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2.
Heart Lung ; 53: 11-24, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1619614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With an increase in published reports on respiratory rehabilitation (RR) in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), there is a need for a meta-analysis and systematic review to measure the effects of the RR in SARS. OBJECTIVE: Objective of the review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of RR in patients recovering from SARS. METHODS: PubMed/ MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, and Clinical Trial Registries were systematically searched (between January 1, 2003, to July 31, 2021) to identify all patients who received RR, at least for six days, following SARS. The primary outcome was exercise capacity [6-meter walking distance (6-MWD)], and secondary outcomes were change in pulmonary function test (PFT) parameters, activities in daily livings (ADLs), and quality of life (QoL). Meta-analysis was performed by using RevMan 5.4. RESULTS: Twenty-one observational studies, including eight comparative studies, were included. Eight comparative studies participated in quantitative meta-analysis. The intervention group, who received RR, improved significantly in exercise capacity (6-MWD) [mean difference (MD):45.79, (95% CI:31.66-59.92)] and PFT parameters, especially in forced vital capacity (FVC%) [MD:4.38, (95% CI:0.15-8.60)], and diffusion lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO%) [MD:11.78, (95% CI:5.10-18.46)]. The intervention group failed to demonstrate significant improvement in ADLs and QoL outcomes. No significant adverse events were reported during the intervention. CONCLUSION: Respiratory rehabilitation can improve exercise capacity and PFT parameters in patients recovering from SARS infection. The RR does not cause serious adverse events. Clinical trials to determine the best RR program (in terms of initiation, duration, and components) in SARS and its treatment efficacy, both in the short and long- term are needed.


Subject(s)
Quality of Life , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Humans , Lung , Vital Capacity
3.
J Healthc Eng ; 2022: 9028835, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639295

ABSTRACT

Background: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was discovered in December 2019 and has infected more than 80 million people worldwide, and more than 50 million people have achieved a clinical cure. In this study, the pulmonary function results of patients after clinical medicine for three months were reported. Objective: To investigate the effect of COVID-19 on lung function in patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 56 COVID-19-infected patients who were cured after the clinical treatment at Taizhou Public Health Medical Center in Zhejiang Province from January 31, 2020, to March 10, 2020. At discharge and three months after discharge, lung function was measured, including inspiratory vital capacity (IVC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), forced expiratory volume in first second to inspiratory vital capacity (FEV1/IVC), maximum mid-expiratory flow rate (MEF), peak expiratory flow rate (PEF), and carbon monoxide dispersion (DLCO). Results: At discharge, there were 37 patients (66.1%) with pulmonary dysfunction, 22 patients (39.3%) with ventilation dysfunction, 31 cases (55.4%) with small airway dysfunction, and 16 cases (28.6%) with restricted ventilation dysfunction combined with small airway dysfunction. At 3 months after discharge, 24 of the 56 patients still had pulmonary dysfunction and all of them had small airway dysfunction, of which 10 patients (17.9%) were restricted ventilation dysfunction combined with small airway dysfunction. DLCO was measured three months after discharge. Twenty-nine patients (51.8%) had mild to moderate diffuse dysfunction. All pulmonary function indexes of 56 patients recovered gradually after 3 months after release, except FEV1/IVC, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). There were 41 patients of normal type (73.2%) and 15 patients of severe type (26.8%). Among the 15 severe patients, 8 patients (53.3%) had ventilation dysfunction at discharge, 9 patients (60%) had small airway dysfunction, 4 patients (26.7%) still had ventilation dysfunction 3 months after discharge, 7 patients (46.7%) had small airway dysfunction, and 10 patients (66.7%) had diffuse dysfunction. Among the 41 common type patients, 14 patients (34.1%) had ventilation dysfunction at discharge, 22 patients (53.7%) had small airway dysfunction, 6 patients (14.6%) still had ventilation dysfunction 3 months after discharge, 17 patients (41.5%) had small airway dysfunction, and 19 patients (46.3%) had diffuse dysfunction. Patients with severe COVID-19 had more pulmonary impairment and improved pulmonary function than normal patients. Conclusion: COVID-19 infection can cause lung function impairment, manifested as restricted ventilation dysfunction, small airway dysfunction, and diffuse dysfunction. The pulmonary function of most patients was improved 3 months after clinical cure and discharge, and some patients remained with mild to moderate diffuse dysfunction and small airway dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Lung , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vital Capacity
5.
Respir Med ; 191: 106709, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556145

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Prospective and longitudinal data on pulmonary injury over one year after acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are sparse. We aim to determine reductions in pulmonary function and respiratory related quality of life up to 12 months after acute COVID-19. METHODS: Patients with acute COVID-19 were enrolled into an ongoing single-centre, prospective observational study and prospectively examined 6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months after onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Chest CT-scans, pulmonary function and symptoms assessed by St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire were used to evaluate respiratory limitations. Patients were stratified according to severity of acute COVID-19. RESULTS: Median age of all patients was 57 years, 37.8% were female. Higher age, male sex and higher BMI were associated with acute-COVID-19 severity (p < 0.0001, 0.001 and 0.004 respectively). Also, pulmonary restriction and reduced carbon monoxide diffusion capacity was associated with disease severity. In patients with restriction and impaired diffusion capacity, FVC improved over 12 months from 61.32 to 71.82, TLC from 68.92 to 76.95, DLCO from 60.18 to 68.98 and KCO from 81.28 to 87.80 (percent predicted values; p = 0.002, 0.045, 0.0002 and 0.0005). The CT-score of lung involvement in the acute phase was associated with restriction and reduction in diffusion capacity in follow-up. Respiratory symptoms improved for patients in higher severity groups during follow-up, but not for patients with initially mild disease. CONCLUSION: Severity of respiratory failure during COVID-19 correlates with the degree of pulmonary function impairment and respiratory quality of life in the year after acute infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Quality of Life , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity/physiology , Recovery of Function , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Function Tests , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Total Lung Capacity/physiology , Vital Capacity/physiology
6.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260679, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thousands of people worldwide are suffering the consequences of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), and impulse oscillometry (IOS) and lung ultrasound (LUS) might be important tools for the follow-up of this population. Our objective was to prospectively evaluate abnormalities detected using these two methods in a cohort of COVID-19 survivors with respiratory symptoms. METHODS: In this follow-up study, 59 patients underwent clinical evaluations, spirometry, IOS and LUS in the 2nd (M1) and 5th (M2) months after diagnostic confirmation of COVID-19 by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Aeration scores were obtained from the LUS exams based on the following findings: B-lines >2, coalescent B-lines, and subpleural consolidations. RESULTS: Fifty-nine (100%) participants had cough and/or dyspnea at M1, which decreased to 38 (64.4%) at M2 (p = 0.0001). Spirometry was abnormal in 26 (44.1%) and 20 (33.9%) participants at M1 and M2, respectively, although without statistical significance (p = 0.10). Normal examination, restrictive patterns, and obstructive patterns were observed in 33 (55.9%), 18 (30.5%), and 8 (13.6%) participants, respectively, at M1 and in 39 (66.1%), 13 (22%), and 7 (11.9%) participants at M2 (p = 0.14). Regarding IOS, considering changes in resistive and reactive parameters, abnormal exams were detected in 52 (88.1%) and 42 (71.2%) participants at M1 and M2, respectively (p = 0.002). Heterogeneity of resistance between 4 and 20 Hz >20% was observed in 38 (64.4%) and 33 (55.9%) participants at M1 and M2, respectively (p = 0.30). Abnormal LUS was observed in 46 (78%) and 36 (61%) participants at M1 and M2, respectively (p = 0.002), with a reduction in aeration scores between M1 and M2 [5 (2-8) vs. 3 (0-6) points, p<0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: IOS and LUS abnormalities are frequent in the first 5 months post-COVID-19 infection; however, when prospectively evaluated, significant improvement is evident in the parameters measured by these two methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiopathology , Oscillometry , Ultrasonography , COVID-19/pathology , Cost of Illness , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Male , Respiration , Spirometry , Vital Capacity
7.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 136, 2021 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511742

