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1.
Gac Med Mex ; 158(1): 31-35, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1791411

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: One of the functions of vitamin D is to regulate respiratory epithelium inflammatory response; therefore, deficiency of this vitamin in the context of COVID-19 could constitute a predictive biomarker of the disease outcome. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of vitamin D for predicting mortality in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Observational, retrospective study in which 154 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were included, out of whom 111 survived and 43 died. Vitamin D concentration was determined in all of them. RESULTS: A log-rank p-value < 0.032 was obtained for survival when vitamin D concentration was used as a categorical variable (≤ 20 ng/mL and > 20 ng/mL). On Cox proportional analysis, age and vitamin D concentration were shown to be risk factors associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 (age: HR = 1.036, 95% CI = 1.016-1.058, p < 0.001; vitamin D: HR (≤ 20 ng/mL and > 20 ng/mL) = 0.478, 95% CI = 0.237-0.966, p < 0.040). CONCLUSION: Age and vitamin D concentration were predictive factors for mortality in COVID-19-infected patients.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Una de las funciones de la vitamina D es regular la respuesta inflamatoria del epitelio respiratorio; por ello, la deficiencia de esa vitamina en el contexto de COVID-19 podría constituir un biomarcador preditivo del desenlace de COVID-19. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la utilidad de la vitamina D para predecir la mortalidad en pacientes con COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional y retrospectivo en el que se incluyeron 154 pacientes con diagnóstico de COVID-19, de los cuales 111 sobrevivieron y 43 fallecieron. En todos se determinó la concentración de vitamina D. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvo un valor log-rank de p < 0.032 para la supervivencia al utilizar la concentración de vitamina D como variable categórica (≤ 20 ng/mL y > 20 ng/mL). Mediante análisis proporcional de Cox se encontró que la edad y concentración de vitamina D mostraron ser factores de riesgo asociados a la mortalidad en pacientes con COVID-19 (edad: HR = 1.036, IC 95 % = 1.016-1.058, p < 0.001; vitamina D: HR ≤ 20 ng/mL y > 20 ng/mL = 0.478, IC 95 % = 0.237-0.966, p < 0.040). CONCLUSIÓN: La edad y la concentración de vitamina D constituyeron factores predictivos de mortalidad en pacientes infectados por COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamins
3.
Nutrients ; 14(6)2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742565

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D deficiency is the main cause of nutritional rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. There is consensus that nutritional access to vitamin D can be estimated by measuring serum concentrations of 25OHD and vitamin D deficiency can thus be considered as calcifediol deficiency. However, the threshold for vitamin D/calcifediol sufficiency remains a matter of debate. Vitamin D/calcifediol deficiency has been associated with musculoskeletal effects but also multiple adverse extra-skeletal consequences. If these consequences improve or if they can be treated with vitamin D supplementation is still unclear. Observational studies suggest a higher infection risk in people with low calcifediol levels. There is also a consistent association between serum calcifediol and cardiovascular events and deaths, but large-scale, long-term intervention studies did not show any benefit on cardiovascular outcomes from supplementation, at least not in subjects without clear vitamin D deficiency. Cancer risk also did not change with vitamin D treatment, although there are some data that higher serum calcifediol is associated with longer survival in cancer patients. In pregnant women, vitamin D supplementation decreases the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, and low birth weight. Although preclinical studies showed that the vitamin D endocrine system plays a role in certain neural cells as well as brain structure and function, there is no evidence to support a beneficial effect of vitamin D in neurodegenerative diseases. Vitamin D supplementation may marginally affect overall mortality risk especially in elderly subjects with low serum calcifediol concentrations.


Subject(s)
Calcifediol , Vitamin D Deficiency , Aged , Calcifediol/therapeutic use , Child , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy
4.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 23(2): 293-297, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718863

ABSTRACT

Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) are at high risk for adverse outcomes with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Further, COVID-19 infection is associated with numerous cardiovascular (CV) complications including arrhythmia, myocardial injury, cardiomyopathy, and thrombotic events. Increased susceptibility to COVID-19 and CV complications related to COVID-19 may be in part related to immune dysregulation and inflammation associated with CV disease which is exacerbated with viral infection. Vitamin D plays a major role in immune function and exerts anti-inflammatory effects, which may prove important in the context of CVD and COVID-19. To date, studies have shown minimal benefit for vitamin D supplementation in patients with COVID-19, though there are no studies specific to patients with CVD and related complications. Further, given that vitamin D has important protective effects on the CV system, including augmentation of myocardial contractility and anti-thrombotic effects, it is unknown if supplementation with vitamin D can mitigate CVD complications associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Vitamin D Deficiency , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Vitamin D/physiology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use
5.
J Med Food ; 25(2): 130-137, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684476

