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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(1)2022 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234431

ABSTRACT

The specialized literature emphasizes the fact that vitamin D has a potentially beneficial effect in the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this article is to highlight the role of vitamin D, both prophylactic and curative, in the treatment of patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Even though its relevance is still unknown and causes various controversies, there is currently no specific treatment for patients diagnosed with COVID-19. There are various prevention strategies with new vaccination schedules, but additional randomized and clinical trials are still needed to combat this pandemic. In addition to the systemic manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection, oral manifestations of this disease have also been described in the literature. The etiology of oral manifestations associated with COVID-19 infection and vitamin D deficiency remains controversial. In the present studies, oral manifestations such as salivary gland infections, aphthae, erythema, gingivitis, ulcers, etc. have been reported. This is a new topic, and the prevalence of manifestations is described in only a few studies, which is inconsistent with the number of COVID-19 cases reported since the beginning of the pandemic. The clinical symptomatology in patients with current COVID-19 infection is polymorphic. Whether the oral manifestation is directly caused by SARS-CoV-2 or a secondary manifestation remains an important topic to analyze and discuss.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200271

ABSTRACT

The genomic activity of vitamin D is associated with metabolic effects, and the hormone has a strong impact on several physiological functions and, therefore, on health. Among its renowned functions, vitamin D is an immunomodulator and a molecule with an anti-inflammatory effect, and, recently, it has been much studied in relation to its response against viral infections, especially against COVID-19. This review aims to take stock of the correlation studies between vitamin D deficiency and increased risks of severe COVID-19 disease and, similarly, between vitamin D deficiency and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Based on this evidence, supplementation with vitamin D has been tested in clinical trials, and the results are discussed. Finally, this study includes a biochemical analysis on the effects of vitamin D in the body's defense mechanisms against viral infection. In particular, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions are considered in relation to energy metabolism, and the potential, beneficial effect of vitamin D in COVID-19 is described, with discussion of its influence on different biochemical pathways. The proposed, broader view of vitamin D activity could support a better-integrated approach in supplementation strategies against severe COVID-19, which could be valuable in a near future of living with an infection becoming endemic.


Subject(s)
Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/metabolism , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamins/therapeutic use
3.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 23(2): 293-297, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2174753

ABSTRACT

Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) are at high risk for adverse outcomes with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Further, COVID-19 infection is associated with numerous cardiovascular (CV) complications including arrhythmia, myocardial injury, cardiomyopathy, and thrombotic events. Increased susceptibility to COVID-19 and CV complications related to COVID-19 may be in part related to immune dysregulation and inflammation associated with CV disease which is exacerbated with viral infection. Vitamin D plays a major role in immune function and exerts anti-inflammatory effects, which may prove important in the context of CVD and COVID-19. To date, studies have shown minimal benefit for vitamin D supplementation in patients with COVID-19, though there are no studies specific to patients with CVD and related complications. Further, given that vitamin D has important protective effects on the CV system, including augmentation of myocardial contractility and anti-thrombotic effects, it is unknown if supplementation with vitamin D can mitigate CVD complications associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Vitamin D Deficiency , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Vitamin D/physiology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use
4.
Trials ; 23(1): 1019, 2022 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196408

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The study objectives were to ascertain the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in rapidly increasing serum vitamin D and of implementation of a hybrid (virtual and in-person) trial. METHODS: In a randomized triple-blind controlled trial, healthcare workers were allocated to receive an oral bolus of 100,000 IU with 10,000 IU/week of vitamin D3 or placebo. The co-primary outcomes were the change from baseline in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [(Δ) 25(OH)D] and proportion with vitamin D sufficiency (25(OH)D ≥ 75 nmol/L), at endpoint. Adherence to supplements and procedures as well as adverse event rates were documented. RESULTS: Thirty-four (19 intervention, 15 control) subjects were randomized, with 28 (41%) virtual visits. After 44.78 ± 11.00 days from baseline, a significant adjusted group difference of 44.2 (34.7, 53.8) nmol/L was observed in the Δ 25(OH)D (95% CI) in favor of supplementation; 77.8% of intervention, and 13.3% of control, patients were vitamin D sufficient (OR:6.11, 95% CI:1.6, 22.9). The adherence to intervention was 94.7% in the intervention and 100% in the control groups. Irrespective of visit type, high adherence was observed in sampling procedures and completion of fortnightly online questionnaire. No adverse events attributable to vitamin D were reported. CONCLUSION: The vitamin D supplementation rapidly and safely raised 25(OH)D levels to sufficient levels for a biological effect. Similarly high adherence to study procedures was observed with virtual and in-person participation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov on July 23, 2020 (# NCT04483635 ).


