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J AAPOS ; 26(1): 2.e1-2.e5, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620767


PURPOSE: To investigate acute eye symptoms in healthy children after a typical day of virtual school during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The study population included 110 healthy children 10-17 years of age who were enrolled in full-time or hybrid virtual school. Children with a history of central nervous system or ocular pathology, recent concussions, reported poor vision, convergence insufficiency, history of orthoptic therapy, strabismus, amblyopia, or learning disorders were excluded. Background information was collected, including demographics, family and personal ocular history, and virtual school specifications. Eligible children completed a modified convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS) and an asthenopia survey before and after a virtual school session. CISS and asthenopia survey symptoms were scored, and the differences in symptomatology before and after school were calculated. RESULTS: The average sum of the CISS scores increased from 5.17 before school to 9.82 after (P < 0.001), with 61% of children recording an increase in convergence insufficiency symptoms and 17% experiencing severe convergence insufficiency symptoms after school. Average asthenopia symptom scores increased from 1.58 to 2.74 (P < 0.001), with 53% of children recording an increase in asthenopia symptoms. Significant increases were seen in 12 of 15 CISS questions and in 4 of 5 asthenopia questions. CONCLUSIONS: In this study cohort, otherwise healthy children experienced acute ocular symptoms following virtual school.

COVID-19 , Ocular Motility Disorders , Accommodation, Ocular , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Convergence, Ocular , Humans , Ocular Motility Disorders/diagnosis , Ocular Motility Disorders/epidemiology , Ocular Motility Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Schools , Vision, Binocular/physiology
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus ; 58(4): 224-231, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319770


PURPOSE: To subjectively evaluate the degree of visual fatigue in children attending online classes during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and objectively evaluate accommodation and vergence dysfunction in these children. METHODS: Children aged between 10 and 17 years with recent onset of asthenopia symptoms were included. Symptoms were evaluated using the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) questionnaire. A CISS score of 16 or greater was considered symptomatic. Binocular vergence and accommodation parameters were objectively evaluated. For ease of comparison, children were divided into two groups: children using digital devices for less than 4 hours/day and children using digital devices for 4 hours/day or more. RESULTS: A total of 46 children with a mean age of 14.47 ± 1.95 years were evaluated. The mean duration of online classes during the COVID-19 pandemic was 3.08 ± 1.68 hours/day, which is higher than before the COVID-19 pandemic (0.58 ± 0.71 hours/day, P < .00001). The mean CISS scores were 21.73 ± 12.81 for children using digital devices less than 4 hours/day and 30.34 ± 13.0 for children using digital devices for 4 hours/day or more (P = .019). Mean near exophoria (P = .03), negative fusional vergence (P = .02), negative relative accommodation (P = .057), and accommodation amplitude (P = .002) were different between the two groups. The Spearman correlation between the symptomatic CISS score and the duration of online classes showed a linear association (coefficient rs = 0.39; P = .007). In the multivariate analysis, only the duration of online classes longer than 4 hours was a significant risk factor (P = .07) for the symptomatic CISS score. CONCLUSIONS: Online classes longer than 4 hours were more detrimental to abnormal binocular vergence and accommodation parameters than online classes shorter than 4 hours. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2021;58(4):224-231.].

Accommodation, Ocular/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Convergence, Ocular/physiology , Ocular Motility Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Vision, Binocular/physiology , Adolescent , Child , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires