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Platelets ; 32(3): 325-330, 2021 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092288


Platelets play an essential role in maintaining vascular integrity after injury. In addition, platelets contribute to the immune response to pathogens. For instance, they express receptors that mediate binding of viruses, and toll-like receptors that activate the cell in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Platelets can be beneficial and/or detrimental during viral infections. They reduce blood-borne viruses by engulfing the free virus and presenting the virus to neutrophils. However, platelets can also enhance inflammation and tissue injury during viral infections. Here, we discuss the roles of platelets in viral infection.

Blood Platelets/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Receptors, Virus/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , Viruses/immunology , Animals , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Communication/genetics , Cell Communication/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/pathology , Dendritic Cells/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Platelet Activation/immunology , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Toll-Like Receptors/genetics , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viruses/pathogenicity
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(1)2020 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006988


The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention considers saliva contact the lead transmission means of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Saliva droplets or aerosols expelled by heavy breathing, talking, sneezing, and coughing may carry this virus. People in close distance may be exposed directly or indirectly to these droplets, especially those droplets that fall on surrounding surfaces and people may end up contracting COVID-19 after touching the mucosa tissue on their faces. It is of great interest to quickly and effectively detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in an environment, but the existing methods only work in laboratory settings, to the best of our knowledge. However, it may be possible to detect the presence of saliva in the environment and proceed with prevention measures. However, detecting saliva itself has not been documented in the literature. On the other hand, many sensors that detect different organic components in saliva to monitor a person's health and diagnose different diseases that range from diabetes to dental health have been proposed and they may be used to detect the presence of saliva. This paper surveys sensors that detect organic and inorganic components of human saliva. Humidity sensors are also considered in the detection of saliva because a large portion of saliva is water. Moreover, sensors that detect infectious viruses are also included as they may also be embedded into saliva sensors for a confirmation of the virus' presence. A classification of sensors by their working principle and the substance they detect is presented. This comparison lists their specifications, sample size, and sensitivity. Indications of which sensors are portable and suitable for field application are presented. This paper also discusses future research and challenges that must be resolved to realize practical saliva sensors. Such sensors may help minimize the spread of not only COVID-19 but also other infectious diseases.

Biological Monitoring/instrumentation , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/chemistry , Saliva/virology , Biological Monitoring/methods , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , Communicable Diseases/enzymology , Communicable Diseases/etiology , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Communicable Diseases/virology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/chemistry , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/enzymology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Saliva/enzymology , Saliva/immunology , Viruses/chemistry , Viruses/enzymology , Viruses/immunology , Viruses/isolation & purification
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 319(4): L603-L619, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-817848


Respiratory cilia are the driving force of the mucociliary escalator, working in conjunction with secreted airway mucus to clear inhaled debris and pathogens from the conducting airways. Respiratory cilia are also one of the first contact points between host and inhaled pathogens. Impaired ciliary function is a common pathological feature in patients with chronic airway diseases, increasing susceptibility to respiratory infections. Common respiratory pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, and fungi, have been shown to target cilia and/or ciliated airway epithelial cells, resulting in a disruption of mucociliary clearance that may facilitate host infection. Despite being an integral component of airway innate immunity, the role of respiratory cilia and their clinical significance during airway infections are still poorly understood. This review examines the expression, structure, and function of respiratory cilia during pathogenic infection of the airways. This review also discusses specific known points of interaction of bacteria, fungi, and viruses with respiratory cilia function. The emerging biological functions of motile cilia relating to intracellular signaling and their potential immunoregulatory roles during infection will also be discussed.

Bacteria/immunology , Cilia/metabolism , Fungi/immunology , Mucociliary Clearance/physiology , Viruses/immunology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Mucus/metabolism , Respiratory System/immunology
Viral Immunol ; 33(7): 493, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-798544
Elife ; 92020 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-774702


Bats host virulent zoonotic viruses without experiencing disease. A mechanistic understanding of the impact of bats' virus hosting capacities, including uniquely constitutive immune pathways, on cellular-scale viral dynamics is needed to elucidate zoonotic emergence. We carried out virus infectivity assays on bat cell lines expressing induced and constitutive immune phenotypes, then developed a theoretical model of our in vitro system, which we fit to empirical data. Best fit models recapitulated expected immune phenotypes for representative cell lines, supporting robust antiviral defenses in bat cells that correlated with higher estimates for within-host viral propagation rates. In general, heightened immune responses limit pathogen-induced cellular morbidity, which can facilitate the establishment of rapidly-propagating persistent infections within-host. Rapidly-transmitting viruses that have evolved with bat immune systems will likely cause enhanced virulence following emergence into secondary hosts with immune systems that diverge from those unique to bats.

Bats can carry viruses that are deadly to other mammals without themselves showing serious symptoms. In fact, bats are natural reservoirs for viruses that have some of the highest fatality rates of any viruses that people acquire from wild animals ­ including rabies, Ebola and the SARS coronavirus. Bats have a suite of antiviral defenses that keep the amount of virus in check. For example, some bats have an antiviral immune response called the interferon pathway perpetually switched on. In most other mammals, having such a hyper-vigilant immune response would cause harmful inflammation. Bats, however, have adapted anti-inflammatory traits that protect them from such harm, include the loss of certain genes that normally promote inflammation. However, no one has previously explored how these unique antiviral defenses of bats impact the viruses themselves. Now, Brook et al. have studied this exact question using bat cells grown in the laboratory. The experiments made use of cells from one bat species ­ the black flying fox ­ in which the interferon pathway is always on, and another ­ the Egyptian fruit bat ­ in which this pathway is only activated during an infection. The bat cells were infected with three different viruses, and then Brook et al. observed how the interferon pathway helped keep the infections in check, before creating a computer model of this response. The experiments and model helped reveal that the bats' defenses may have a potential downside for other animals, including humans. In both bat species, the strongest antiviral responses were countered by the virus spreading more quickly from cell to cell. This suggests that bat immune defenses may drive the evolution of faster transmitting viruses, and while bats are well protected from the harmful effects of their own prolific viruses, other creatures like humans are not. The findings may help to explain why bats are often the source for viruses that are deadly in humans. Learning more about bats' antiviral defenses and how they drive virus evolution may help scientists develop better ways to predict, prevent or limit the spread of viruses from bats to humans. More studies are needed in bats to help these efforts. In the meantime, the experiments highlight the importance of warning people to avoid direct contact with wild bats.

Chiroptera/virology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Virus Diseases/veterinary , Viruses/growth & development , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , Cell Line , Chiroptera/immunology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Kinetics , Models, Biological , Phenotype , Risk Assessment , Virulence , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/transmission , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/immunology , Viruses/pathogenicity , Zoonoses/immunology , Zoonoses/transmission