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has become a global infectious pandemic affecting the entire world with complications related to the lungs and compromised immune systems. Recently, cytokine storms, which are hallmarks of the disease, have been identified in most COVID-19 patients. In addition, vitamin D deficiency is increasingly appearing to be another element exposing COVID-19 patients to a preferential increase in their symptoms. In an effort to identify a possible link between cytokine storms and vitamin D deficiency to streamline a possible treatment, an in silico analysis using bioinformatics approach was performed using collections of highly expressed cytokines in both severe acute respiratory syndrome and COVID-19 patients (commonly elevated cytokines) as well as vitamin D deficiency-associated genes (VD). Gene Multiple Association Network Integration Algorithm was used for network interactions, whereas the Enrichr enrichment analysis tool was used for biological functions. The network analysis GLay clustering results indicated the vitamin D receptor as a possible link between these two groups. Furthermore, cell chemotaxis and chemotactic-related features were identified as significantly affected pathways, which serve as possible key players mitigating cytokine storms under low vitamin D availability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/genetics
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 313-318, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633747

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There is no consensus on specific serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH) D) levels associated with higher risk of severe outcome in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). According to the literature patients with serum 25(OH) D levels <12 ng/ml are clearly deficient at all ages. Our aim was to assess COVID-19 mortality in the settings of severe 25(OH) D deficiency. A cohort study of 357 patients with COVID-19 was conducted. Subjects were monitored until discharge or in-hospital death. At admission, severity parameters (C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, Charlson comorbidity index, etc.) were assessed. These parameters were compared regarding 25(OH) D levels threshold 12 ng/ml, where values below 12 ng/ml were considered absolute vitamin D deficiency. RESULTS: 25(OH) D levels at the time of admission were independently associated with mortality (p <0.05). Nonsurvivors (N = 168) had lower 25(OH) D levels, SO2, higher age, CRP, viral load, and Charlson comorbidity index in comparison to survivors. Patients with serum 25(OH) D levels <12 ng/ml had higher mortality (55% vs 45 %), viral load (21.5 vs 23.1), and Charlson comorbidity index (5.3 vs 4.4) than those with serum 25(OH) D levels >12 ng/ml (p <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 with serum 25(OH) D levels <12 ng/ml have higher mortality. Among other factors, severe vitamin D deficiency likely leads to poor outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications
7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(5): 1484-1502, 2022 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566540

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency may increase the susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to determine the association between vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and susceptibility to COVID-19, its severity, mortality, and role of vitamin D in its treatment. METHODS: We searched CINAHL, Cochrane library, EMBASE, PubMED, Scopus, and Web of Science up to May 30, 2021, for observational studies on association between vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and susceptibility to COVID-19, severe disease, and death among adults, and, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing vitamin D treatment against standard care or placebo, in improving severity or mortality among adults with COVID-19. Risk of bias was assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa scale for observational studies and AUB-KQ1 Cochrane tool for RCTs. Study-level data were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 and R (v4.1.0). Heterogeneity was determined by I2 and sources were explored through prespecified sensitivity analyses, subgroup analyses, and meta-regressions. RESULTS: Of 1877 search results, 76 studies satisfying eligibility criteria were included. Seventy-two observational studies were included in the meta-analysis (n = 1 976 099). Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency increased the odds of developing COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] 1.46; 95% CI, 1.28-1.65; P < 0.0001; I2 = 92%), severe disease (OR 1.90; 95% CI, 1.52-2.38; P < 0.0001; I2 = 81%), and death (OR 2.07; 95% CI, 1.28-3.35; P = 0.003; I2 = 73%). The 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations were lower in individuals with COVID-19 compared with controls (mean difference [MD] -3.85 ng/mL; 95% CI, -5.44 to -2.26; P ≤ 0.0001), in patients with severe COVID-19 compared with controls with nonsevere COVID-19 (MD -4.84 ng/mL; 95% CI, -7.32 to -2.35; P = 0.0001) and in nonsurvivors compared with survivors (MD -4.80 ng/mL; 95% CI, -7.89 to -1.71; P = 0.002). The association between vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and death was insignificant when studies with high risk of bias or studies reporting unadjusted effect estimates were excluded. Risk of bias and heterogeneity were high across all analyses. Discrepancies in timing of vitamin D testing, definitions of severe COVID-19, and vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency partly explained the heterogeneity. Four RCTs were widely heterogeneous precluding meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: Multiple observational studies involving nearly 2 million adults suggest vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency increases susceptibility to COVID-19 and severe COVID-19, although with a high risk of bias and heterogeneity. Association with mortality was less robust. Heterogeneity in RCTs precluded their meta-analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Adult , Humans , Prognosis , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamins/therapeutic use
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6605-6610, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544306

