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1.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580419

ABSTRACT

A microarray-based assay to detect IgG and IgM antibodies against betacoronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2, SARS, MERS, OC43, and HKU1), other respiratory viruses and type I interferons (IFN-Is) was developed. This multiplex assay was applied to track antibody cross-reactivity due to previous contact with similar viruses and to identify antibodies against IFN-Is as the markers for severe COVID-19. In total, 278 serum samples from convalescent plasma donors, COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and patients who recovered from mild/moderate COVID-19, vaccine recipients, prepandemic and pandemic patients with autoimmune endocrine disorders, and a heterogeneous prepandemic cohort including healthy individuals and chronically ill patients were analyzed. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 microarray results agreed well with the ELISA results. Regarding ICU patients, autoantibodies against IFN-Is were detected in 10.5% of samples, and 10.5% of samples were found to simultaneously contain IgM antibodies against more than two different viruses. Cross-reactivity between IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and IgG against the OC43 and HKU1 spike proteins was observed, resulting in positive signals for the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid in prepandemic samples from patients with autoimmune endocrine disorders. The presence of IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid in the absence of IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD should be interpreted with caution.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viruses/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Protein Array Analysis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/immunology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Viruses/classification
2.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 348, 2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555350

ABSTRACT

Viral infections are the most common among diseases that globally require around 60 percent of medical care. However, in the heat of the pandemic, there was a lack of medical equipment and inpatient facilities to provide all patients with viral infections. The detection of viral infections is possible in three general ways such as (i) direct virus detection, which is performed immediately 1-3 days after the infection, (ii) determination of antibodies against some virus proteins mainly observed during/after virus incubation period, (iii) detection of virus-induced disease when specific tissue changes in the organism. This review surveys some global pandemics from 1889 to 2020, virus types, which induced these pandemics, and symptoms of some viral diseases. Non-analytical methods such as radiology and microscopy also are overviewed. This review overlooks molecular analysis methods such as nucleic acid amplification, antibody-antigen complex determination, CRISPR-Cas system-based viral genome determination methods. Methods widely used in the certificated diagnostic laboratory for SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A, B, C, HIV, and other viruses during a viral pandemic are outlined. A comprehensive overview of molecular analytical methods has shown that the assay's sensitivity, accuracy, and suitability for virus detection depends on the choice of the number of regions in the viral open reading frame (ORF) genome sequence and the validity of the selected analytical method.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Viruses/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/immunology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics , Viruses/immunology
3.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542801

ABSTRACT

Nestled within the Rocky Mountain National Forest, 114 scientists and students gathered at Colorado State University's Mountain Campus for this year's 21st annual Rocky Mountain National Virology Association meeting. This 3-day retreat consisted of 31 talks and 30 poster presentations discussing advances in research pertaining to viral and prion diseases. The keynote address provided a timely discussion on zoonotic coronaviruses, lessons learned, and the path forward towards predicting, preparing, and preventing future viral disease outbreaks. Other invited speakers discussed advances in SARS-CoV-2 surveillance, molecular interactions involved in flavivirus genome assembly, evaluation of ethnomedicines for their efficacy against infectious diseases, multi-omic analyses to define risk factors associated with long COVID, the role that interferon lambda plays in control of viral pathogenesis, cell-fusion-dependent pathogenesis of varicella zoster virus, and advances in the development of a vaccine platform against prion diseases. On behalf of the Rocky Mountain Virology Association, this report summarizes select presentations.


