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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258441, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468175

ABSTRACT

The steady, world-wide increase in myopia prevalence in children over the past decades has raised concerns. As an early intervention for axial-length-related myopia, correcting lenses have been developed (such as Defocus Incorporated Multiple Segment (DIMS) lenses), which have been shown to be effective in slowing myopia progression. Beyond this direct effect, however, it is not known whether such lenses also affect other aspects important to the wearer, such as eye fatigue, and how such effects may differ across age, as these lenses so far are typically only tested with adolescents. In the present work, we therefore investigated perceived fatigue levels according to lens type (normal vs DIMS) and age (adolescents vs adults) in a demanding visual search task ("Finding Wally") at two difficulty levels (easy vs difficult). Whereas age and difficulty did not result in significant differences in eye fatigue, we found a clear reduction of fatigue levels in both age groups when wearing the correcting lenses. Hence, the additional accommodation of these lens types may result in less strain in a task requiring sustained eye movements at near viewing distances.


Subject(s)
Asthenopia/pathology , Eyeglasses/classification , Myopia/rehabilitation , Vision, Ocular/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Asthenopia/etiology , Eyeglasses/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Myopia/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
2.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e040881, 2020 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455706

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Driving is one of the main modes of transport with safe driving requiring a combination of visual, cognitive and physical skills. With population ageing, the number of people living with vision impairment is set to increase in the decades ahead. Vision impairment may negatively impact an individual's ability to safely drive. The association between vision impairment and motor vehicle crash involvement or driving participation has yet to be systematically investigated. Further, the evidence for the effectiveness of vision-related interventions aimed at decreasing crashes and driving errors has not been synthesised. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A search will be conducted for relevant studies on Medline (Ovid), EMBASE and Global Health from their inception to March 2020 without date or geographical restrictions. Two investigators will independently screen abstracts and full texts using Covidence software with conflicts resolved by a third investigator. Data extraction will be conducted on all included studies, and their quality assessed to determine the risk of bias using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools. Outcome measures include crash risk, driving cessation and surrogate measures of driving safety (eg, driving errors and performance). The results of this review will be reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guideline. Meta-analysis will be undertaken for outcomes with sufficient data and reported following the Meta-analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guideline. Where statistical pooling is not feasible or appropriate, narrative summaries will be presented following the Synthesis Without Meta-analysis in systematic reviews guideline. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This review will only report on published data thus no ethics approval is required. Results will be included in the Lancet Global Health Commission on Global Eye Health, published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at relevant conferences. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020172153.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Global Health , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Review Literature as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Vision, Ocular
4.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(10): 1115-1121, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412624

ABSTRACT

Importance: During the outbreak of COVID-19, outdoor activities were limited and digital learning increased. Concerns have arisen regarding the impact of these environmental changes on the development of myopia. Objective: To investigate changes in the development of myopia in young Chinese schoolchildren during the outbreak of COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this observational study, 2 groups of students from 12 primary schools in Guangzhou, China, were prospectively enrolled and monitored from grade 2 to grade 3. Comparisons between the exposure and nonexposure groups were made to evaluate any association between environmental changes during the COVID-19 outbreak period and development of myopia. The exposure group received complete eye examinations in November and December 2019 and November and December 2020. The nonexposure group received examinations in November and December 2018 and November and December 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in cycloplegic spherical equivalent refraction (SER), axial length (AL) elongation, and myopia incidence from grade 2 to grade 3. Results: Among the 2679 eligible students in grade 2 (mean [SD] age, 7.76 [0.32] years; 1422 [53.1%] male), 2114 (1060 in the nonexposure group and 1054 in the exposure group) were reexamined in grade 3. Compared with the period from November and December 2018 to November and December 2019, the shift of SER, AL elongation, and myopia incidence from grade 2 to grade 3 from November and December 2019 to November and December 2020 was 0.36 D greater (95% CI, 0.32-0.41; P < .001), 0.08 mm faster (95% CI, 0.06-0.10; P < .001), and 7.9% higher (95% CI, 5.1%-10.6%; P < .001), respectively. In grade 3 students, the prevalence of myopia increased from 13.3% (141 of 1060 students) in November and December 2019 to 20.8% (219 of 1054 students) in November and December 2020 (difference [95% CI], 7.5% [4.3-10.7]; P < .001); the proportion of children without myopia and with SER greater than -0.50 D and less than or equal to +0.50 D increased from 31.1% (286 of 919 students) to 49.0% (409 of 835 students) (difference [95% CI], 17.9% [13.3-22.4]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, development of myopia increased during the COVID-19 outbreak period in young schoolchildren in China. Consequently, myopia prevalence and the proportion of children without myopia who were at risk of developing myopia increased. Future studies are needed to investigate long-term changes in myopia development after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Myopia/epidemiology , Vision, Ocular , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , China/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Myopia/diagnosis , Myopia/physiopathology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Recreation , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Screen Time , Time Factors
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e21037, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256225