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: All over the world, SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is causing a significant short-term morbidity and mortality, but the medium-term impact on lung function and quality of life of affected patients are still unknown. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, 39 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were recruited from a single COVID-19 hospital in Southern Switzerland. At three months patients underwent radiological and functional follow-up through CT scan, lung function tests, and 6 min walking test. Furthermore, quality of life was assessed through self-reported questionnaires. RESULTS: Among 39 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, 32 (82% of all participants) presented abnormalities in CT scan and 25 (64.1%) had lung function tests impairment at three months. Moreover, 31 patients (79.5%) reported a perception of poor health due to respiratory symptoms and all 39 patients showed an overall decreased quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Medium-term follow up at three months of patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia shows the persistence of abnormalities in CT scans, a significant functional impairment assessed by lung function tests and a decreased quality of life in affected patients. Further studies evaluating the long-term impact are warranted to guarantee an appropriate follow-up to patients recovering from SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Quality of Life , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Convalescence , Female , Forced Expiratory Volume , Health Status , Humans , Length of Stay , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity , Recovery of Function , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vital Capacity , Walk Test
8.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(12): e14961, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483892

ABSTRACT

AIM: We aimed to investigate the effect of short-term pirfenidone treatment on prolonged COVID-19 pneumonia. METHOD: Hospital files of patients hospitalised with a diagnosis of critical COVID-19 pneumonia from November 2020 to March 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Chest computed tomography images taken both before treatment and 2 months after treatment, demographic characteristics and laboratory parameters of patients receiving pirfenidone + methylprednisolone (n = 13) and only methylprednisolones (n = 9) were recorded. Pulmonary function tests were performed after the second month of the treatment. CT involvement rates were determined by machine learning. RESULTS: A total of 22 patients, 13 of whom (59.1%) were using methylprednisolone + pirfenidone and 9 of whom (40.9%) were using only methylprednisolone were included. When the blood gas parameters and pulmonary function tests of the patients were compared at the end of the second month, it was found that the FEV1, FEV1%, FVC and FVC% values were statistically significantly higher in the methylprednisolone + pirfenidone group compared with the methylprednisolone group (P = .025, P = .012, P = .026 and P = .017, respectively). When the rates of change in CT scans at diagnosis and second month of treatment were examined, it was found that the involvement rates in the methylprednisolone + pirfenidone group were statistically significantly decreased (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Antifibrotic agents can reduce fibrosis that may develop in the future. These can also help dose reduction and/or non-use strategy for methylprednisolone therapy, which has many side effects. Further large series and randomised controlled studies are needed on this subject.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Artificial Intelligence , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Vital Capacity
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374388

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common, progressive, irreversible muscular dystrophy. Pulmonary function is crucial for duration of life in this disease. Currently, the European Respiratory Society is focused on digital health, seeking innovations that will be realistic for digital respiratory medicine to support professionals and patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to monitor pulmonary function at home using an individual electronic spirometry system in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this observational, prospective study, conducted from March 2021 to June 2021, twenty boys with DMD (aged 8-16) were enrolled. The patients were recruited from the Rare Disease Centre, University Clinical Centre, of Gdansk, Poland. Medical history and anthropometric data were collected, and spirometry (Jaeger, Germany) was performed in all patients at the start of the study. Each patient received an electronic individual spirometer (AioCare) and was asked to perform spirometry on their own every day, morning and evening, at home for a period of 4 weeks. The number of measurements, correctness of performing measurements, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were evaluated. RESULTS: Finally, 14 out of 20 boys enrolled in the study with a mean age of 12.5 years (7 non-ambulatory) applied and received a home spirometer (AioCare). A total of 283 measurements were performed by all patients at home for 4 weeks. Half of the patients were able to perform measurements correctly. There were no significant differences between mean values of FVC, FE1, PEF between home and hospital spirometry (p > 0.05) expect PEF pv% (p < 0.00046). Patients with higher FEV1 (p = 0.0387) and lower BMI (p = 0.0494) were more likely to take home spirometer measurements. The mean general satisfaction rating of home-spirometry was 4.33/5 (SD 0.78), the mean intelligibility rating was 4.83/5 (SD 0.58). Reasons for irregular measurements were: forgetting (43%), lack of motivation (29%), difficulty (14%), lack of time (14%). CONCLUSION: Home electronic monitoring of pulmonary function in patients with DMD is possible to implement in daily routines at home. This protocol should be introduced as early as possible in patients 7-8 years old with good, preserved lung function. Patients accept this form of medical care but require more education about the benefits of e-monitoring. There is a need to implement a system to remind patients of the use of electronic medical devices at home, e.g., via SMS (short message service).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne , Child , Humans , Lung , Male , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spirometry , Vital Capacity
10.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 237, 2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371969