Subject(s)
Virology , Animals , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prion Diseases/diagnosis , Prion Diseases/prevention & control , Prions/immunology , Prions/isolation & purification , Prions/pathogenicity , Vaccines , Virology/organization & administration , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/immunology , Viruses/isolation & purification , Viruses/pathogenicity
4.
Curr Protein Pept Sci ; 22(4): 273-289, 2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515505

ABSTRACT

Innate immunity is the first line of defence elicited by the host immune system to fight against invading pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. From this elementary immune response, the more complex antigen-specific adaptive responses are recruited to provide a long-lasting memory against the pathogens. Innate immunity gets activated when the host cell utilizes a diverse set of receptors known as pattern recognition receptors (PRR) to recognize the viruses that have penetrated the host and responds with cellular processes like complement system, phagocytosis, cytokine release and inflammation and destruction of NK cells. Viral RNA or DNA or viral intermediate products are recognized by receptors like toll-like receptors(TLRs), nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) thereby, inducing type I interferon response (IFN) and other proinflammatory cytokines in infected cells or other immune cells. But certain viruses can evade the host innate immune response to replicate efficiently, triggering the spread of the viral infection. The present review describes the similarity in the mechanism chosen by viruses from different families -HIV, SARSCoV- 2 and Nipah viruses to evade the innate immune response and how efficiently they establish the infection in the host. The review also addresses the stages of developments of various vaccines against these viral diseases and the challenges encountered by the researchers during vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/virology , Henipavirus Infections/virology , RNA, Viral/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Viruses , Animals , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunity, Innate , Viruses/genetics , Viruses/immunology
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 624293, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394756

ABSTRACT

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor, which interacts with a wide range of organic molecules of endogenous and exogenous origin, including environmental pollutants, tryptophan metabolites, and microbial metabolites. The activation of AHR by these agonists drives its translocation into the nucleus where it controls the expression of a large number of target genes that include the AHR repressor (AHRR), detoxifying monooxygenases (CYP1A1 and CYP1B1), and cytokines. Recent advances reveal that AHR signaling modulates aspects of the intrinsic, innate and adaptive immune response to diverse microorganisms. This review will focus on the increasing evidence supporting a role for AHR as a modulator of the host response to viral infection.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Immunity, Innate , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/metabolism , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/immunology , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus , Animals , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Ligands , Signal Transduction , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Viruses/genetics , Viruses/pathogenicity
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389393

ABSTRACT

As most recently demonstrated by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, congenital and perinatal infections are of significant concern to the pregnant population as compared to the general population. These outcomes can range from no apparent impact all the way to spontaneous abortion or fetal infection with long term developmental consequences. While some pathogens have developed mechanisms to cross the placenta and directly infect the fetus, other pathogens lead to an upregulation in maternal or placental inflammation that can indirectly cause harm. The placenta is a temporary, yet critical organ that serves multiple important functions during gestation including facilitation of fetal nutrition, oxygenation, and prevention of fetal infection in utero. Here, we review trophoblast cell immunology and the molecular mechanisms utilized to protect the fetus from infection. Lastly, we discuss consequences in the placenta when these protections fail and the histopathologic result following infection.


Subject(s)
Immunity , Placenta/immunology , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Viruses/immunology , Female , Fetus/immunology , Fetus/virology , Humans , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Trophoblasts/immunology , Trophoblasts/virology
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 638573, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376694

ABSTRACT

Animal viruses are parasites of animal cells that have characteristics such as heredity and replication. Viruses can be divided into non-enveloped and enveloped viruses if a lipid bilayer membrane surrounds them or not. All the membrane proteins of enveloped viruses that function in attachment to target cells or membrane fusion are modified by glycosylation. Glycosylation is one of the most common post-translational modifications of proteins and plays an important role in many biological behaviors, such as protein folding and stabilization, virus attachment to target cell receptors and inhibition of antibody neutralization. Glycans of the host receptors can also regulate the attachment of the viruses and then influence the virus entry. With the development of glycosylation research technology, the research and development of novel virus vaccines and antiviral drugs based on glycan have received increasing attention. Here, we review the effects of host glycans and viral proteins on biological behaviors of viruses, and the opportunities for prevention and treatment of viral infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Viruses , Animals , Glycosylation , Humans , Immune Evasion , Viruses/immunology , Viruses/metabolism
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237363

ABSTRACT

The ubiquitin (Ub) proteasome system (UPS) plays a pivotal role in regulation of numerous cellular processes, including innate and adaptive immune responses that are essential for restriction of the virus life cycle in the infected cells. Deubiquitination by the deubiquitinating enzyme, deubiquitinase (DUB), is a reversible molecular process to remove Ub or Ub chains from the target proteins. Deubiquitination is an integral strategy within the UPS in regulating survival and proliferation of the infecting virus and the virus-invaded cells. Many viruses in the infected cells are reported to encode viral DUB, and these vial DUBs actively disrupt cellular Ub-dependent processes to suppress host antiviral immune response, enhancing virus replication and thus proliferation. This review surveys the types of DUBs encoded by different viruses and their molecular processes for how the infecting viruses take advantage of the DUB system to evade the host immune response and expedite their replication.


Subject(s)
Deubiquitinating Enzymes/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Diseases/immunology , Viruses/enzymology , Animals , Deubiquitinating Enzymes/chemistry , Humans , Immune Evasion , Life Cycle Stages , Ubiquitination , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Virus Diseases/enzymology , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Replication , Viruses/immunology
9.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302471

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the CRISPR/Cas9-based gene-editing techniques have been well developed and applied widely in several aspects of research in the biological sciences, in many species, including humans, animals, plants, and even in viruses. Modification of the viral genome is crucial for revealing gene function, virus pathogenesis, gene therapy, genetic engineering, and vaccine development. Herein, we have provided a brief review of the different technologies for the modification of the viral genomes. Particularly, we have focused on the recently developed CRISPR/Cas9-based gene-editing system, detailing its origin, functional principles, and touching on its latest achievements in virology research and applications in vaccine development, especially in large DNA viruses of humans and animals. Future prospects of CRISPR/Cas9-based gene-editing technology in virology research, including the potential shortcomings, are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Gene Editing , Vaccinology/methods , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Viruses/genetics , Animals , Biomedical Research/methods , Genetic Therapy/methods , Humans , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Viruses/immunology
10.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256669

ABSTRACT

Identification of therapeutics against emerging and re-emerging viruses remains a continued priority that is only reinforced by the recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Advances in monoclonal antibody (mAb) isolation, characterization, and production make it a viable option for rapid treatment development. While mAbs are traditionally screened and selected based on potency of neutralization in vitro, it is clear that additional factors contribute to the in vivo efficacy of a mAb beyond viral neutralization. These factors include interactions with Fc receptors (FcRs) and complement that can enhance neutralization, clearance of infected cells, opsonization of virions, and modulation of the innate and adaptive immune response. In this review, we discuss recent studies, primarily using mouse models, that identified a role for Fc-FcγR interactions for optimal antibody-based protection against emerging and re-emerging virus infections.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Receptors, IgG/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Viruses/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/therapy , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Phagocytosis , Virus Diseases/therapy , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/classification
11.
Cell Biol Int ; 45(6): 1124-1147, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1251913

ABSTRACT

With each infectious pandemic or outbreak, the medical community feels the need to revisit basic concepts of immunology to understand and overcome the difficult times brought about by these infections. Regarding viruses, they have historically been responsible for many deaths, and such a peculiarity occurs because they are known to be obligate intracellular parasites that depend upon the host's cell machinery for their replication. Successful infection with the production of essential viral components requires constant viral evolution as a strategy to manipulate the cellular environment, including host internal factors, the host's nonspecific and adaptive immune responses to viruses, the metabolic and energetic state of the infected cell, and changes in the intracellular redox environment during the viral infection cycle. Based on this knowledge, it is fundamental to develop new therapeutic strategies for controlling viral dissemination, by means of antiviral therapies, vaccines, or antioxidants, or by targeting the inhibition or activation of cell signaling pathways or metabolic pathways that are altered during infection. The rapid recovery of altered cellular homeostasis during viral infection is still a major challenge. Here, we review the strategies by which viruses evade the host's immune response and potential tools used to develop more specific antiviral therapies to cure, control, or prevent viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Immune Evasion , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena/immunology , Viruses/immunology , Animals , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Virus Replication
12.
Immunohorizons ; 5(5): 338-348, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244183