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We have previously demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency might be associated with worse outcomes in hospitalized Covid-19 patients. The aim of our study was to explore this relationship with dexamethasone therapy. METHODS: We prospectively studied two cohorts of hospitalized Covid-19 patients between March and April and between September and December 2020 (n = 192). Patients were tested for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) levels during admission. The first cohort not treated with dexamethasone (n = 107) was divided into vitamin D deficient (25-OH-D ≤ 30 nmol/L) (n = 47) and replete subgroups (25-OH-D > 30 nmol/L) (n = 60). The second cohort treated with dexamethasone (n = 85) was similarly divided into deficient (25-OH-D ≤ 30 nmol/L) (n = 27) and replete subgroups (25-OH-D > 30 nmol/L) (n = 58). Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality and secondary outcomes were elevation in markers of cytokine storm and ventilatory requirement. RESULTS: No mortality difference was identified between cohorts and subgroups. The "no dexamethasone" cohort 25-OH-D deplete subgroup recorded significantly higher peak D-Dimer levels (1874 vs. 1233 µgFEU/L) (p = 0.0309), CRP (177 vs. 107.5) (p = 0.0055), and ventilatory support requirement (25.5% vs. 6.67%) (p = 0.007) compared to the replete subgroup. Among the 25-OH-D deplete subgroup higher peak neutrophil counts, peak CRP, peak LDH, peak ferritin, and lower trough lymphocyte counts were observed, without statistical significance. In the "dexamethasone" cohort, there was no apparent association between 25-OH-D deficiency and markers of cytokine storm or ventilatory requirement. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with elevated markers of cytokine storm and higher ventilatory requirements in hospitalized Covid-19 patients. Dexamethasone treatment appears to mitigate adverse effects of vitamin D deficiency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokines/blood , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood
9.
Biomolecules ; 11(11)2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502359

ABSTRACT

Immune cells, including dendritic cells, macrophages, and T and B cells, express the vitamin D receptor and 1α-hydroxylase. In vitro studies have shown that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, the active form of vitamin D, has an anti-inflammatory effect. Recent epidemiological evidence has indicated a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased incidence, or aggravation, of infectious diseases and inflammatory autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis. However, the impact of vitamin D on treatment and prevention, particularly in infectious diseases such as the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), remains controversial. Here, we review recent evidence associated with the relationship between vitamin D and inflammatory diseases and describe the underlying immunomodulatory effect of vitamin D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immune System/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Animals , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/prevention & control , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/prevention & control , Macrophages/immunology , Mice , Monocytes/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/prevention & control , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics , Receptors, Calcitriol/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications
10.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(11): e4708-e4715, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484819

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: One risk factor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is postulated to be vitamin D deficiency. To better understand the role of vitamin D deficiency in the disease course of COVID-19, we undertook a retrospective case-control study in North West England. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether hospitalization with COVID-19 is more prevalent in individuals with lower vitamin D levels. METHODS: The study included individuals with test results for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) between April 1, 2020, and January 29, 2021, from 2 districts in North West England. The last 25(OH)D level in the previous 12 months was categorized as "deficient" if less than 25 nmol/L and "insufficient" if 25 to 50 nmol/L. RESULTS: The study included 80 670 participants. Of these, 1808 were admitted to the hospital with COVID-19, of whom 670 died. In a primary cohort, median serum 25(OH)D in nonhospitalized participants with COVID-19 was 50.0 nmol/L (interquartile range [IQR], 34.0-66.7) vs 35.0 nmol/L (IQR, 21.0-57.0) in those admitted with COVID-19 (P < 0.005). In a validation cohort, median serum 25(OH)D was 47.1 nmol/L (IQR, 31.8-64.7) in nonhospitalized vs 33.0 nmol/L (IQR, 19.4-54.1) in hospitalized patients. Age-, sex-, and season-adjusted odds ratios for hospital admission were 2.3 to 2.4 times higher among participants with serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L compared with those with normal serum 25(OH)D levels, without excess mortality risk. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with higher risk of COVID-19 hospitalization. Widespread measurement of serum 25(OH)D and treatment of insufficiency or deficiency may reduce this risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e055435, 2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480255