Subject(s)
Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D , Humans , Double-Blind Method , Calcifediol , Cholecalciferol/adverse effects , Vitamins , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Patient Care Team , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy
5.
Maturitas ; 169: 2-9, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165686

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is increasing evidence that vitamin D has widespread tissue effects. In addition to osteoporosis, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, infections and neurodegenerative disease. However, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on non-skeletal outcomes requires clarification, especially in postmenopausal women. AIM: This position statement provides an evidence-based overview of the role of vitamin D in the health of postmenopausal women based on observational and interventional studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature review and consensus of expert opinion. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D status is determined by measuring serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Concentrations <20 ng/ml (<50 nmol/l) and <10 ng/ml (<25 nmol/l) are considered to constitute vitamin D deficiency and severe deficiency, respectively. Observational data suggest an association between vitamin D deficiency and adverse health outcomes in postmenopausal women, although they cannot establish causality. The evidence from randomized controlled trials concerning vitamin D supplementation is not robust, since many studies did not consider whether people were deficient at baseline. Moreover, high heterogeneity exists in terms of the population studied, vitamin D dosage, calcium co-administration and duration of intervention. Concerning skeletal health, vitamin D deficiency is associated with low bone mass and an increased risk of fractures. Vitamin D supplementation at maintenance doses of 800-2000 IU/day (20-50 µg/day), after repletion of vitamin D status with higher weekly or daily doses, may be of benefit only when co-administered with calcium (1000-1200 mg/day), especially in the elderly populations and those with severe vitamin D deficiency. Concerning cardiovascular disease, vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, mainly metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Vitamin D deficiency, especially its severe form, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events (coronary heart disease, stroke, mortality), independently of traditional risk factors. Vitamin D supplementation may have a modestly beneficial effect on lipid profile and glucose homeostasis, especially in obese individuals or those ≥60 years old and at doses of ≥2000 IU/day (≥50 µg/day). However, it has no effect on the incidence of cardiovascular events. Concerning cancer, vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased incidence of and mortality from several types of cancer, such as colorectal, lung and breast cancer. However, the data on other types of gynecological cancer are inconsistent. Vitamin D supplementation has no effect on cancer incidence, although a modest reduction in cancer-related mortality has been observed. Concerning infections, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with acute respiratory tract infections, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Vitamin D supplementation may decrease the risk of acute respiratory tract infections and the severity of COVID-19 (not the risk of infection). Concerning menopausal symptomatology, vitamin D deficiency may have a negative impact on some aspects, such as sleep disturbances, depression, sexual function and joint pains. However, vitamin D supplementation has no effect on these, except for vulvovaginal atrophy, at relatively high doses, i.e., 40,000-60,000 IU/week (1000-1500 IU/week) orally or 1000 IU/day (25 µg/day) as a vaginal suppository.