ABSTRACT

Memory CD8+ T cells promote protective immunity against viruses or cancer. Our field has done a terrific job identifying how CD8+ T cell memory forms in response to Ag. However, many studies focused on systems in which inflammation recedes over time. These situations, while relevant, do not cover all situations in which CD8+ T cell memory is relevant. It is increasingly clear that CD8+ T cells with a memory phenotype form in response to infections with extensive or prolonged tissue inflammation, for example, influenza, herpes, and more recently, COVID-19. In these circumstances, inflammatory mediators expectedly affect forming memory CD8+ T cells, especially in tissues in which pathogens establish. Notwithstanding recent important discoveries, many outstanding questions on how inflammation shapes CD8+ T cell memory remain unanswered. We will discuss, in this review, what is already known and the next steps to understand how inflammation influences CD8+ T cell memory.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Inflammation/immunology , Viruses/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immune System/cytology , Immune System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
13.
Immunol Invest ; 50(7): 833-856, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214258

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are an essential part of a preventative healthcare strategy. However, response to vaccines may be less predictable in immunocompromised people. While outcomes for individuals with autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases have dramatically improved with treatment using immunomodulating and biologic agents, infections have caused significant morbidity in these people today often more than due to their underlying diseases. Immune-based biologic therapies contribute to these infectious complications. This review addresses anti-viral vaccines, their effectiveness and safety in patients treated with approved biologic agents and immune targeted therapy with a focus on vaccines against influenza, human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus and varicella zoster virus. Preliminary information regarding SARS-CoV-2 anti-viral vaccines is addressed. Additionally, we present recommendations regarding the safe use of vaccines in immunocompromised individuals with the goal to enhance awareness of the safety and efficacy of these anti-viral vaccines in these high-risk populations.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/immunology , Biological Factors/immunology , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/immunology , Immunologic Factors/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Viruses/immunology , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/virology , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Virus Diseases/virology
14.
Trends Microbiol ; 29(7): 648-662, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171466

ABSTRACT

Even in nonpandemic times, respiratory viruses account for a vast global burden of disease. They remain a major cause of illness and death and they pose a perpetual threat of breaking out into epidemics and pandemics. Many of these respiratory viruses infect repeatedly and appear to induce only narrow transient immunity, but the situation varies from one virus to another. In the absence of effective specific treatments, understanding the role of immunity in protection, disease, and resolution is of paramount importance. These problems have been brought into sharp focus by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we summarise what is now known about adaptive immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and draw comparisons with immunity to other respiratory viruses, focusing on the longevity of protective responses.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viruses/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Time Factors
16.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154537

ABSTRACT

A central feature of vertebrate immune systems is the ability to form antigen-specific immune memory in response to microbial challenge and so provide protection against future infection. In conflict with this process is the ability that many viruses have to mutate their antigens to escape infection- or vaccine-induced antibody memory responses. Mutable viruses such as dengue virus, influenza virus and of course coronavirus have a major global health impact, exacerbated by this ability to evade immune responses through mutation. There have been several outstanding recent studies on B-cell memory that also shed light on the potential and limitations of antibody memory to protect against viral antigen variation, and so promise to inform new strategies for vaccine design. For the purposes of this review, the current understanding of the different memory B-cell (MBC) populations, and their potential to recognize mutant antigens, will be described prior to some examples from antibody responses against the highly mutable RNA based flaviviruses, influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Viruses/immunology , Animals , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/genetics
17.
Curr Protein Pept Sci ; 22(4): 273-289, 2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145506