ABSTRACT

Follow-up studies of COVID-19 patients have found lung function impairment up to six months after initial infection, but small airway function has not previously been studied. Patients (n = 20) hospitalised for a severe SARS-CoV-2 infection underwent spirometry, impulse oscillometry, and multiple measurements of alveolar nitric oxide three to six months after acute infection. None of the patients had small airway obstruction, nor increased nitric oxide concentration in the alveolar level. None of the patients had a reduced FEV1/FVC or significant bronchodilator responses in IOS or spirometry. In conclusion, we found no evidence of inflammation or dysfunction in the small airways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Female , Finland , Follow-Up Studies , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Pulmonary Alveoli/metabolism , Respiratory Function Tests , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Spirometry , Survivors , Vital Capacity
12.
Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener ; 22(sup1): 22-32, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343596

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Vital capacity (VC) is routinely used for ALS clinical trial eligibility determinations, often to exclude patients unlikely to survive trial duration. However, spirometry has been limited by the COVID-19 pandemic. We developed a machine-learning survival model without the use of baseline VC and asked whether it could stratify clinical trial participants and a wider ALS clinic population. Methods. A gradient boosting machine survival model lacking baseline VC (VC-Free) was trained using the PRO-ACT ALS database and compared to a multivariable model that included VC (VCI) and a univariable baseline %VC model (UNI). Discrimination, calibration-in-the-large and calibration slope were quantified. Models were validated using 10-fold internal cross validation, the VITALITY-ALS clinical trial placebo arm and data from the Emory University tertiary care clinic. Simulations were performed using each model to estimate survival of patients predicted to have a > 50% one year survival probability. Results. The VC-Free model suffered a minor performance decline compared to the VCI model yet retained strong discrimination for stratifying ALS patients. Both models outperformed the UNI model. The proportion of excluded vs. included patients who died through one year was on average 27% vs. 6% (VCI), 31% vs. 7% (VC-Free), and 13% vs. 10% (UNI). Conclusions. The VC-Free model offers an alternative to the use of VC for eligibility determinations during the COVID-19 pandemic. The observation that the VC-Free model outperforms the use of VC in a broad ALS patient population suggests the use of prognostic strata in future, post-pandemic ALS clinical trial eligibility screening determinations.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , COVID-19 , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/epidemiology , Humans , Machine Learning , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vital Capacity
13.
Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener ; 22(sup1): 5-8, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343595

ABSTRACT

Objective: To measure the correlation between single breath counting (SBC) and forced vital capacity (liters, FVCL) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and to define the utility of SBC for determining when patients meet the threshold for initiation of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (FVC < 50% predicted [FVCpred]). Methods: Both patient paced (SBCpp) or externally paced (SBCep) counting along with FVCL+pred and standard clinical data were collected. Linear regression was used to examine SBCpp and SBCep as a predictor of FVCL. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of SBC categorically predicting FVCpred of ≤50%. Results: In 30 ALS patients, SBC explained a moderate proportion of the variance in FVCL (SBCpp: R2= 0.431, p < 0.001; SBCep: R2 = 0.511, p < 0.01); this proportion improved when including covariates (SBCpp: R2= 0.635, p < 0.01; SBCep: R2= 0.657, p < 0.01). Patients with minimal speech involvement performed similarly in unadjusted (SBCpp: R2 = 0.511, p < 0.01; SBCep: R2= 0.595, p < 0.01) and adjusted (SBCpp: R2 = 0.634, p < 0.01; SBCep: R2= 0.650, p < 0.01) models. SBCpp had 100% sensitivity and 60% specificity (area under curve (AUC) = 0.696) for predicting FVCpred <50%. SBCep had 100% sensitivity and 56% specificity (AUC = 0.696). With minimal speech involvement SBCpp and SBCep both had 100% sensitivity and 76.1% specificity (SPCpp: AUC = 0.845; SBCep: AUC = 0.857). Conclusions: SBC explains a moderate proportion of variance in FVC and is an extremely sensitive marker of poor FVC. When FVC cannot be obtained, such as during the current COVID-19 pandemic, SBC is helpful in directing patient care.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , COVID-19 , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vital Capacity
14.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327682

