individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Results show the suitability of using metagenomics to characterize a broader peripheric virological landscape of the eukaryotic virome in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients with distinct disease outcomes. Identified prevalent viruses in hospitalized and deceased patients may prove important for the targeted exploration of coinfections that may impact prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Viruses , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Coinfection/epidemiology , Viruses/genetics , DNA, Circular , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Annu Rev Virol ; 9(1): 139-156, 2022 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2070601

ABSTRACT

Predicting the evolution of virus host range has proven to be extremely difficult, in part because of the sheer diversity of viruses, each with unique biology and ecological interactions. We have not solved this problem, but to make the problem more tractable, we narrowed our focus to three traits intrinsic to all viruses that may play a role in host-range evolvability: mutation rate, recombination rate, and phenotypic heterogeneity. Although each trait should increase evolvability, they cannot do so unbounded because fitness trade-offs limit the ability of all three traits to maximize evolvability. By examining these constraints, we can begin to identify groups of viruses with suites of traits that make them especially concerning, as well as ecological and environmental conditions that might push evolution toward accelerating host-range expansion.


Subject(s)
Host Specificity , Viruses , Viruses/genetics
8.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066505

ABSTRACT

Arthropods are integral to ecosystem equilibrium, serving as both a food source for insectivores and supporting plant reproduction. Members of the Iflaviridae family in the order Picornavirales are frequently found in RNA sequenced from arthropods, who serve as their hosts. Here we implement a metagenomic deep sequencing approach followed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) on viral RNA isolated from wild and captured bat guano in Washington State at two separate time points. From these samples we report the complete genomes of two novel viruses in the family Iflaviridae. The first virus, which we call King virus, is 46% identical by nucleotide to the lethal honeybee virus, deformed wing virus, while the second virus which we call Rolda virus, shares 39% nucleotide identity to deformed wing virus. King and Rolda virus genomes are 10,183 and 8934 nucleotides in length, respectively. Given these iflaviruses were detected in guano from captive bats whose sole food source was the Tenebrio spp. mealworm, we anticipate this invertebrate may be a likely host. Using the NCBI Sequence Read Archive, we found that these two viruses are located in six continents and have been isolated from a variety of arthropod and mammalian specimens.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Viruses , Animals , Ecosystem , Nucleotides , Phylogeny , RNA Viruses , Viruses/genetics , Washington
9.
EMBO Mol Med ; 14(4): e15352, 2022 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680151

ABSTRACT

In virology, the term seasonality describes variations in virus prevalence at more or less regular intervals throughout the year. Specifically, it has long been recognized that outbreaks of human influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and human coronaviruses occur in temperate climates during the winter season, whereas low activity is detected during the summer months. Other human respiratory viruses, such as parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumoviruses, and rhinoviruses, show highest activity during the spring or fall season in temperate regions, depending on the virus and subtype. In tropical climates, influenza viruses circulate throughout the year and no distinct seasonal patterns are observed, although virus outbreaks tend to spike during the rainy season. Overall, seasonality is more pronounced with greater distance from the equator, and tends to be less pronounced in regions closer to the equator (Li et al, 2019).


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Metapneumovirus , Orthomyxoviridae , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Viruses/genetics
10.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273697, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) pose a great global burden. The contribution of respiratory viruses to adult SARI is relatively understudied in Asia. We aimed to determine viral aetiology of adult SARI patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. METHODS: The prevalence of 20 common (mainly viral) respiratory pathogens, and MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV and 5 bacterial select agents was investigated from May 2017 to October 2019 in 489 SARI adult patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, using molecular assays (Luminex NxTAG-RPP kit and qPCR assays). Viral metagenomics analysis was performed on 105 negative samples. RESULTS: Viral respiratory pathogens were detected by PCR in 279 cases (57.1%), including 10 (2.0%) additional detections by metagenomics analysis. The most detected viruses were rhinovirus/enterovirus (RV/EV) (49.1%) and influenza virus (7.4%). Three melioidosis cases were detected but no SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV or other bacterial select agents. Bacterial/viral co-detections and viral co-detections were found in 44 (9.0%) and 27 (5.5%) cases respectively, mostly involving RV/EV. Independent predictors of critical disease were male gender, chronic lung disease, lack of runny nose and positive blood culture with a significant bacterial pathogen. Asthma and sore throat were associated with increased risk of RV/EV detection, while among RV/EV cases, males and those with neurological disease were at increased risk of critical disease. CONCLUSIONS: Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the high prevalence of respiratory viruses in adults with SARI was mainly attributed to RV/EV. Continued surveillance of respiratory virus trends contributes to effective diagnostic, prevention, and treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enterovirus/genetics , Female , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rhinovirus/genetics , Viruses/genetics
11.
Science ; 375(6576): 31-33, 2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042845