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The steroid hormone vitamin D has roles in immunomodulation and bone health. Insufficiency is associated with susceptibility to respiratory infections. We report 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) measurements in hospitalised people with COVID-19 and influenza A and in survivors of critical illness to test the hypotheses that vitamin D insufficiency scales with illness severity and persists in survivors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Plasma was obtained from 295 hospitalised people with COVID-19 (International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infections Consortium (ISARIC)/WHO Clinical Characterization Protocol for Severe Emerging Infections UK study), 93 with influenza A (Mechanisms of Severe Acute Influenza Consortium (MOSAIC) study, during the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic) and 139 survivors of non-selected critical illness (prior to the COVID-19 pandemic). Total 25(OH)D was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Free 25(OH)D was measured by ELISA in COVID-19 samples. OUTCOME MEASURES: Receipt of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Vitamin D insufficiency (total 25(OH)D 25-50 nmol/L) and deficiency (<25 nmol/L) were prevalent in COVID-19 (29.3% and 44.4%, respectively), influenza A (47.3% and 37.6%) and critical illness survivors (30.2% and 56.8%). In COVID-19 and influenza A, total 25(OH)D measured early in illness was lower in patients who received IMV (19.6 vs 31.9 nmol/L (p<0.0001) and 22.9 vs 31.1 nmol/L (p=0.0009), respectively). In COVID-19, biologically active free 25(OH)D correlated with total 25(OH)D and was lower in patients who received IMV, but was not associated with selected circulating inflammatory mediators. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency was present in majority of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 or influenza A and correlated with severity and persisted in critical illness survivors at concentrations expected to disrupt bone metabolism. These findings support early supplementation trials to determine if insufficiency is causal in progression to severe disease, and investigation of longer-term bone health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Vitamin D Deficiency , Critical Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
13.
Endocrine ; 74(2): 219-225, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypocalcemia has been identified as a major distinctive feature of COVID-19, predicting poor clinical outcomes. Among the mechanisms underlying this biochemical finding, high prevalence of vitamin D (VD) deficiency in COVID-19 patients reported so far in several studies was advocated. However, robust data in favor of this hypothesis are still lacking. Therefore, aim of our study was to investigate the role of hypovitaminosis D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the development of hypocalcemia in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Patients admitted to IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele for COVID-19 were enrolled in this study, excluding those with comorbidities and therapies influencing calcium and VD metabolism. Serum levels of total calcium (tCa), ionized calcium (Ca2+), 25-OH-VD, and PTH were evaluated at admission. We defined VD deficiency as VD below 20 ng/mL, hypocalcemia as tCa below 2.2 mmol/L or as Ca2+ below 1.18 mmol/L, and hyperparathyroidism as PTH above 65 pg/mL. RESULTS: A total of 78 patients were included in the study. Median tCa and Ca2+ levels were 2.15 and 1.15 mmol/L, respectively. Total and ionized hypocalcemia were observed in 53 (67.9%) and 55 (70.5%) patients, respectively. VD deficiency was found in 67.9% of patients, but secondary hyperparathyroidism was detected in 20.5% of them, only. tCa levels were significantly lower in patients with VD deficiency and regression analyses showed a positive correlation between VD and tCa. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we confirmed a high prevalence of hypocalcemia in COVID-19 patients and we showed for the first time that it occurred largely in the context of marked hypovitaminosis D not adequately compensated by secondary hyperparathyroidism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary , Hypocalcemia , Parathyroid Hormone/physiology , Vitamin D Deficiency , COVID-19/complications , Calcium , Humans , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/epidemiology , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/virology , Hypocalcemia/epidemiology , Hypocalcemia/virology , Italy , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
14.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 122(10): 744-747, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects via the downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We aimed to demonstrate the effect of vitamin D levels on survival in COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 207 COVID-19 patients were included in the study. Serum vitamin D levels were measured, and patients with levels <20 ng/ml or 21 to 30 ng received a single 300.000 IU dose of vitamin D. RESULTS: Of 207 patients, 37 received vitamin D, while 170 did not. Demographic, radiologic and mean laboratory values were similar between the groups. The mean plasma vitamin D level without vitamin D support (n=170) was 50.82±16.12 ng/ml (30.28-81.35) vs. 16.98±6.2 ng/ml (4.20-28.30) in vitamin D group. The most remarkable finding were the mortality rates; while only 1 patient (2.7 %) died in the vitamin D group, 24 patients (14.1 %) died in no vitamin D supplementation group (p=0.038). CONCLUSION: Although a few retrospective studies put forth a relation between vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 course severity there is still paucity of data about the efficacy of vitamin supplementations in COVID-19 patients. A single 300.000 IU dose of vitamin D seems to represent a useful, practical, and safe adjunctive approach for the treatment or prevention of COVID-19 (Tab. 1, Fig. 1, Ref. 30).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409707