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Facial expressions require the complex coordination of 43 different facial muscles. Parkinson disease (PD) affects facial musculature leading to "hypomimia" or "masked facies." OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether modern computer vision techniques can be applied to detect masked facies and quantify drug states in PD. METHODS: We trained a convolutional neural network on images extracted from videos of 107 self-identified people with PD, along with 1595 videos of controls, in order to detect PD hypomimia cues. This trained model was applied to clinical interviews of 35 PD patients in their on and off drug motor states, and seven journalist interviews of the actor Alan Alda obtained before and after he was diagnosed with PD. RESULTS: The algorithm achieved a test set area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.71 on 54 subjects to detect PD hypomimia, compared to a value of 0.75 for trained neurologists using the United Parkinson Disease Rating Scale-III Facial Expression score. Additionally, the model accuracy to classify the on and off drug states in the clinical samples was 63% (22/35), in contrast to an accuracy of 46% (16/35) when using clinical rater scores. Finally, each of Alan Alda's seven interviews were successfully classified as occurring before (versus after) his diagnosis, with 100% accuracy (7/7). CONCLUSIONS: This proof-of-principle pilot study demonstrated that computer vision holds promise as a valuable tool for PD hypomimia and for monitoring a patient's motor state in an objective and noninvasive way, particularly given the increasing importance of telemedicine.


Subject(s)
Parkinson Disease/complications , Vision, Ocular/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Algorithms , Computers , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neurologic Examination , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , Pilot Projects
6.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251201, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mouth-nose masks have been requested to prevent the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The aim of the present study was to investigate, if wearing a mouth-nose mask impairs the visual field function in normals. METHODS: Thirty eyes of 30 subjects were recruited for the present study. White-on-white perimetry (OCTOPUS 900; 90°) was done and sensitivity was analysed in 14 defined test points (P1-P14, inferior visual field) under 3 different test conditions while the subjects were wearing a mouth-nose mask: (I) 1.5 cm under the lower eyelid, nose clip not used (position1.5cm_no_clip); (II) 1.5 cm under the lower eyelid, nose clip correctly positioned (position1.5cm_with_clip); (III) 0.5 cm under the lower eyelid, nose clip correctly positioned (position0.5cm_with_clip). All data were compared to sensitivity without wearing a mouth-nose mask (reference). Mean Δ was calculated, being the difference between the results of each test condition and reference, respectively. RESULTS: Sensitivity was significantly different between position1.5cm_no_clip and reference at 10 test points (p<0.05). Sensitivity at test point P7 was significantly different between position1.5cm_with_clip and position0.5cm_with_clip compared to reference (p<0.001), respectively. Mean Δ increased while wearing a mask at P7: position1.5cm_with_clip (-8.3 dB ± 7.3 dB) < position0.5cm_with_clip (-11.3 dB ± 9.5 dB) < position1.5cm_no_clip (-20.1 dB ± 7.6 dB). CONCLUSION: Visual field function was observed to be significantly impaired in the inferior-nasal sector while persons were wearing a mouth-nose mask, especially when the nose clip was not correctly used.


Subject(s)
Masks , Visual Fields , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vision Tests , Vision, Ocular , Young Adult
7.
Infectio ; 25(3): 182-188, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1055381

ABSTRACT

Abstract The article presents a general overview on COVID-19 transmission in the context of public transport, particularly applicable to decision making in Latin America. Based on recent findings on COVID-19 transmission and the relative importance of each factor (droplets, fomites, and aerosol routes) in such transmission, we seek to update the discussion on the topic that has generally been based on social distance as the only parameter for reducing the risk of transmission and broadens the vision to integrate ventilation, users' behavior (mask and eye protection use, silence while in the transport system) and travel distance. Recommendations to improve mobility conditions reducing the risk of COVID-19 contagion are provided.