ABSTRACT

Risky research on lab-modified self-spreading viruses has yet to present credible paths to upsides.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild , Organisms, Genetically Modified , Pest Control, Biological , Vaccines, Attenuated , Viral Vaccines , Viruses , Animals , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , International Cooperation , Policy , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Viruses/genetics
12.
Microb Genom ; 8(6)2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042679

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence has identified viral circular RNAs (circRNAs) in human cells infected by viruses, interfering with the immune system and inducing diseases including human cancer. However, the biogenesis and regulatory mechanisms of virus-encoded circRNAs in host cells remain unknown. In this study, we used the circRNA detection tool CIRI2 to systematically determine the virus-encoded circRNAs in virus-infected cancer cell lines and cancer patients, by analysing RNA-Seq datasets derived from RNase R-treated samples. Based on the thousands of viral circRNAs we identified, the biological characteristics and potential roles of viral circRNAs in regulating host cell function were determined. In addition, we developed a Viral-circRNA Database (http://www.hywanglab.cn/vcRNAdb/), which is open to all users to search, browse and download information on circRNAs encoded by viruses upon infection.


Subject(s)
RNA, Circular , Viruses , Cell Line , Humans , RNA/genetics , RNA/metabolism , RNA, Circular/genetics , Viruses/genetics
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 885029, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039674

ABSTRACT

Periodontitis was an inflammatory disease associated with a dysbiosis of the oral flora characterized by a chronic sustained inflammation inducing the resorption of alveolar bone and leading to tooth loss. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) was a metabolic disease caused by impaired insulin action. The oral microbiome played a crucial role in modulating both the innate and adaptive immune system during the trigger and exacerbation of periodontitis and T2D. The bidirectional relationship of T2D and periodontitis had been the focus of intensive research, but those were not well explored. In this commentary, an in-depth analysis of the changes of microbiome and bacterial metabolites in periodontitis with or without diabetes was described. The promotion of periodontitis to T2D might involve inflammatory factors/receptors, oxidative stress, microRNA and so on. The effect of diabetes on periodontitis might involve adipose factor pathway, AGE/RAGE and RANK/RANKL pathway etc. Generally, periodontitis and diabetes are closely related to the microecological-epithelial interaction, soft tissue degradation, bone coupling disorder, immune regulation and gene transcription. The viruses, including HBV, HCV, HSV-1, Coronavirus, HCMV, EBV, HIV, phageome and so on, played an important role in the development of T2D and periodontitis. An in-depth understanding of the relationship between microbiome and host was of great significance to clarify the bidirectional mechanisms, suggesting that the periodontitis or T2D remission will have a positive impact on the other.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Insulins , MicroRNAs , Microbiota , Periodontitis , Viruses , Bacteria/genetics , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Microbiota/genetics , Viruses/genetics
14.
Forensic Sci Int ; 339: 111419, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015271