ABSTRACT

Global data correlate severe vitamin D deficiency with COVID-19-associated coagulopathy, further suggesting the presence of a hypercoagulable state in severe COVID-19 patients, which could promote thrombosis in the lungs and in other organs. The feedback loop between COVID-19-associated coagulopathy and vitamin D also involves platelets (PLTs), since vitamin D deficiency stimulates PLT activation and aggregation and increases fibrinolysis and thrombosis. Vitamin D and PLTs share and play specific roles not only in coagulation and thrombosis but also during inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and immune response. Additionally, another 'fil rouge' between vitamin D and PLTs is represented by their role in mineral metabolism and bone health, since vitamin D deficiency, low PLT count, and altered PLT-related parameters are linked to abnormal bone remodeling in certain pathological conditions, such as osteoporosis (OP). Hence, it is possible to speculate that severe COVID-19 patients are characterized by the presence of several predisposing factors to bone fragility and OP that may be monitored to avoid potential complications. Here, we hypothesize different pervasive actions of vitamin D and PLT association in COVID-19, also allowing for potential preliminary information on bone health status during COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Osteoporosis/immunology , Thrombosis/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology , Vitamin D/metabolism , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Bone Remodeling/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Feedback, Physiological , Humans , Osteoporosis/blood , Platelet Activation/immunology , Platelet Count , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/blood , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications
16.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6605-6610, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1400910

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We have previously demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency might be associated with worse outcomes in hospitalized Covid-19 patients. The aim of our study was to explore this relationship with dexamethasone therapy. METHODS: We prospectively studied two cohorts of hospitalized Covid-19 patients between March and April and between September and December 2020 (n = 192). Patients were tested for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) levels during admission. The first cohort not treated with dexamethasone (n = 107) was divided into vitamin D deficient (25-OH-D ≤ 30 nmol/L) (n = 47) and replete subgroups (25-OH-D > 30 nmol/L) (n = 60). The second cohort treated with dexamethasone (n = 85) was similarly divided into deficient (25-OH-D ≤ 30 nmol/L) (n = 27) and replete subgroups (25-OH-D > 30 nmol/L) (n = 58). Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality and secondary outcomes were elevation in markers of cytokine storm and ventilatory requirement. RESULTS: No mortality difference was identified between cohorts and subgroups. The "no dexamethasone" cohort 25-OH-D deplete subgroup recorded significantly higher peak D-Dimer levels (1874 vs. 1233 µgFEU/L) (p = 0.0309), CRP (177 vs. 107.5) (p = 0.0055), and ventilatory support requirement (25.5% vs. 6.67%) (p = 0.007) compared to the replete subgroup. Among the 25-OH-D deplete subgroup higher peak neutrophil counts, peak CRP, peak LDH, peak ferritin, and lower trough lymphocyte counts were observed, without statistical significance. In the "dexamethasone" cohort, there was no apparent association between 25-OH-D deficiency and markers of cytokine storm or ventilatory requirement. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with elevated markers of cytokine storm and higher ventilatory requirements in hospitalized Covid-19 patients. Dexamethasone treatment appears to mitigate adverse effects of vitamin D deficiency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokines/blood , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood
17.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211041206, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376564