ABSTRACT

Innate immunity is the first line of defence elicited by the host immune system to fight against invading pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. From this elementary immune response, the more complex antigen-specific adaptive responses are recruited to provide a long-lasting memory against the pathogens. Innate immunity gets activated when the host cell utilizes a diverse set of receptors known as pattern recognition receptors (PRR) to recognize the viruses that have penetrated the host and responds with cellular processes like complement system, phagocytosis, cytokine release and inflammation and destruction of NK cells. Viral RNA or DNA or viral intermediate products are recognized by receptors like toll-like receptors(TLRs), nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) thereby, inducing type I interferon response (IFN) and other proinflammatory cytokines in infected cells or other immune cells. But certain viruses can evade the host innate immune response to replicate efficiently, triggering the spread of the viral infection. The present review describes the similarity in the mechanism chosen by viruses from different families -HIV, SARSCoV- 2 and Nipah viruses to evade the innate immune response and how efficiently they establish the infection in the host. The review also addresses the stages of developments of various vaccines against these viral diseases and the challenges encountered by the researchers during vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/virology , Henipavirus Infections/virology , RNA, Viral/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Viruses , Animals , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunity, Innate , Viruses/genetics , Viruses/immunology
18.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115433

ABSTRACT

Ubiquitination of proteins is a post-translational modification process with many different cellular functions, including protein stability, immune signaling, antiviral functions and virus replication. While ubiquitination of viral proteins can be used by the host as a defense mechanism by destroying the incoming pathogen, viruses have adapted to take advantage of this cellular process. The ubiquitin system can be hijacked by viruses to enhance various steps of the replication cycle and increase pathogenesis. Emerging viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), flaviviruses like Zika and dengue, as well as highly pathogenic viruses like Ebola and Nipah, have the ability to directly use the ubiquitination process to enhance their viral-replication cycle, and evade immune responses. Some of these mechanisms are conserved among different virus families, especially early during virus entry, providing an opportunity to develop broad-spectrum antivirals. Here, we discuss the mechanisms used by emergent viruses to exploit the host ubiquitin system, with the main focus on the role of ubiquitin in enhancing virus replication.


Subject(s)
Ubiquitin/metabolism , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Virus Replication , Viruses/metabolism , Immune Evasion , Ubiquitination , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Assembly , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Internalization , Virus Release , Viruses/classification , Viruses/immunology , Viruses/pathogenicity
19.
Platelets ; 32(3): 325-330, 2021 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092288

ABSTRACT

Platelets play an essential role in maintaining vascular integrity after injury. In addition, platelets contribute to the immune response to pathogens. For instance, they express receptors that mediate binding of viruses, and toll-like receptors that activate the cell in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Platelets can be beneficial and/or detrimental during viral infections. They reduce blood-borne viruses by engulfing the free virus and presenting the virus to neutrophils. However, platelets can also enhance inflammation and tissue injury during viral infections. Here, we discuss the roles of platelets in viral infection.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Receptors, Virus/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , Viruses/immunology , Animals , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Communication/genetics , Cell Communication/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/pathology , Dendritic Cells/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Platelet Activation/immunology , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Toll-Like Receptors/genetics , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viruses/pathogenicity
20.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 91: 107331, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065225

ABSTRACT

The present review provides an overview of recent advances regarding the function of Th17 cells and their produced cytokines in the progression of viral diseases. Viral infections alone do not lead to virus-induced malignancies, as both genetic and host safety factors are also involved in the occurrence of malignancies. Acquired immune responses, through the differentiation of Th17 cells, form the novel components of the Th17 cell pathway when reacting with viral infections all the way from the beginning to its final stages. As a result, instead of inducing the right immune responses, these events lead to the suppression of the immune system. In fact, the responses from Th17 cells during persistent viral infections causes chronic inflammation through the production of IL-17 and other cytokines which provide a favorable environment for tumor growth and its development. Additionally, during the past decade, these cells have been understood to be involved in tumor progression and metastasis. However, further research is required to understand Th17 cells' immune mechanisms in the vast variety of viral diseases. This review aims to determine the roles and effects of the immune system, especially Th17 cells, in the progression of viral diseases; which can be highly beneficial for the diagnosis and treatment of these infections.


Subject(s)
Cell Transformation, Viral , Neoplasms/virology , Th17 Cells/virology , Tumor Virus Infections/virology , Viruses/pathogenicity , Animals , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/metabolism , Th17 Cells/immunology , Th17 Cells/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment , Tumor Virus Infections/immunology , Tumor Virus Infections/metabolism , Viruses/immunology
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