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The National Health Service for England Long Term Plan identifies respiratory disease as one of its priority workstreams. To assist with earlier and more accurate diagnosis of lung disease they recommend improvement in delivery of quality-assured spirometry. However, there is a likelihood that patients will present with abnormal gas exchange when spirometry results are normal and therefore there will be a proportion of patients whose time to diagnosis is still protracted. We wished to determine the incidence rate of this occurring within our Trust. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients attending the lung function laboratory for their first pulmonary function assessment from June 2006 to December 2020 was undertaken. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) >-1.64 standardised residual (SR) was used to confirm no obstructive lung function abnormality and FVC >-1.64 SR to confirm no suggestion of a restrictive lung function abnormality. Lung gas transfer for carbon monoxide (TLCO) and transfer coefficient of the lung for carbon monoxide (KCO) <-1.64 SR confirmed the presence of a gas exchange abnormality. Spirometry and gas transfer reference values generated by the Global Lung Initiative were used to determine normality. RESULTS: Of 12 835 eligible first visits with normal FEV1/FVC and FVC, 4856 (37.8%) were identified as having an abnormally low TLCO and 3302 (25.7%) presenting with an abnormally low KCO. Of 3494 with FEV1/FVC SR <-1.64, 3316 also had a ratio of <0.70, meaning 178 (5%) of patients in this cohort would have been misclassified as having obstructive lung disease using the 0.70 cut-off recommended by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease for diagnosing obstructive lung disease. DISCUSSION: In conclusion, to assist with ensuring more accurate and timely diagnosis of lung disease and enhance patients' diagnostic pathway, we recommend the performance of lung gas transfer measurements alongside spirometry in all healthcare settings. To assess and monitor gas transfer at the earliest opportunity we recommend this is implemented into new models being developed within community hubs. This will increase the identification of lung function abnormalities and provide patients with a definitive diagnosis earlier.


Subject(s)
Lung , State Medicine , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Vital Capacity
15.
Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener ; 23(1-2): 76-80, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258723

ABSTRACT

Forced vital capacity (FVC) is an essential respiratory measurement for assessment and monitoring of patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Our clinic rapidly implemented remote assessment of FVC after COVID-19 related restrictions on respiratory testing were imposed, using mini-spirometers and video consultation. We sought to evaluate the patient's experiences of performing remote respiratory assessments to guide future development and optimisation of the service. Twenty-five patients completed surveys. The mean age was 65.2 years and average time from diagnosis was 17.04 (2-99) months. Seventy-two percent (n = 18) required help from a caregiver to perform the tests. Ninety-two percent (n = 23) of patients reported that overall, they were satisfied and were happy to continue with remote respiratory assessment. Reducing the number of clinic visits for review and assessment was valued by 92% (n = 23) and reducing the risk associated with COVID-19 was valued by 96% (n = 24). The highest frequency reported as acceptable for performing the remote breathing assessments was monthly (60%, n = 15), followed by every second month (28%, n = 7). Remote respiratory testing is viewed positively by patients. These technologies used in combination with video-consultations and other novel forms of remote monitoring implemented in response to the COVID-19 crisis will continue to be valuable tools for clinical care in future. However, further evaluation of the validity of remote respiratory assessment is required.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Aged , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/diagnosis , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vital Capacity
16.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 164, 2021 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247590