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses can cause fatal systemic infections; therefore, post-mortem diagnosis is essential in forensic autopsy cases. However, little is known regarding the distribution of respiratory viruses in the body. In this study, we investigated the anatomical distribution of respiratory viruses in 48 forensic autopsy cases suspected of viral infections at our institute. Fast Track Diagnostics (FTD) Respiratory Pathogens 21 was used as a screening test for 20 respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal swabs. In cases with positive results for virus detection by the screening test, the detected viruses were quantified in body fluid and organ specimens by virus-specific real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and digital PCR. Viruses were detected in 33 cases, with the viral distribution and load differing among the cases. Since various respiratory viruses were detected from the nasopharyngeal swab and its viral load was higher than those of other body fluid specimens, the nasopharyngeal swab was suggested as a useful specimen for the post-mortem detection of respiratory viruses. Viruses were detected in almost all specimens including the serum in six cases. Considering the viral distribution in the body, pathological findings, and ante-mortem symptoms, these cases were presumed to be systemically infected, having died in the acute infection phase. In conclusion, the anatomical distribution of respiratory viruses can help indicate ante-mortem systemic conditions and the cause of death.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Autopsy , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Viruses/genetics
15.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(8)2022 Aug 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997516

ABSTRACT

With the rise of zoonotic diseases in recent years, there is an urgent need for improved and more accessible screening and diagnostic methods to mitigate future outbreaks. The recent COVID-19 pandemic revealed an over-reliance on RT-PCR, a slow, costly and lab-based method for diagnostics. To better manage the pandemic, a high-throughput, rapid point-of-care device is needed for early detection and isolation of patients. Electrochemical biosensors offer a promising solution, as they can be used to perform on-site tests without the need for centralized labs, producing high-throughput and accurate measurements compared to rapid test kits. In this work, we detail important considerations for the use of electrochemical biosensors for the detection of respiratory viruses. Methods of enhancing signal outputs via amplification of the analyte, biorecognition of elements and modification of the transducer are also explained. The use of portable potentiostats and microfluidics chambers that create a miniature lab are also discussed in detail as an alternative to centralized laboratory settings. The state-of-the-art usage of portable potentiostats for detection of viruses is also elaborated and categorized according to detection technique: amperometry, voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In terms of integration with microfluidics, RT-LAMP is identified as the preferred method for DNA amplification virus detection. RT-LAMP methods have shorter turnaround times compared to RT-PCR and do not require thermal cycling. Current applications of RT-LAMP for virus detection are also elaborated upon.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Viruses , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Systems , Viruses/genetics
16.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 20(8): 1109-1117, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997006

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Circadian genes have an impact on multiple hormonal, metabolic, and immunological pathways and have recently been implicated in some infectious diseases. AREAS COVERED: We review aspects related to the current knowledge about circadian rhythm and viral infections, their consequences, and the potential therapeutic options. EXPERT OPINION: Expert opinion: In order to address a problem, it is necessary to know the topic in depth. Although in recent years there has been a growing interest in the role of circadian rhythms, many relevant questions remain to be resolved. Thus, the mechanisms linking the circadian machinery against viral infections are poorly understood. In a clear approach to personalized precision medicine, in order to treat a disease in the most appropriate phase of the circadian rhythm, and in order to achieve the optimal efficacy, it is highly recommended to carry out studies that improve the knowledge about the circadian rhythm.


Subject(s)
Virus Diseases , Viruses , Circadian Rhythm/genetics , Humans , Viruses/genetics
17.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(4): 444-448, 2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996070

ABSTRACT

6 years ago, I published a Cell Host and Microbe paper that described randomization of virus genetic populations during mosquito infection. From within the evolutionary chaos, however, there is an order that can reveal a virus' past. Using these insights, I forged a career harnessing virus evolution to understand epidemiological patterns.


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , Viruses , Animals , DNA Viruses , Genetics, Population , Viruses/genetics
18.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(4): e0110222, 2022 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992947