Resumen El artículo presenta una revisión de transmisión de COVID-19 en el contexto de transporte público, con aplicación particular para toma de decisiones en América Latina. Con base en los hallazgos recientes sobre transmisión de Covid-19 y la importancia relativa de cada factor (gotículas, fómites y rutas de aerosoles) en dicha transmisión, buscamos actualizar la discusión sobre el tema que generalmente se ha basado en la "distancia social" como parámetro único de reducción de riesgo de transmisión y amplía esta visión para integrar la ventilación, el comportamiento de usuarios (uso de mascarilla, protección ocular, silencio), y la distancia de viaje. Se indican al final recomendaciones para mejorar las condiciones de movilidad en general sin aumentar el riesgo de contagio de Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Transportation , Health Strategies , COVID-19 , Travel , Ventilation , Vision, Ocular , Urban Sanitation , Protection , Latin America
8.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 35(2): 217-224, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622276

ABSTRACT

Although 1st and 2nd generation supraglottic airway devices (SADs) have many desirable features, they are nevertheless inserted in a similar 'blind' way as their 1st generation predecessors. Clinicians mostly still rely entirely on subjective indirect assessments to estimate correct placement which supposedly ensures a tight seal. Malpositioning and potential airway compromise occurs in more than half of placements. Vision-guided insertion can improve placement. In this article we propose the development of a 3rd generation supraglottic airway device, equipped with cameras and fiberoptic illumination, to visualise insertion of the device, enable immediate manoeuvres to optimise SAD position, verify whether correct 1st and 2nd seals are achieved and check whether size selected is appropriate. We do not provide technical details of such a '3rd generation' device, but rather present a theoretical analysis of its desirable properties, which are essential to overcome the remaining limitations of current 1st and 2nd generation devices. We also recommend that this further milestone improvement, i.e. ability to place the SAD accurately under direct vision, be eligible for the moniker '3rd generation'. Blind insertion of SADs should become the exception and we anticipate, as in other domains such as central venous cannulation and nerve block insertions, vision-guided placement becoming the gold standard.


Subject(s)
Airway Management/instrumentation , Equipment Design , Glottis , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Laryngeal Masks , Airway Management/trends , Fiber Optic Technology , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/trends , Vision, Ocular
9.
Eur Radiol ; 30(8): 4407-4416, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-15134

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between the imaging manifestations and clinical classification of COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single-center study on patients with COVID-19 from Jan. 18, 2020 to Feb. 7, 2020 in Zhuhai, China. Patients were divided into 3 types based on Chinese guideline: mild (patients with minimal symptoms and negative CT findings), common, and severe-critical (patients with positive CT findings and different extent of clinical manifestations). CT visual quantitative evaluation was based on summing up the acute lung inflammatory lesions involving each lobe, which was scored as 0 (0%), 1 (1-25%), 2 (26-50%), 3 (51-75%), or 4 (76-100%), respectively. The total severity score (TSS) was reached by summing the five lobe scores. The consistency of two observers was evaluated. The TSS was compared with the clinical classification. ROC was used to test the diagnosis ability of TSS for severe-critical type. RESULTS: This study included 78 patients, 38 males and 40 females. There were 24 mild (30.8%), 46 common (59.0%), and 8 severe-critical (10.2%) cases, respectively. The median TSS of severe-critical-type group was significantly higher than common type (p < 0.001). The ICC value of the two observers was 0.976 (95% CI 0.962-0.985). ROC analysis showed the area under the curve (AUC) of TSS for diagnosing severe-critical type was 0.918. The TSS cutoff of 7.5 had 82.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of clinical mild-type patients with COVID-19 was relatively high; CT was not suitable for independent screening tool. The CT visual quantitative analysis has high consistency and can reflect the clinical classification of COVID-19. KEY POINTS: • CT visual quantitative evaluation has high consistency (ICC value of 0.976) among the observers. The median TSS of severe-critical type group was significantly higher than common type (p < 0.001). • ROC analysis showed the area under the curve (AUC) of TSS for diagnosing severe-critical type was 0.918 (95% CI 0.843-0.994). The TSS cutoff of 7.5 had 82.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity. • The proportion of confirmed COVID-19 patients with normal chest CT was relatively high (30.8%); CT was not a suitable screening modality.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Area Under Curve , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thorax , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Vision, Ocular
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