Subject(s)
Dietary Supplements , Menopause , Vitamin D , Aged , Female , Humans , Calcium , Calcium, Dietary , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Neoplasms/complications , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19397, 2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119266

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D deficiency has long been associated with reduced immune function that can lead to viral infection. Several studies have shown that Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increases the risk of infection with COVID-19. However, it is unknown if treatment with Vitamin D can reduce the associated risk of COVID-19 infection, which is the focus of this study. In the population of US veterans, we show that Vitamin D2 and D3 fills were associated with reductions in COVID-19 infection of 28% and 20%, respectively [(D3 Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.80, [95% CI 0.77, 0.83]), D2 HR = 0.72, [95% CI 0.65, 0.79]]. Mortality within 30-days of COVID-19 infection was similarly 33% lower with Vitamin D3 and 25% lower with D2 (D3 HR = 0.67, [95% CI 0.59, 0.75]; D2 HR = 0.75, [95% CI 0.55, 1.04]). We also find that after controlling for vitamin D blood levels, veterans receiving higher dosages of Vitamin D obtained greater benefits from supplementation than veterans receiving lower dosages. Veterans with Vitamin D blood levels between 0 and 19 ng/ml exhibited the largest decrease in COVID-19 infection following supplementation. Black veterans received greater associated COVID-19 risk reductions with supplementation than White veterans. As a safe, widely available, and affordable treatment, Vitamin D may help to reduce the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Pandemics , Dietary Supplements , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Cholecalciferol , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071516

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D has an immune-modulating effect on respiratory tract infections. For this reason, it has been proposed as part of the treatment in COVID-19. Furthermore, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with worse clinical outcomes of this disease. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether vitamin D supplementation modifies the disease course. Therefore, eleven studies involving randomised clinical trials are analysed, in which groups of COVID-19 patients with or without vitamin D supplementation as part of the treatment are compared. A control group was treated with best available therapy, and in some of the clinical trials, also with a placebo. According to the outcomes, it seems that patients benefit from receiving a daily or maintained in time vitamin D dose regardless of vitamin D serum levels at the beginning of the trial. The administration of a single vitamin D dose does not seem to have any effect on the health status of these patients. However, the outcomes are heterogeneous and larger clinical trials are necessary.


Subject(s)
Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071508

ABSTRACT

The highly transmittable and infectious COVID-19 remains a major threat worldwide, with the elderly and comorbid individuals being the most vulnerable. While vaccines are currently available, therapeutic drugs will help ease the viral outbreak and prevent serious health outcomes. Epigenetic modifications regulate gene expression through changes in chromatin structure and have been linked to viral pathophysiology. Since epigenetic modifications contribute to the life cycle of the virus and host immune responses to infection, epigenetic drugs are promising treatment targets to ameliorate COVID-19. Deficiency of the multifunctional secosteroid hormone vitamin D is a global health threat. Vitamin D and its receptor function to regulate genes involved in immunity, apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, and inflammation. Amassed evidence also indicates the biological relations of vitamin D with reduced disease risk, while its receptor can be modulated by epigenetic mechanisms. The immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D suggest a role for vitamin D as a COVID-19 therapeutic agent. Therefore, this review highlights the epigenetic effects on COVID-19 and vitamin D while also proposing a role for vitamin D in COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Aged , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/pharmacology , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/genetics , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Epigenesis, Genetic , Hormones , Chromatin
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066143

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D deficiency has increased in the general population and is a public health issue. Vitamin D plays an important role in regulating the immune system, e.g., by modulating the production of inflammatory cytokines. In most countries, the recommended maximal daily dose of vitamin D3 is 4000 IU (100 µg) per day. In this study, we investigated whether a single vitamin D3 bolus can reduce the levels of the inflammatory markers interleukin (IL) 6, IL8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) within one month. Fifty healthy Saudi males were recruited from the local community in Jeddah city and were orally supplemented with a single dose of 80,000 IU vitamin D3. Serum samples were collected at time points 0, 1 and 30 days, and serum levels of IL6, IL8 and TNF, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), triglycerides, cholesterol, calcium (Ca2+) and phosphate (PO4-) were determined. On average, the vitamin D3 bolus resulted in a significant increase in vitamin D status as well as in a significant decrease in the levels of inflammatory cytokines even one month after supplementation without changing serum Ca2+, PO4- or lipid levels. In conclusion, single high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation is safe for reducing inflammation markers and may lead to an update of current recommendations for vitamin D intake, in order to prevent critical health problems.