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of severe COVID-19 disease. OBJECTIVES: To determine if 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 were associated with the clinical outcomes of days on oxygen, duration of hospitalization, ICU admission, need for assisted ventilation, or mortality. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 92 patients admitted to the hospital with SARS-CoV-2 infection between April 16, 2020 and October 17, 2020. Multivariable regression was performed to assess the independent relationship of 25(OH)D values on outcomes, adjusting for significant covariates and the hospitalization day the level was tested. RESULTS: About 15 patients (16.3%) had 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/mL. Only 1 patient (3.4%) who had documented vitamin D supplementation prior to admission had 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were not significantly associated with any of our primary outcomes of days on oxygen, duration of hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, need for mechanical ventilation, or mortality in any of the adjusted multivariable models. Adjusting for the hospital day of 25(OH)D sampling did not alter the relationship of 25(OH)D with any outcomes. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D status was not related to any of the primary outcomes reflecting severity of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. However, our sample size may have lacked sufficient power to demonstrate a small effect of vitamin D status on these outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications
18.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 476(12): 4351-4362, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375667

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D is an immunomodulatory hormone with an established role in calcium and phosphate metabolism and skeletal mineralization. Evidence showing its immunological benefits by regulating essential components of the innate and adaptive immune system is prevalent. Vitamin D deficiency is reported worldwide and is thereby found to be associated with various immune-related diseases. Rheumatoid Arthritis and COVID-19 are two such diseases, sharing a similar hyperinflammatory response. Various studies have found an association of lower Vitamin D levels to be associated with both these diseases. However, contrasting data is also reported. We review here the available scientific data on risk factor association and supplementation benefits of Vitamin D in Rheumatoid Arthritis and COVID-19, intending to critically evaluate the literature.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/diet therapy , COVID-19/etiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D/physiology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/etiology , Humans , Risk Factors , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/diet therapy
19.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e180, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349632

ABSTRACT

Several studies have demonstrated that higher levels of vitamin D are associated with better prognosis and outcomes in infectious diseases. We aimed to compare the vitamin D levels of paediatric patients with mild/moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease and a healthy control group. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who were hospitalised at our university hospital with the diagnosis of COVID-19 during the period between 25 May 2020 and 24 December 2020. The mean age of the COVID-19 patients was 10.7 ± 5.5 years (range 1-18 years); 43 (57.3%) COVID-19 patients were male. The mean serum vitamin D level was significantly lower in the COVID-19 group than the control group (21.5 ± 10.0 vs. 28.0 ± 11.0 IU, P < 0.001). The proportion of patients with vitamin D deficiency was significantly higher in the COVID-19 group than the control group (44% vs. 17.5%, P < 0.001). Patients with low vitamin D levels were older than the patients with normal vitamin D levels (11.6 ± 4.9 vs. 6.2 ± 1.8 years, P = 0.016). There was a significant male preponderance in the normal vitamin D group compared with the low vitamin D group (91.7% vs. 50.8%, P = 0.03). C-reactive protein level was higher in the low vitamin D group, although the difference did not reach statistical significance (9.6 ± 2.2 vs. 4.5 ± 1.6 mg/l, P = 0.074). Our study provides an insight into the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 for future studies. Empiric intervention with vitamin D can be justified by low serum vitamin D levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D/blood , Adolescent , Age Factors , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Turkey/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
20.
Sci Prog ; 104(3): 368504211036854, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As an immune modulator, vitamin D has been implicated in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity. This study aimed to investigate the association between vitamin D levels and the severity of COVID-19 infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional study, which included 124 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and were selected from Ain Shams University Hospitals and assigned to two groups; mild and severe COVID-19. All patients underwent detailed history taking, clinical data, and different laboratory investigations as complete blood count, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, liver enzymes, C-reactive protein, D-dimer, ferritin and serum vitamin D concentration. In addition to findings of initial chest computed tomography (CT) were recorded. COVID-19 Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS) and CT chest severity scores (CT SS) were reported. RESULTS: In this study of 124 COVID-19-positive individuals, a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was found (97.6%). Lower vitamin D levels were significantly associated with more severe COVID-19 cases (p-value < 0.001), higher blood levels of inflammatory markers including (D-dimer, CRP, and ferritin), a higher CT SS and longer disease duration. Serum vitamin D can be used as a predictor for the severity of COVID-19 infection with a specificity of 96.6%, and sensitivity of 45.5%. CONCLUSION: The high frequency of hypovitaminosis D in severe COVID-19 patients provides further evidence of a potential link to poor prognosis and severity of the disease, so vitamin D deficiency may be a marker of poor prognosis in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
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