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are at increased risk of poor outcome from Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Early data suggest elevated Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression, but relationships to disease phenotype and downstream regulators of inflammation in the Renin-Angiotensin system (RAS) are unknown. We aimed to determine the relationship between RAS gene expression relevant to SARS-CoV-2 infection in the lung with disease characteristics in COPD, and the regulation of newly identified SARS-CoV-2 receptors and spike-cleaving proteases, important for SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We quantified gene expression using RNA sequencing of epithelial brushings and bronchial biopsies from 31 COPD and 37 control subjects. RESULTS: ACE2 gene expression (log2-fold change (FC)) was increased in COPD compared to ex-smoking (HV-ES) controls in epithelial brushings (0.25, p = 0.042) and bronchial biopsies (0.23, p = 0.050), and correlated with worse lung function (r = - 0.28, p = 0.0090). ACE2 was further increased in frequent exacerbators compared to infrequent exacerbators (0.51, p = 0.00045) and associated with use of ACE inhibitors (ACEi) (0.50, p = 0.0034), having cardiovascular disease (0.23, p = 0.048) or hypertension (0.34, p = 0.0089), and inhaled corticosteroid use in COPD subjects in bronchial biopsies (0.33, p = 0.049). Angiotensin II receptor type (AGTR)1 and 2 expression was decreased in COPD bronchial biopsies compared to HV-ES controls with log2FC of -0.26 (p = 0.033) and - 0.40, (p = 0.0010), respectively. However, the AGTR1:2 ratio was increased in COPD subjects compared with HV-ES controls, log2FC of 0.57 (p = 0.0051). Basigin, a newly identified potential SARS-CoV-2 receptor was also upregulated in both brushes, log2FC of 0.17 (p = 0.0040), and bronchial biopsies, (log2FC of 0.18 (p = 0.017), in COPD vs HV-ES. Transmembrane protease, serine (TMPRSS)2 was not differentially regulated between control and COPD. However, various other spike-cleaving proteases were, including TMPRSS4 and Cathepsin B, in both epithelial brushes (log2FC of 0.25 (p = 0.0012) and log2FC of 0.56 (p = 5.49E-06), respectively) and bronchial biopsies (log2FC of 0.49 (p = 0.00021) and log2FC of 0.246 (p = 0.028), respectively). CONCLUSION: This study identifies key differences in expression of genes related to susceptibility and aetiology of COVID-19 within the COPD lung. Further studies to understand the impact on clinical course of disease are now required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Lung/metabolism , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Transcriptome , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Basigin/genetics , Basigin/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Forced Expiratory Volume , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/metabolism , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/genetics , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2/genetics , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2/metabolism , Vital Capacity
17.
Respir Med ; 184: 106470, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230755

ABSTRACT

Patients recovering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may not return to a pre-COVID functional status and baseline levels of healthcare needs after discharge from acute care hospitals. Since the long-term outcomes of COVID-19 can be more severe in patients with underlying cardiorespiratory diseases, we aimed at verifying the impact of a preexisting cardiorespiratory comorbidity on multidisciplinary rehabilitation in post-COVID-19 patients. We enrolled 95 consecutive patients referring to the Pulmonary Rehabilitation Unit of Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri Spa SB, IRCCS of Telese Terme, Benevento, Italy after being discharged from the COVID-19 acute care ward and after recovering from acute COVID-19 pneumonia. Forty-nine of them were not suffering from underlying comorbidities, while 46 had a preexisting cardiorespiratory disease. Rehabilitation induced statistically significant improvements in respiratory function, blood gases and the ability to exercise both in patients without any preexisting comorbidities and in those with an underlying cardiorespiratory disease. Response to the rehabilitation cycle tended to be greater in those without preexisting comorbidities, but DLco%-predicted was the only parameter that showed a significant greater improvement when compared to the response in the group of patients with underlying cardiorespiratory comorbidity. This study suggests that multidisciplinary rehabilitation may be useful in post-COVID-19 patients regardless of the presence of preexisting cardiorespiratory comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Interdisciplinary Communication , Patient Care Team , Rehabilitation/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Carbon Monoxide/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Vital Capacity , Walk Test
18.
Respir Med ; 184: 106435, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230751