Subject(s)
Cholecalciferol , Vitamin D Deficiency , Biomarkers , Calcium , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Male , Parathyroid Hormone , Phosphates , Saudi Arabia , Triglycerides , Tumor Necrosis Factors , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins
10.
BMJ ; 378: e071230, 2022 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009215

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of population level implementation of a test-and-treat approach to correction of suboptimal vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) <75 nmol/L) on risk of all cause acute respiratory tract infection and covid 19. DESIGN: Phase 3 open label randomised controlled trial. SETTING: United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: 6200 people aged ≥16 years who were not taking vitamin D supplements at baseline. INTERVENTIONS: Offer of a postal finger prick test of blood 25(OH)D concentration with provision of a six month supply of lower dose vitamin D (800 IU/day, n=1550) or higher dose vitamin D (3200 IU/day, n=1550) to those with blood 25(OH)D concentration <75 nmol/L, compared with no offer of testing or supplementation (n=3100). Follow-up was for six months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the proportion of participants with at least one swab test or doctor confirmed acute respiratory tract infection of any cause. A secondary outcome was the proportion of participants with swab test confirmed covid-19. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals. The primary analysis was conducted by intention to treat. RESULTS: Of 3100 participants offered a vitamin D test, 2958 (95.4%) accepted and 2674 (86.3%) had 25(OH)D concentrations <75 nmol/L and received vitamin D supplements (n=1328 lower dose, n=1346 higher dose). Compared with 136/2949 (4.6%) participants in the no offer group, at least one acute respiratory tract infection of any cause occurred in 87/1515 (5.7%) in the lower dose group (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.66) and 76/1515 (5.0%) in the higher dose group (1.09, 0.82 to 1.46). Compared with 78/2949 (2.6%) participants in the no offer group, 55/1515 (3.6%) developed covid-19 in the lower dose group (1.39, 0.98 to 1.97) and 45/1515 (3.0%) in the higher dose group (1.13, 0.78 to 1.63). CONCLUSIONS: Among people aged 16 years and older with a high baseline prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status, implementation of a population level test-and-treat approach to vitamin D supplementation was not associated with a reduction in risk of all cause acute respiratory tract infection or covid-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04579640.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Vitamin D Deficiency , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cholecalciferol , Dietary Supplements , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use
11.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006148

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has already killed more than 6 million people around the world. A growing body of epidemiological evidence suggests that low 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH-vitamin D) plasma levels are associated with an increased risk of developing COVID-19 and -most importantly-with a higher risk of developing more severe COVID-19 and dying. On the other hand, vitamin D supplementation during the early phases of COVID-19 has been related to a decreased length of hospital stay, less frequent need for oxygen, and a reduced mortality rate in inpatients. This seems to be particularly true when high dosages are used. In light of this evidence, further studies are needed to define the best timing for vitamin D supplementation and the most effective dosage schedule.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Dietary Supplements , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(2): e20201545, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002362

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a disease that has caused a high number of deaths in the world, and despite being controlled, it requires attention and the search for new quick and economical therapeutic strategies. In this sense, vitamin D stands out, an immunomodulator that has shown beneficial effects in decreasing the risk and severity of acute respiratory tract infections, including COVID-19. Therefore, this review presents a number of experimental, observational and clinical studies on the importance of vitamin D against viral infections with an emphasis on COVID-19, highlighting the relationship between vitamin D, Renin-Angiotensin System and cytokine storms with decreased inflammatory lesions in patients with COVID-19. In addition, aspects of pathophysiology, metabolism, risk factors, sources and recommendations of vitamin D are described. We conclude that vitamin D plays a protective role against inflammatory lesions and can decrease the risk of infections and the severity of COVID-19. Therefore, it is essential to maintain adequate levels of vitamin D to avoid complications related to its deficiency.