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has been widely used to track levels of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the community during the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the rapid expansion of WBE, many methods have been used and developed for virus concentration and detection in wastewater. However, very little information is available on the relative performance of these approaches. In this study, we compared the performance of five commonly used wastewater concentration methods for the detection and quantification of pathogenic viruses (SARS-CoV-2, norovirus, rotavirus, influenza, and measles viruses), fecal indicator viruses (crAssphage, adenovirus, pepper mild mottle virus), and process control viruses (murine norovirus and bacteriophage Phi6) in laboratory spiking experiments. The methods evaluated included those based on either ultrafiltration (Amicon centrifugation units and InnovaPrep device) or precipitation (using polyethylene glycol [PEG], beef extract-enhanced PEG, and ammonium sulfate). The two best methods were further tested on 115 unspiked wastewater samples. We found that the volume and composition of the wastewater and the characteristics of the target viruses greatly affected virus recovery, regardless of the method used for concentration. All tested methods are suitable for routine virus concentration; however, the Amicon ultrafiltration method and the beef extract-enhanced PEG precipitation methods yielded the best recoveries. We recommend the use of ultrafiltration-based concentration for low sample volumes with high virus titers and ammonium levels and the use of precipitation-based concentration for rare pathogen detection in high-volume samples. IMPORTANCE As wastewater-based epidemiology is utilized for the surveillance of COVID-19 at the community level in many countries, it is crucial to develop and validate reliable methods for virus detection in sewage. The most important step in viral detection is the efficient concentration of the virus particles and/or their genome for subsequent analysis. In this study, we compared five different methods for the detection and quantification of different viruses in wastewater. We found that dead-end ultrafiltration and beef extract-enhanced polyethylene glycol precipitation were the most reliable approaches. We also discovered that sample volume and physico-chemical properties have a great effect on virus recovery. Hence, wastewater process methods and start volumes should be carefully selected in ongoing and future wastewater-based national surveillance programs for COVID-19 and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses , Animals , Cattle , Humans , Mice , Pandemics , Polyethylene Glycols , SARS-CoV-2 , Viruses/genetics , Waste Water
19.
J Med Virol ; 94(12): 5802-5807, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990495

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an emerging disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), and strict restrictions implemented to control the infection have impacted the circulation and transmission of common seasonal viruses worldwide and subsequently the rate of hospitalizations in children at young ages. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) surprisingly disappeared in 2020-2021 in many countries due to lockdown and precautions were taken because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Herein, we showed a notable change in the rate of hospitalization and reported an unpredictable outbreak of RSV in a small proportion of children admitted to a children's hospital in Dezful (a city in Southwest Iran) in the early spring of 2022. We performed a descriptive study of hospitalized young children (aged ≤ 5 years) with acute respiratory infections. Together with clinical information, 30 nasopharyngeal swabs were prospectively collected and 3 important respiratory viruses (RSV, influenza viruses, and SARS-CoV-2) were tested through the real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) method. The age distribution of 30 hospital-admitted children was 1 month to 5 years old and males were the most included subjects 18/30 (60%) in this study. Although the viral genome of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses was not detected, the presence of RSV was confirmed in 16/30 (53.33%) patients. Results showed that the majority of RSV-infected cases were males 10/16 (62.5%), within 12 months of life, and had changes in parameters of the complete blood count. Almost all patients with RSV infection had a cough as the most common clinical manifestation and had no history of past medical conditions as a risk factor. The presented study is the first investigation that documented an outbreak of RSV infection in young children reported since the onset of the COVID-19 outbreak in Iran. Our cases highlight the potential threats of important but neglected pathogens during the ongoing pandemic as described here for RSV, which would be challenging by easing the preimposed restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Viruses/genetics
20.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987978

ABSTRACT

Viruses have evolved numerous mechanisms to exploit the molecular machinery of their host cells, including the broad spectrum of host RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). However, the RBP interactomes of most viruses are largely unknown. To shed light on the interaction landscape of RNA viruses with human host cell RBPs, we have analysed 197 single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viral genome sequences and found that the majority of ssRNA virus genomes are significantly enriched or depleted in motifs for specific human RBPs, suggesting selection pressure on these interactions. To facilitate tailored investigations and the analysis of genomes sequenced in future, we have released our methodology as a fast and user-friendly computational toolbox named SMEAGOL. Our resources will contribute to future studies of specific ssRNA virus-host cell interactions and support the identification of antiviral drug targets.


Subject(s)
RNA Viruses , Viruses , Base Sequence , Genome, Viral , Humans , RNA , RNA Viruses/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Viruses/genetics
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