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Lung function in survivors of SARS-Co-V2 pneumonia is poorly known, but concern over the possibility of sequelae exists. METHODS: Retrospective study on survivors with confirmed infection and pneumonia on chest-CT. Correlations between PFT and residual radiologic anomalies at three months taking into account initial clinical and radiological severity and steroid use during acute phase. RESULTS: 137 patients (69 men, median age 59 (Q1 50; Q3 68), BMI 27.5 kg/m2 (25.1; 31.7)) were assessed. Only 32.9% had normal PFT, 75 had altered DLCO. Median (Q1; Q3) values were: VC 79 (66; 92) % pred, FEV1 81 (68; 89), TLC 78 (67; 85), DLCO 60 (44; 72), and KCO 89 (77; 105). Ground glass opacities (GGO) were present in 103 patients (75%), reticulations in 42 (30%), and fibrosis in 18 (13%). There were significantly lower FEV1 (p = 0.0089), FVC (p = 0.0010), TLC (p < 0.0001) and DLCO (p < 0.0001) for patients with GGO, lower TLC (p = 0.0913) and DLCO (p = 0.0181) between patients with reticulations and lower FVC (p = 0.0618), TLC (p = 0.0742) DLCO (p = 0.002) and KCO (p = 0.0114) between patients with fibrosis. Patients with initial ≥50% lung involvement had significantly lower FEV1 (p = 0.0019), FVC (p = 0.0033), TLC (p = 0.0028) and DLCO (p = 0.0003) compared to patients with ≤10%. There was no difference in PFT and residual CT lesions between patients who received steroids and those who did not. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients have altered PFT at three months, even in patients with mild initial disease, with significantly lower function in patients with residual CT lesions. Steroids do not seem to modify functional and radiological recovery. Long-term follow-up is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Forced Expiratory Volume , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Vital Capacity , Female , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Radiography, Thoracic , Respiratory Function Tests , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 187: 113329, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230376

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a severe acute respiratory syndrome infection has spread rapidly across the world since its emergence in 2019 and drastically altered our way of life. Patients who have recovered from COVID-19 may still face persisting respiratory damage from the virus, necessitating long-term supervision after discharge to closely assess pulmonary function during rehabilitation. Therefore, developing portable spirometers for pulmonary function tests is of great significance for convenient home-based monitoring during recovery. Here, we propose a wireless, portable pulmonary function monitor for rehabilitation care after COVID-19. It is composed of a breath-to-electrical (BTE) sensor, a signal processing circuit, and a Bluetooth communication unit. The BTE sensor, with a compact size and light weight of 2.5 cm3 and 1.8 g respectively, is capable of converting respiratory biomechanical motions into considerable electrical signals. The output signal stability is greater than 93% under 35%-81% humidity, which allows for ideal expiration airflow sensing. Through a wireless communication circuit system, the signals can be received by a mobile terminal and processed into important physiological parameters, such as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). The FEV1/FVC ratio is then calculated to further evaluate pulmonary function of testers. Through these measurement methods, the acquired pulmonary function parameters are shown to exhibit high accuracy (>97%) in comparison to a commercial spirometer. The practical design of the self-powered flow spirometer presents a low-cost and convenient method for pulmonary function monitoring during rehabilitation from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spirometry , Vital Capacity
20.
Respiration ; 100(7): 594-599, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The 6-minute walk test (6MWT), as a clinical assessment tool for functional exercise capacity, is an integral component of lung allocation scores (LASs). In times of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, patients underwent 6MWTs wearing a surgical mask in ambulatory care. We investigated the impact of wearing a mask on 6-minute walk distances (6MWDs). METHOD: 6MWDs of 64 patients with end-stage lung diseases wearing an oronasal surgical mask were retrospectively compared to previously investigated 6MWDs of the same cohort, in a pre-COVID-19 pandemic era, without wearing a mask. Four patients were excluded due to a primary vascular disease, 29 patients due to clinically unstable pulmonary functions, and 1 patient due to a psychiatric disorder. RESULTS: The median age of the patients included was 55 (46-58) years; 15 (48%) were male. Ten (32.2%) were on the Eurotransplant lung transplant waiting list with a median LAS of 34.3 (31.9-36.2). Twenty (64.5%) patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, 7 (22.6%) had interstitial lung diseases, and 4 (12.9%) had other end-stage lung diseases. The mean 6MWD without versus with wearing a mask was 306.9 (101.9) versus 305.7 (103.8) m, with a mean difference of -1.19 m (95% confidence interval -13.4 to 11.03). The observed difference is statistically equivalent to zero (p < 0.001). No significant differences in 6MWDs were observed between the clinical groups. CONCLUSION: Wearing an oronasal surgical mask did not affect the 6MWDs of patients with advanced lung diseases. Therefore, a masked 6MWT appears to provide a reliable examination of functional exercise capacity in this cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Masks , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Walk Test/methods , Blood Gas Analysis , Chronic Disease , Exercise Tolerance , Female , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/surgery , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/surgery , Lung Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Minimal Clinically Important Difference , Plethysmography, Whole Body , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/surgery , Reproducibility of Results , Respiratory Insufficiency/surgery , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vital Capacity
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