Subject(s)
Vitamin D Deficiency , Adaptation, Psychological , Dietary Supplements , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use
13.
Life Sci ; 307: 120909, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996410

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The ability of vitamin D (VitD) to modulate immune responses in the clinical setting of COVID-19 infection is not well investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of VitD to attenuate inflammatory responses in patients with severe COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from patients with severe COVID-19 who had been treated (20 patients), or not (25 patients), with VitD, during their stay in the intensive care unit. Western blotting was used to evaluate the expressions of STAT3, JNK and AKT signaling pathways and ELISA was used to measure levels of IL-6, IL-17, and IL-1ß in blood of these patients. KEY FINDINGS: Reduced levels of STAT3, JNK and AKT pathways and lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-17, and IL-1ß were observed in VitD treated patients (50,000 IU of cholecalciferol weekly for 3 weeks), and in vitro following treatment of poly I:C stimulated PBMCs with VitD (50 nM of calcitriol). Moreover, lower circulatory levels of these proinflammatory cytokines following treatment with VitD were associated with lower serum levels of COVID-19-related severity markers such as D-dimer and C-reactive proteins (P < 0.001) which in overall resulted in shorter length of ICU stay for VitD treated compared to untreated patients (18 days for VitD treated vs. 28 days for VitD untreated; P = 0.01). SIGNIFICANCE: This study reveals that VitD plays immunomodulatory role during COVID-19 infection, which further emphasizes the importance of maintaining a normal level of this vitamin for the prevention of hyperinflammatory conditions associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Calcitriol , Cytokines , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-6 , Poly I , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/pharmacology , Vitamins/therapeutic use
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917525

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D has been described as an essential nutrient and hormone, which can cause nuclear, non-genomic, and mitochondrial effects. Vitamin D not only controls the transcription of thousands of genes, directly or indirectly through the modulation of calcium fluxes, but it also influences the cell metabolism and maintenance specific nuclear programs. Given its broad spectrum of activity and multiple molecular targets, a deficiency of vitamin D can be involved in many pathologies. Vitamin D deficiency also influences mortality and multiple outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Active and native vitamin D serum levels are also decreased in critically ill patients and are associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) and in-hospital mortality. In addition to regulating calcium and phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D-related mechanisms regulate adaptive and innate immunity. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections have a role in excessive proinflammatory cell recruitment and cytokine release, which contribute to alveolar and full-body endothelial damage. AKI is one of the most common extrapulmonary manifestations of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There are also some correlations between the vitamin D level and COVID-19 severity via several pathways. Proper vitamin D supplementation may be an attractive therapeutic strategy for AKI and has the benefits of low cost and low risk of toxicity and side effects.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Calcium , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/metabolism , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use
15.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 27(10): 815-822, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879088

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Vitamin D plays a role in innate immune system activation, and deficiency increases susceptibility to respiratory infections and disease severity including COVID-19. We determined whether vitamin D levels and medications were associated with contracting COVID-19, and disease severity defined by hospitalisation and dialysis patient mortality. METHODS: We reviewed serum vitamin D levels, and prescription of cholecalciferol and alfacalcidol along with corresponding medical records of adult dialysis patients from a United Kingdom tertiary centre between March 2020 and May 2021. COVID-19 infection was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results. RESULTS: 362 (35%) of 1035 dialysis patients tested PCR positive for COVID-19. COVID-19 positive patients had lower native median vitamin D (65 (39-95) versus 74 (40.5-101) nmol/L (p = .009) despite greater prescription of cholecalciferol (median 20 000 (20000-20 000) versus 20 000 (0-20 000) IU/week), p < .001, but lower prescription of alfacalcidol 0 (0-3.0) versus 2.0 (0.-5.0) ug/week, p < .001. On multivariate logistic regression COVID-19 infection was associated with haemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis (p < .001), cholecalciferol dose (p < .001) and negatively with alfacalcidol (p < .001). However, serum vitamin D levels and alfacalcidol dosages were not significantly different for those requiring hospitalisation compared to those managed at home, although those who died were prescribed lower alfacalcidol dosages. CONCLUSION: Dialysis patients who contracted COVID-19 had lower levels of native vitamin D prior to COVID-19 and were prescribed lower dosages of alfacalcidol. However, there was no association between vitamin D status and disease severity. This retrospective observational analysis supports a potential role for vitamin D and susceptibility to COVID-19 infection in dialysis patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Humans , Kidney , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamins/therapeutic use
16.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e3549, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1863233

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In this ancillary analysis of a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the effect of a single high dose of vitamin D3 on the length of hospital stay of patients with severe 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and COVID-19. METHODS: The primary outcome was length of hospital stay, defined as the total number of days that patients remained hospitalized from the date of randomization until the date of hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, mortality during hospitalization, number of patients admitted to the intensive care unit, and number of patients who required mechanical ventilation. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04449718. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients were included in the study. The mean (SD) age was 58.5 (15.6) years, body mass index was 30.8 (8.6) kg/m2, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 7.8 (1.6) ng/mL. No significant difference was observed in the median interquartile range of length of hospital stay between the vitamin D3 group (6.0 [4.0-18.0] days) versus placebo (9.5 [6.3-15.5] days) (log-rank p=0.74; hazard ratio, 1.13 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.53-2.40]; p=0.76). Vitamin D3 significantly increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in the vitamin D3 group compared with that in the placebo group (between-group difference, 23.9 ng/mL [95% CI, 17.7-30.1]; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A dose of 200.000 IU of vitamin D3 did not significantly reduce the length of hospital stay of patients with severe 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Cholecalciferol , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Length of Stay , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy
19.
Nutr Health ; 28(3): 311-317, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759615

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Low serum vitamin D has been shown to be a risk factor for Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of high dose vitamin D supplementation on hs-CRP, ESR and clinical outcomes, including duration of hospitalization, quality of life and New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification, in adults with COVID-19. Methods: This double-blind, randomized control trial will be conducted on patients with RT-PCR and/or chest CT scan diagnosis of COVID-19 admitted in Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Participants will be randomized into control and intervention groups based on randomization sampling. The intervention group will receive soft gel containing 50,000 IU vitamin D on the first day followed by 10,000 IU/day through a supplement drop daily for 29 days. The control group will receive 1000 IU vitamin D daily through supplement drop and a placebo soft gel. All participants will undergo laboratory assessment including inflammatory markers, serum 25)OH)D, complete blood count (CBC), liver and renal profile, lipid profile and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at baseline and at day 30. The mortality rate will be recorded in both groups. Results: Data will be presented using descriptive statistics. Comparison of changes in study parameters over the study period will be performed using analysis of covariance adjusting for possible confounders. Conclusions: The findings of this will provide evidence on the effects of high dose vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory markers in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Adult , Biomarkers , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use
20.
Nutrients ; 14(6)2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742565

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D deficiency is the main cause of nutritional rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. There is consensus that nutritional access to vitamin D can be estimated by measuring serum concentrations of 25OHD and vitamin D deficiency can thus be considered as calcifediol deficiency. However, the threshold for vitamin D/calcifediol sufficiency remains a matter of debate. Vitamin D/calcifediol deficiency has been associated with musculoskeletal effects but also multiple adverse extra-skeletal consequences. If these consequences improve or if they can be treated with vitamin D supplementation is still unclear. Observational studies suggest a higher infection risk in people with low calcifediol levels. There is also a consistent association between serum calcifediol and cardiovascular events and deaths, but large-scale, long-term intervention studies did not show any benefit on cardiovascular outcomes from supplementation, at least not in subjects without clear vitamin D deficiency. Cancer risk also did not change with vitamin D treatment, although there are some data that higher serum calcifediol is associated with longer survival in cancer patients. In pregnant women, vitamin D supplementation decreases the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, and low birth weight. Although preclinical studies showed that the vitamin D endocrine system plays a role in certain neural cells as well as brain structure and function, there is no evidence to support a beneficial effect of vitamin D in neurodegenerative diseases. Vitamin D supplementation may marginally affect overall mortality risk especially in elderly subjects with low serum calcifediol concentrations.


Subject(s)
Calcifediol , Vitamin D Deficiency , Aged , Calcifediol/therapeutic use , Child , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy
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